[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A review of treat-and-extend regimens (TERs) with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents in retinal diseases.
There is a lack of consensus on the definition and optimal application of TER in clinical practice. This article describes the supporting evidence and subsequent development of a generic algorithm for TER dosing with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, considering factors such as criteria for extension.
A TER algorithm was developed; TER is defined as an individualized proactive dosing regimen usually initiated by monthly injections until a maximal clinical response is observed (frequently determined by optical coherence tomography), followed by increasing intervals between injections (and evaluations) depending on disease activity. The TER regimen has emerged as an effective approach to tailoring the dosing regimen and for reducing treatment burden (visits and injections) compared with fixed monthly dosing or monthly visits with optical coherence tomography-guided regimens (as-needed or pro re nata). It is also considered a suitable approach in many retinal diseases managed with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, given that all eyes differ in the need for repeat injections.
It is hoped that this practical review and TER algorithm will be of benefit to health care professionals interested in the management of retinal diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of an implantable miniature telescope (IMT) in patients with bilateral, end-stage, age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
A prospective, open-label, multicenter clinical trial with fellow eye controls enrolled 217 patients (mean age 76 years) with AMD and moderate-to-profound bilateral central visual acuity loss (20/80-20/800) resulting from untreatable geographic atrophy, disciform scars, or both. A subgroup analysis was performed with stratification for age (patient age 65 to <75 years [group 1; n=70] and patient age ≥75 years [group 2; n=127]), with a comparative evaluation of change in best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA), quality of life, ocular complications from surgery, adverse events, and endothelial cell density (ECD). Follow-up in an extension study was 60 months.
Data were available for 22, 38, and 31 patients in group 1 and 42, 46, and 32 patients in group 2 at 36, 48, and 60 months, respectively. Mean BCDVA improvement from baseline to 60 months was 2.41±2.69 lines in all patients (n=76), with 2.64±2.55 lines in group 1 and 2.09±2.88 lines in group 2. Quality of life scores were significantly higher in group 1. The most common significant surgery-related ocular complications in group 1 were iritis >30 days after surgery (7/70; 10%) and persistent corneal edema (3/70; 4.3%); and in group 2 were a decrease in BCDVA in the implanted eye or IMT removal (10/127 each; 7.9%), corneal edema >30 days after surgery (9/127; 7.1%), and persistent corneal edema (6/127; 4.7%). Significant adverse events included four corneal transplants, comprising two (2.9%) in group 1 and two (1.6%) in group 2. At 60 months, one patient in group 1 (3.2%) and three patients in group 2 (9.4%) had lost ≥2 lines of vision. The IMT was removed in one (1.4%) and ten (7.9%) patients in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Mean ECD loss was 20% at 3 months. Chronic loss was 3% per year. ECD loss was less in group 1 than in group 2 (35% versus 40%, respectively) at 60 months.
Long-term results show substantial retention of improvement in BDCVA. Chronic ECD loss was consistent with that reported for conventional intraocular lenses. The IMT performed as well in group 1 (the younger group) as it did in group 2 through month 60. Younger patients retained more vision than their older counterparts and had fewer adverse events. Although not a specified outcome for this study, patients younger than 65 years also fared better than those in group 2 and retained more vision with fewer adverse events through month 60.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We executed a genome-wide association scan for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 2,157 cases and 1,150 controls. Our results validate AMD susceptibility loci near CFH (P < 10(-75)), ARMS2 (P < 10(-59)), C2/CFB (P < 10(-20)), C3 (P < 10(-9)), and CFI (P < 10(-6)). We compared our top findings with the Tufts/Massachusetts General Hospital genome-wide association study of advanced AMD (821 cases, 1,709 controls) and genotyped 30 promising markers in additional individuals (up to 7,749 cases and 4,625 controls). With these data, we identified a susceptibility locus near TIMP3 (overall P = 1.1 x 10(-11)), a metalloproteinase involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix and previously implicated in early-onset maculopathy. In addition, our data revealed strong association signals with alleles at two loci (LIPC, P = 1.3 x 10(-7); CETP, P = 7.4 x 10(-7)) that were previously associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels in blood. Consistent with the hypothesis that HDL metabolism is associated with AMD pathogenesis, we also observed association with AMD of HDL-c-associated alleles near LPL (P = 3.0 x 10(-3)) and ABCA1 (P = 5.6 x 10(-4)). Multilocus analysis including all susceptibility loci showed that 329 of 331 individuals (99%) with the highest-risk genotypes were cases, and 85% of these had advanced AMD. Our studies extend the catalog of AMD associated loci, help identify individuals at high risk of disease, and provide clues about underlying cellular pathways that should eventually lead to new therapies.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2010; 107(16):7401-6. · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose. To determine the relationship of six genetic variants (rs10490924, rs3750848, del443ins54, rs3793917, rs11200638, and rs932275) localized to the ARMS2-HTRA1 region of chromosome 10, region q26, as risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), to define the haplotype structure of these six loci, and to confirm their genetic association with the disease. Methods. Caucasian patients (n = 482) were stratified into categories based on AREDS (Age-Related Eye Disease Study) grading criteria (groups 0 and 1 served as the control, groups 3 and 4 contained subjects with AMD, and group 2 was excluded from the analysis). The six genetic variants in the ARMS2-HTRA1 region were genotyped and analyzed both independently and as a joint haplotype for association in subjects with disease (n = 291) compared with the control (n = 191). Results. The six high-risk alleles all showed a statistically significant association with AMD (the most significant SNP was rs10490924 [P < or = 3.31 x 10(-5), OR = 1.86]; the least significant SNP was rs932275 [P < or = 9.15 x 10(-5), OR = 1.78]). Multimarker analysis revealed that all six markers were in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other, and the two major haplotypes that captured >98% of the genetic variation in the region were both significantly associated with the disease: One increased the risk of AMD and contained only risk alleles (P < or = 2.20 x 10(-5)), and the other haplotype decreased the risk of AMD and contained only wild-type alleles (P < or = 6.81 x 10(-5)). Furthermore, 36 individuals comprising both cases and controls were identified outside of these two major haplotypes, with at least one discordant marker. Conclusions. The results replicate the previously reported association between the high-risk alleles and AMD and independently confirm, for the first time, an association with AMD and the indel (del443ins54) polymorphism in a Caucasian population. Two major haplotypes that are associated with AMD and many minor novel haplotypes were identified. The novel haplotypes, identified from 36 cases and controls with discordant alleles spanning the ARMS2-HTRA1 region provide unique opportunities to gauge the relative phenotypic contributions of each of these genetic risk factors. With the identification of more discordant patients in the future, it may be possible to resolve the ongoing controversy as to which of the risk alleles and genes (ARMS2 vs. HTRA1) has the greatest impact on disease susceptibility. Future work should include the analysis of larger and more diverse populations, to further define the linkage structure of the region with a focus on phenotypic effects on AMD of the various haplotypes involving 10q26, as well as a functional analysis of the normal ARMS2 protein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate safety and efficacy of the angiostatic agent anecortave acetate, compared with a placebo, for treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Design: Ongoing masked, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel evaluation of anecortave acetate (30 mg, 15 mg, and 3 mg) versus a placebo. Participants: There were 128 eyes of 128 patients with subfoveal CNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration who were enrolled and treated, with 80% (102/128) of eyes presenting with predominantly classic lesions at baseline. Methods: All eyes received a posterior juxtascleral depot application of masked study medication or a placebo, with retreatment at 6-month intervals if the masked investigator believed the patient could benefit. Patients received periodic detailed ophthalmic examinations with both fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, general physical examinations with electrocardiograms, and hematology/serum chemistry/urinalysis. All ophthalmic and systemic safety data were periodically reviewed by the Independent Safety Committee overseeing the study. Main Outcome Measures: Best-corrected logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) vision and fluorescein angiographic lesion characteristics were compared over time and among treatment groups. Results: At month 12, anecortave acetate (15 mg) administered at 6-month intervals was statistically superior to the placebo for 3 measures of clinical efficacy: mean change from baseline vision (P = 0.0131), stabilization of vision (<3 logMAR line change; P = 0.0323), and prevention of severe vision loss (decrease of greater than or equal to6 logMAR lines from baseline; P = 0.0224). Subgroup analysis of predominantly classic lesions revealed that anecortave acetate (15 mg) was also superior to the placebo at 1 year for each of these 3 measures of visual outcome (Ps = 0.0022, 0.0100, and 0.0299, respectively). Anecortave acetate (15 mg) trended toward significance over the placebo at month 12 for inhibition of total lesion growth and for inhibition of both the total CNV component and the classic CNV component in both the overall and subgroup analyses. The Independent Safety Committee identified no clinically relevant treatment-related safety issues. Conclusions: Anecortave acetate (15 mg) is safe and clinically efficacious at 1 year for maintaining vision, preventing severe vision loss, and inhibiting subfoveal CNV lesion growth. (C) 2003 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate clinical safety and efficacy of the angiostatic agent anecortave acetate for treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to AMD. Methods: 128 patients were randomized to placebo treatment or one of three anecortave acetate doses. Study medication was administered as a posterior juxtascleral injection onto the posterior scleral surface. Best-corrected logMAR vision was obtained at baseline and follow-up visits. Fluorescein angiograms were evaluated for eligibility before enrollment and posttreatment. Results: Six months after a single treatment, visual acuity (mean change from baseline logMAR values) was significantly better (P = 0.003) after anecortave acetate 15 mg than placebo. More patients treated with anecortave acetate 15 mg than placebo maintained vision (88% versus 70%, P = 0.080), especially those with predominantly classic lesions (92% versus 65%, P = 0.021). Anecortave acetate 15 mg inhibited lesion growth significantly better than placebo (P = 0.001). Trends favoring the other doses over placebo were observed for vision preservation and lesion inhibition, but statistical significance was not achieved. The Independent Safety Committee overseeing this study identified no clinically relevant treatment-related changes. Conclusion: Anecortave acetate 15 mg is safe and effective for preserving or improving vision and for inhibiting lesion growth in patients with subfoveal AMD.