Carla L Ellis

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (18)64.71 Total impact

  • Carla L Ellis, Jonathan I Epstein
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-nine men with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma to the penis were identified at our institution between 1993 and 2013. Of the 29 patients, 19 had a prior history of adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and 8 of those had ductal features in the primary lesion. Sixteen of 29 revealed ductal features in the metastasis. Seven of the 8 cases with ductal features in the primary had ductal features in the penile metastasis. Seven penile metastases were proven to be of prostatic origin solely by immunohistochemistry. Three cases were originally misdiagnosed as urothelial carcinoma upon review of the penile lesion. Other variant morphologies in the metastases included sarcomatoid carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and adenosquamous carcinoma. In summary, prostate carcinoma involving the penis displays ductal features considerably more often than prostate cancer in general. Features that can cause difficulty in recognizing metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma to the penis include the unusual anatomic site for prostate cancer, poor differentiation, an increased prevalence of variant morphology, a long interval from the primary lesion, and, in some cases, no documented history of a primary prostatic lesion. Immunohistochemical analysis should be performed to rule out prostate carcinoma in penile/penile urethral tumors with morphology that differs from typical squamous or urothelial carcinoma. Even in the setting of metastatic disease, there is a critical need for an accurate diagnosis so that the appropriate therapy can be initiated, symptomatic relief can be provided, and long-term survival achieved in some cases, while at the same time avoiding penectomy for a misdiagnosis of a primary penile cancer.
    The American journal of surgical pathology. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) expression in urothelial carcinoma (UC) and its prognostic role in relation to clinicopathologic parameters. A total of 100 cases of invasive UC were evaluated using tissue microarrays. Membranous IGF1R staining was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. A scoring method analogous to that of HER2 expression in breast carcinoma was used, and the highest score was assigned in each tumor. IGF1R was considered overexpressed in cases with score ≥1. We found IGF1R overexpression in 62% of invasive UC. IGF1R overexpression was associated with race (P = .04) and pT category (P = .03). Median follow-up was 29 months (range, 0.5-212). Progression rate was 60%, and overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality rates were 69% and 51%, respectively. In invasive UC, IGF1R overexpression was significantly associated with overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality (Mantel Cox P = .0002 and P = .006, respectively). IGF1R overexpression was associated with increased hazard ratios (HRs) for overall mortality (HR = 2.63, P = .001) and cancer-specific mortality (HR = 2.45, P = .01), independently and after adjusting for clinicopathologic features and treatment modalities. We found IGF1R overexpression in 62% of bladder UC. More importantly, IGF1R overexpression was a significant predictor of overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality, suggesting its potential role as a prognosticator in UC of bladder.
    Urology 04/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To assess the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) expression in urothelial carcinoma (UC) and its prognostic role in relation to clinicopathologic parameters. Methods A total of 100 cases of invasive UC were evaluated using tissue microarrays. Membranous IGF1R staining was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. A scoring method analogous to that of HER2 expression in breast carcinoma was used, and the highest score was assigned in each tumor. IGF1R was considered overexpressed in cases with score ≥1. Results We found IGF1R overexpression in 62% of invasive UC. IGF1R overexpression was associated with race (P = .04) and pT category (P = .03). Median follow-up was 29 months (range, 0.5-212). Progression rate was 60%, and overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality rates were 69% and 51%, respectively. In invasive UC, IGF1R overexpression was significantly associated with overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality (Mantel Cox P = .0002 and P = .006, respectively). IGF1R overexpression was associated with increased hazard ratios (HRs) for overall mortality (HR = 2.63, P = .001) and cancer-specific mortality (HR = 2.45, P = .01), independently and after adjusting for clinicopathologic features and treatment modalities. Conclusion We found IGF1R overexpression in 62% of bladder UC. More importantly, IGF1R overexpression was a significant predictor of overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality, suggesting its potential role as a prognosticator in UC of bladder.
    Urology 01/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) is tumor suppressor gene that interacts with BRG1 ATPase to form a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling protein complex. Inactivation of ARID1A has been described in several neoplasms, including epithelial ovarian and endometrial carcinomas, and has been correlated with prognosis. In the current study, ARID1A expression in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder and its association with clinicopathologic parameters and outcome is addressed. Five tissue microarrays were constructed from 136 cystectomy specimens performed for urothelial carcinoma at our institution. Nuclear ARID1A staining was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. An H-score was calculated as the sum of the products of intensity (0–3) multiplied by extent of expression (0 to 100%). Average H-score per case was used for statistical analysis. ARID1A expression was categorized in low and high using Youden’s index to define the cutpoint. ARID1A expression significantly increased from normal to non-invasive UC to invasive UC. For both tumor progression and cancer death Youden's index yielded an H-score of 288 as the optimal cutpoint for ARID1A expression. Low ARID1A expression showed a tendency for lower risk of tumor progression and cancer mortality. Adding ARID1A expression to pathologic features offers a better model for predicting outcome than pathologic features alone. Low ARID1A expression was more frequently seen in earlier stage disease. There was a tendency for low ARID1A expression to predict better outcome. More importantly, the findings indicate that adding ARID1A expression to pathologic features increases the goodness of fit of the predictive model.
    Human pathology 01/2014; · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinomas harbor chromosome translocations involving the Xp11 breakpoint, resulting in gene fusions involving the TFE3 gene. The most common subtypes are the ASPSCR1-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas resulting from t(X;17)(p11;q25) translocation, and the PRCC-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas, resulting from t(X;1)(p11;q21) translocation. A formal clinical comparison of these two subtypes of Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinomas has not been performed. We report one new genetically confirmed Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma of each type. We also reviewed the literature for all published cases of ASPSCR1-TFE3 and PRCC-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas and contacted all corresponding authors to obtain or update the published follow-up information. Study of two new, unpublished cases, and review of the literature revealed that 8/8 patients who presented with distant metastasis had ASPSCR1-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas, and all but one of these patients either died of disease or had progressive disease. Regional lymph nodes were involved by metastasis in 24 of the 32 ASPSCR1-TFE3 cases in which nodes were resected, compared with 5 of 14 PRCC-TFE3 cases (P=0.02).; however, 11 of 13 evaluable patients with ASPSCR1-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas who presented with N1M0 disease remained disease free. Two PRCC-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas recurred late (at 20 and 30 years, respectively). In multivariate analysis, only older age or advanced stage at presentation (not fusion subtype) predicted death. In conclusion, ASPSCR1-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas are more likely to present at advanced stage (particularly node-positive disease) than are PRCC-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas. Although systemic metastases portend a grim prognosis, regional lymph node involvement does not, at least in short-term follow-up. The tendency for PRCC-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas to recur late warrants long-term follow-up.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 6 December 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.208.
    Modern Pathology 12/2013; · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GATA-3 is a newly described marker that labels urothelial and breast carcinoma. However, no prior study has evaluated the expression of GATA-3 in primary bladder adenocarcinoma. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) containing 46 primary bladder adenocarcinomas were constructed. They contained 19 signet ring cell (SRC) and 27 conventional adenocarcinomas. Three additional cases of SRC using routine sections were included resulting in a total of 22 SRCs. In addition, TMAs containing 32 primary gastric signet ring adenocarcinomas and 36 primary lobular breast carcinomas were evaluated. The TMAs were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis for GATA-3, with nuclear labeling scored by intensity and percentage labeling. Breast and urothelial TMAs were also labeled for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and gross cystic duct fluid protein. Diffuse nuclear GATA-3 labeling was seen in 9/22 (41.0%) SRCs and in 2/27 (7.0%) conventional adenocarcinomas (P=0.01). Extracellular mucin production was seen in 12 SRCs. One of 12 (8.0%) SRCs with extracellular mucin was GATA-3 positive, and 8/10 SRCs without extracellular mucin was GATA-3 positive (P=0.005). No nuclear GATA-3 labeling was seen in any gastric signet ring carcinoma. Diffuse, moderate to strong nuclear GATA-3 labeling was seen in 36/36 (100%) primary lobular breast carcinomas. Nuclear GATA-3 labeling is a useful marker for primary adenocarcinomas of the urinary bladder with signet ring features and can be helpful in distinguishing primary signet ring carcinomas of the urinary bladder from gastric signet ring carcinomas. GATA-3 is rarely positive in bladder adenocarcinomas that lack signet ring features and in SRCs displaying extracellular mucin production.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 09/2013; · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The biological behavior of teratomas is highly variable, and morphologic features alone are insufficient to predict their clinical course. Prognostic factors that influence behavior include the following: patient sex, age, anatomic site, coincident neoplasm, and cytogenetic abnormalities. Gonadal teratomas have been well-characterized; postpubertal testicular teratomas are commonly associated with isochromosome 12p (i12p) and considered to nearly always carry a potential for malignant behavior, whereas ovarian and prepubertal testicular teratomas are i12p negative and predominantly benign in behavior. For extragonadal sites, such as sacrum and coccyx, clinical characteristics and i12p status are yet to be adequately characterized. As part of this study, we identified 19 sacrococcygeal teratomas in our surgical pathology archives from 1990 to 2012. Clinical records and slides were reviewed to confirm the original diagnosis. Gains in chromosome 12p, including i12p status were assessed in representative paraffin sections by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Our cases included 16 mature sacrococcygeal teratomas (11 prepubertal and 5 postpubertal) and three immature saccrococygeal teratomas (all prepubertal). Among mature teratomas, the average tumor size was larger in adults compared with prepubertal patients. A higher number of adult cases were recurrences (80% vs 21%), but only pediatric recurrences were managed with postoperative chemotherapy. All examined tumors were negative for i12p. 100% survival was documented in our cohort with a median follow-up of 6 years. We present a large series of sacrococcygeal teratomas and the first series to examine postpubertal adults at this anatomic site. All tumors lacked chromosome 12p gains, including i12p. Both pre- and postpubertal sacrococcygeal teratomas had a favorable outcome regardless of age or sex.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 20 September 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.171.
    Modern Pathology 09/2013; · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: There is a paucity of data on the prognosis following radical prostatectomy (RP) with Gleason score 9-10 (GS910) on needle biopsy. The current study is the largest to specifically analyze the correlation of Gleason score 9-10 on needle core biopsy with outcomes at radical prostatectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We identified 259 men (1987-2012) with GS910 on biopsy that underwent RP at our institution. The following preoperative variables were analyzed: age, race, pre-operative PSA (prePSA), location of adenocarcinoma, perineural invasion, number of total biopsy cores, number of total positive cores, number of positive cores with GS910, maximum percent of core length with GS910 and maximum percent of adenocarcinoma overall. Pathological outcomes (organ confinement [OC], seminal vesicle invasion [SV], margin status [SM], lymph node metastases [LN], biochemical free survival [BFS] and cancer specific survival [CSS]) were analyzed in uni- and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Statistically significant predictors of outcome at RP were as follows: OC = total cores with GS910, maximum percent overall and presence of perineural invasion. SM = prePSA level and clinical stage. SV = maximum percent overall, perineural invasion and clinical stage. LN = total number of cores with GS910 and clinical stage. BFS = maximum percent GS910, maximum percent overall and clinical stage (all variables p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: For the highly selected subset of patients who are good surgical candidates and who have the appropriate combination of preoperative variables, post-operative findings are sufficiently favorable to justify radical prostatectomy.
    The Journal of urology 05/2013; · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Previous studies have reported variable outcomes at radical prostatectomy (RP) with Gleason score 6 (GS6) on biopsy. It has been shown that a significant proportion of patients with GS6 disease at biopsy are upgraded to Gleason score 7 or higher after RP, increasing the risk of an adverse outcome. However, such studies have focused on clinical parameters such as PSA, prostate volume and biopsy cancer volume, in concert with GS6, to predict clinically significant upgrading. The present study is the first to use a significant number of patients with the aim of specifically analyzing the outcome at RP (i.e. percentage organ-confined, margin status, overall grade and biochemical recurrence) and making a direct correlation with the number of positive cores to show that the overall prognosis is favourable. OBJECTIVE: To establish whether the good prognosis of Gleason score 6 (GS6) is maintained in the setting of multiple involved cores. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 6156 men (from 1 April 2000 to 30 April 2007) with GS6 on biopsy underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) at our institution. The number of positive cores was correlated with the outcome at RP. RESULTS: More positive cores correlated with less organ-confined disease (P < 0.001), positive margins (P < 0.012), increasing RP grade (P < 0.001) and increased seminal vesicles/lymph node involvement (P = 0.012). For men with data available, the actuarial risk of being biochemically free of disease at 5 years was 93.2% when ≤6 cores were positive (812 men followed to 5 years) vs 89.1% if >6 cores were positive (41 men followed to 2 years) (P = 0.6). Although the predicted 'cure rate' of >75% probability of a tumour showing no evidence of biochemical recurrence at 10 years after RP was statistically different between cases with ≤6 vs >6 positive cores (P < 0.0001), the outcome in both groups was still favourable (90.5% vs 84%). Partin-like tables were generated factoring in the number of positive cores to predict organ-confined disease as a guide for urologists to perform nerve-sparing surgery. For example, with T1c disease, there was a ≥75% probability of organ-confined disease with one to three positive cores regardless of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and the same probability was present with four to six positive cores and a PSA level of 0-4 ng/mL. CONCLUSION: A low Gleason score on biopsy is a powerful prognostic finding, such that this favourable outcome is maintained even in the setting of multiple positive cores with GS6.
    BJU International 01/2013; · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular dysfunction is a primary independent predictor of age-related morbidity and mortality. Frailty is associated with activation of inflammatory pathways and fatigue that commonly presents and progresses with age. Interleukin 10 (IL-10), the cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor, is an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced by immune and non-immune cells. Homozygous deletion of IL-10 in mice yields a phenotype that is consistent with human frailty, including age-related increases in serum inflammatory mediators, muscular weakness, higher levels of IGF-1 at midlife, and early mortality. While emerging evidence suggests a role for IL-10 in vascular protection, a clear mechanism has not yet been elucidated. METHODS: In order to evaluate the role of IL-10 in maintenance of vascular function, force tension myography was utilized to access ex-vivo endothelium dependent vasorelaxation in vessels isolated from IL-10 knockout IL-10(tm/tm) and control mice. Pulse wave velocity ((PWV), index of stiffness) of vasculature was measured using ultrasound and blood pressure was measured using the tail cuff method. Echocardiography was used to elucidated structure and functional changes in the heart. RESULTS: Mean arterial pressures were significantly higher in IL-10(tm/tm) mice as compared to C57BL6/wild type (WT) controls. PWV was increased in IL-10(tm/tm) indicating stiffer vasculature. Endothelial intact aortic rings isolated from IL-10(tm/tm) mice demonstrated impaired vasodilation at low acetylcholine doses and vasoconstriction at higher doses whereas vasorelaxation responses were preserved in rings from WT mice. Cyclo-oxygenase (COX-2)/ThromboxaneA2 inhibitors improved endothelial dependent vasorelaxation and reversed vasoconstriction. Left ventricular end systolic diameter, left ventricular mass, isovolumic relaxation time, fractional shortening and ejection fraction were all significantly different in the aged IL-10(tm/tm) mice compared to WT mice. CONCLUSION: Aged IL-10(tm/tm) mice have stiffer vessels and decreased vascular relaxation due to an increase in eicosanoids, specifically COX-2 activity and resultant thromboxane A2 receptor activation. Our results also suggest that aging IL-10(tm/tm) mice have an increased heart size and impaired cardiac function compared to age-matched WT mice. While further studies will be necessary to determine if this age-related phenotype develops as a result of inflammatory pathway activation or lack of IL-10, it is essential for maintaining the vascular compliance and endothelial function during the aging process. Given that a similar cardiovascular phenotype is present in frail, older adults, these findings further support the utility of the IL-10(tm/tm) mouse as a model of frailty.
    Experimental gerontology 11/2012; · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether activation of β3-adrenergic receptor (AR) and downstream signaling of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms protects the heart from failure and hypertrophy induced by pressure overload. β3-AR and its downstream signaling pathways are recognized as novel modulators of heart function. Unlike β1- and β2-ARs, β3-ARs are stimulated at high catecholamine concentrations and induce negative inotropic effects, serving as a "brake" to protect the heart from catecholamine overstimulation. C57BL/6J and neuronal NOS (nNOS) knockout mice were assigned to receive transverse aortic constriction (TAC), BRL37344 (β3 agonist, BRL 0.1 mg/kg/h), or both. Three weeks of BRL treatment in wild-type mice attenuated left ventricular dilation and systolic dysfunction, and partially reduced cardiac hypertrophy induced by TAC. This effect was associated with increased nitric oxide production and superoxide suppression. TAC decreased endothelial NOS (eNOS) dimerization, indicating eNOS uncoupling, which was not reversed by BRL treatment. However, nNOS protein expression was up-regulated 2-fold by BRL, and the suppressive effect of BRL on superoxide generation was abrogated by acute nNOS inhibition. Furthermore, BRL cardioprotective effects were actually detrimental in nNOS(-/-) mice. These results are the first to show in vivo cardioprotective effects of β3-AR-specific agonism in pressure overload hypertrophy and heart failure, and support nNOS as the primary downstream NOS isoform in maintaining NO and reactive oxygen species balance in the failing heart.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 05/2012; 59(22):1979-87. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Schnitzler's syndrome (SS) is a rare inflammatory disease of unknown origin characterized by chronic urticaria and monoclonal gammopathy (usually IgM) associated with at least two of the following components: fever, arthralgia or arthritis, bone pain, hepato- and/or splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukocytosis, and/or abnormal findings on bone morphological investigations. To date, about 100 cases have been described with only 4 being reported in the USA. The mean time to diagnosis from the onset of disease is 5.4 years, given the varied symptoms with which patients may present. The pathogenesis of SS remains unknown but likely involves dysregulation of the IL-1 pathway. We describe here a 48-year-old woman with a monoclonal IgM gammopathy and a 3-year history of chronic pruritic urticarial dermatosis, unexplained fevers, chronic polyarthritis, lymphadenopathy, leukocytosis, hepatomegaly, and weight loss. She also had a history of chronic pancreatitis as well as a family history of recurrent pancreatitis. The diagnosis of Schnitzler's syndrome was made, and she was successfully treated with the IL-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra.
    Clinical Rheumatology 06/2011; 31(1):169-74. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hemangioblastomas account for up to 2.5% of all intracranial tumors. They may occur sporadically or as a part of the multisystem genetic syndrome of Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL). Patients with VHL are also at an increased risk of developing clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Distinguishing hemangioblastomas from metastatic ccRCC to the central nervous system (CNS) can be challenging at times when based solely on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. We propose an immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel of combination of PAX2, PAX8, and inhibin A as a helpful approach in distinguishing the 2 lesions. Archival tissues from 20 hemangioblastomas and 16 ccRCCs metastatic to the CNS were retrieved from our surgical pathology files (2001 to 2010). IHC for PAX2, PAX8, and inhibin A was performed on routine or tissue microarray sections using standard IHC protocol. The intensity of nuclear staining was evaluated for each marker and was assigned an incremental 0, 1+, 2+, and 3+ score. The extent of staining was categorized as focal (<25%), multifocal (25% to 75%), or diffuse (>75%). (1) Hemangioblastoma: The Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome was diagnosed in 4 of 16 (25%) patients, 2 of whom developed multiple hemangioblastomas. All 20 (100%) hemangioblastomas were positive for inhibin A (cytoplasmic). The staining intensity was moderate or strong (2+ or 3+) in 19 cases (95%), all of which were multifocal or diffuse in extent. Nuclear PAX2 staining was present in 1 of 19 evaluable lesions (5%), whereas PAX8 staining was not present in any of the 20 examined lesions. (2) Metastatic ccRCC to the CNS: Fourteen of 16 (88%) examined ccRCCs were positive for PAX2, whereas 15 of 16 (94%) lesions showed PAX8 staining. None of 16 (0%) examined ccRCCs were positive for inhibin A. We propose the use of the combination of PAX2, PAX8, and inhibin A as a helpful ancillary IHC panel to resolve the differential diagnosis of hemangioblastoma versus metastatic ccRCC. The immunoprofile of PAX2(+) or PAX8(+) and inhibin A(-) supports the diagnosis of metastatic ccRCC with a sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 100%, and positive predictive value of 100%. The PAX2(-), PAX8(-), and inhibin A(+) profile supports the diagnosis of hemangioblastoma with a sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 100%, and positive predictive value of 100%.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 02/2011; 35(2):262-7. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adrenal lymphangiomas, also known as cystic adrenal lymphangiomas, are rare, benign vascular lesions that usually remain asymptomatic throughout life. Although previously adrenal lymphangioma lesions were primarily found at autopsy, they are currently detected during imaging work-up for unrelated causes and are likely to imitate other adrenocortical or adrenal medullary neoplasms. We aimed to retrospectively review all adrenal lymphangioma cases at our hospital and further document their lymphatic origin by immunohistochemical staining. A search of surgical pathology records (1984-2008) was conducted. All hematoxylin and eosin sections were retrieved from archives and reviewed by 2 pathologists in the study. Clinical information was gathered from electronic medical records. Representative paraffin-embedded sections from each case were selected for immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies D2-40 and AE1/AE3. A total of 9 adrenal lymphangioma cases were identified (6 women and 3 men). All 9 patients were adults at time of diagnosis with a mean age of 42 years (range, 28-56 years). There were 7 white patients, 1 African American patient, and 1 Asian patient. The average size of an adrenal lymphangioma lesion was 4.9 cm (range, 2.0-13.5 cm). Adrenal lymphangioma was twice more frequently located on the right side (6 right-sided and 3 left-sided). Clinically, 4 (44%) of the 9 lesions presented with abdominal, flank, or back pain. One lymphangioma was found during work-up for labile hypertension. The remaining 4 lesions (44%) were asymptomatic and incidentally found during imaging studies for unrelated causes. Surgical removal was achieved by total adrenalectomy in 8 of the 9 lesions and by partial adrenalectomy in the remaining case. No evidence of recurrence or development of a contralateral lesion was encountered in any of the patients. Histologically, our adrenal lymphangiomas showed a typical multicystic architecture with dilated spaces lined by flattened, bland, simple lining. The cystic channels/spaces occasionally contained proteinaceous material and lacked red blood cell content. On immunohistochemical stains, D2-40 cytoplasmic staining was positive in all 9 examined lesions, whereas AE1/AE3 was negative, thus, confirming their lymphatic nature. D2-40 staining was diffuse in 2 and focal in the 7 remaining lesions. Adrenal lymphangiomas are very rare, benign lymphatic neoplasms with a female, right-sided predominance in our current series. They may clinically present with abdominal pain or can be incidentally found during adulthood as a mass, necessitating surgical removal to rule out other types of adrenal neoplasms.
    Human pathology 02/2011; 42(7):1013-8. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep can result from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a disorder that is particularly prevalent in obesity. OSA is associated with high levels of circulating leptin, cardiovascular dysfunction, and dyslipidemia. Relationships between leptin and cardiovascular function in OSA and chronic IH are poorly understood. We exposed lean wild-type (WT) and obese leptin-deficient ob/ob mice to IH for 4 wk, with and without leptin infusion, and measured cardiovascular indices including aortic vascular stiffness, endothelial function, cardiac myocyte morphology, and contractile properties. At baseline, ob/ob mice had decreased vascular compliance and endothelial function vs. WT mice. We found that 4 wk of IH decreased vascular compliance and endothelial relaxation responses to acetylcholine in both WT and leptin-deficient ob/ob animals. Recombinant leptin infusion in both strains restored IH-induced vascular abnormalities toward normoxic WT levels. Cardiac myocyte morphology and function were unaltered by IH. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased by leptin treatment in IH mice, as was hepatic stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 expression. Taken together, these data suggest that restoring normal leptin signaling can reduce vascular stiffness, increase endothelial relaxation, and correct dyslipidemia associated with IH.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 01/2011; 300(4):H1467-76. · 4.01 Impact Factor
  • Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery 01/2010; 136(1):100. · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Carla L Ellis, Zahra Maleki, Syed Z Ali
    Diagnostic Cytopathology 11/2009; 38(10):740-1. · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare and aggressive malignant epithelial neoplasm of the kidney. It almost exclusively affects children and young adults with a sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease. The majority of RMC patients present with widely disseminated disease at the time of diagnosis. Herein, we report two cases of young African-American patients with history of sickle cell trait, hematuria and renal mass, who present with malignant right pleural effusions. The cytology of pleural effusion reveals predominantly clusters and individual tumor cells. The tumor cells show high nuclear to cytoplasmic (NC) ratios and large nuclei with nuclear pleomorphism, nuclear grooves, and prominent single or multiple nucleoli. The cytoplasm is dense with a vacuolated and two-tone appearance. Surgical specimens of renal mass and lymph node show features of RMC. Metastatic RMC to the serous cavity is rare and may present a diagnostic dilemma since it may mimic a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma or other high-grade malignant neoplasms. RMC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in young patients with a renal mass, particularly in those with history of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease.
    Diagnostic Cytopathology 07/2009; 37(11):843-8. · 1.49 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

58 Citations
64.71 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2009–2014
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Pathology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2012
    • Fourth Military Medical University
      • Department of Cardiology
      Xi’an, Liaoning, China