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ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the first cause of death in the Spanish population among both diabetics and non-diabetics. In diabetes, CVD is between 2 and 4 times more frequent, earlier and more aggressive. With current measures, approximately 50% of CVD can be prevented. The risk factors for CVD in diabetes are hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity and sedentariness. More than 80% of patient with type 2 diabetes have hypertension and dyslipidemia and approximately 15% continue to smoke. However, all these factors are controlled in at least 10%. Although dyslipidemia is the most influential and least treated factor, the greatest benefit for CVD prevention is obtained with integrated intervention on all risk factors, reducing blood pressure to below 140/80 mmHg, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) to below 100 mg/dl, encouraging smoking cessation, regular physical activity and maintaining a healthy weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2). In secondary prevention or persons with microvascular disease, the targets may be stricter (blood pressure 130/80 mmHg and LDL-c 80 mg/dl). Drug treatment should always include an angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and a statin. Aspirin should be reserved for patients in secondary prevention or with very high CV risk. Consequently, interventions should be prioritized according to the foreseeable risk for each patient, which can be estimated through the SCORE scale or other scales such as Regicor or UKPDS, with a SCORE > 5% indicating high risk. These high-risk patients should receive personalized care.
Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - TRANS ROY SOC TROP MED HYG. 01/2010; 42:16-23.