C. N. Tadhunter

The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (284)945.13 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The tight correlations observed between galaxies and their SMBH provides compelling evidence that the evolution of the galaxy and its central black hole are strongly linked. This is generally attributed to feedback mechanisms which, according to simulations, often take the form of outflows of gas, quenching star formation in the host galaxy and halting accretion onto the central black hole. While there are a number of plausible ways that outflows could be produced, recent results have shown that in some cases radio jets could be responsible for driving fast outflows of gas. One such example is seen in the nearby radio galaxy 3C293. In this talk I will present results from JVLA radio observations where we detect fast outflows (~1200 km/s) of neutral gas which are being driven by the radio-jet approximately 0.5 kpc from the central core, providing direct evidence for jet-ISM interaction. This is accompanied with recent IFU observations showing that ionised gas outflows are also being driven by the radio jet. Pinpointing the location of these outflows enables us to derive crucial parameters, such as the mass outflow rates and kinetic energy involved, which we can compare to predictions from galaxy evolution simulations.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 09/2015; 10(S313):289-293. DOI:10.1017/S1743921315002343
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    ABSTRACT: We use high-resolution (0.5 arcsec) CO(2-1) observations performed with ALMA to trace the kinematics of the molecular gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy IC5063. A fast outflow of molecular gas extends along the entire radio jet, with the highest outflow velocities about 0.5kpc from the nucleus, at the location of the brighter hot-spot in the W lobe. The data show that a massive, fast outflow with velocities up to 650 km/s of cold molecular gas is present, in addition to one detected earlier in warm H2, HI and ionised gas. Both the central AGN and the radio jet could energetically drive the outflow. However, the characteristics of the outflowing gas point to the radio jet being the main driver. This is important, because IC5063, although one of the most powerful Seyfert galaxies, is a relatively weak radio source (P = 3x10^23 W/Hz). All the observed characteristics can be described by a scenario of a radio plasma jet expanding into a clumpy medium, interacting directly with the clouds and inflating a cocoon that drives a lateral outflow into the interstellar medium. This model is consistent with results obtained by recent simulations such as those of Wagner et al.. A stronger, direct interaction between the jet and a gas cloud is present at the location of the brighter W lobe. Even assuming the most conservative values for the conversion factor CO-to-H2, the mass of the outflowing gas is between 1.9 and 4.8x10^7 Msun. These amounts are much larger than those of the outflow of warm gas (molecular and ionized) and somewhat larger than of the HI outflow. This suggests that most of the observed cold molecular outflow is due to fast cooling after being shocked. This gas is the end product of the cooling process. Our CO observations demonstrate that fast outflows of molecular gas can be driven by relativistic jets.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201525860 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-resolution (0.5 arcsec) CO(2-1) observations performed with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array have been used to trace the kinematics of the molecular gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy{IC~5063}. Although one of the most radio-loud Seyfert galaxy, IC~5063 is a relatively weak radio source (P_1.4GHz = 3 x 10^23 W Hz^-1). The data reveal that the kinematics of the gas is very complex. A fast outflow of molecular gas extends along the entire radio jet (~ 1 kpc), with the highest outflow velocities about 0.5 kpc from the nucleus, at the location of the brighter hot-spot in the W lobe. All the observed characteristics can be described by a scenario of a radio plasma jet expanding into a clumpy medium, interacting directly with the clouds and inflating a cocoon that drives a lateral outflow into the interstellar medium. This suggests that most of the observed cold molecular outflow is due to fast cooling of the gas after the passage of a shock and that it is the end product of the cooling process.
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from a fifteen-month campaign of high-cadence (~ 3 days) mid-infrared Spitzer and optical (B and V ) monitoring of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 6418, with the objective of determining the characteristic size of the dusty torus in this active galactic nucleus (AGN). We find that the 3.6 $\mu$m and 4.5 $\mu$m flux variations lag behind those of the optical continuum by $37.2^{+2.4}_{-2.2}$ days and $47.1^{+3.1}_{-3.1}$ days, respectively. We report a cross-correlation time lag between the 4.5 $\mu$m and 3.6 $\mu$m flux of $13.9^{+0.5}_{-0.1}$ days. The lags indicate that the dust emitting at 3.6 $\mu$m and 4.5 $\mu$m is located at a distance of approximately 1 light-month (~ 0.03 pc) from the source of the AGN UV-optical continuum. The reverberation radii are consistent with the inferred lower limit to the sublimation radius for pure graphite grains at 1800 K, but smaller by a factor of ~ 2 than the corresponding lower limit for silicate grains; this is similar to what has been found for near-infrared (K-band) lags in other AGN. The 3.6 and 4.5 $\mu$m reverberation radii fall above the K-band $\tau \propto L^{0.5}$ size-luminosity relationship by factors $\lesssim 2.7$ and $\lesssim 3.4$, respectively, while the 4.5 $\mu$m reverberation radius is only 27% larger than the 3.6 $\mu$m radius. This is broadly consistent with clumpy torus models, in which individual optically thick clouds emit strongly over a broad wavelength range.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2015; 801(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/801/2/127 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    Marvin Rose · Martin Elvis · Clive N. Tadhunter
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    ABSTRACT: We introduce Coronal-Line Forest active galactic nuclei (CLiF AGN), AGN which have a rich spectrum of forbidden high-ionization lines (FHILs, e.g. [Fe vii], [Fe x] and [Ne v]), as well as relatively strong narrow (∼300 km s−1) Hα emission when compared to the other Balmer transition lines. We find that the kinematics of the CLiF emitting region are similar to those of the forbidden low-ionization emission-line (FLIL) region. We compare emission line strengths of both FHILs and FLILs to cloudy photoionization results and find that the CLiF emitting region has higher densities (104.5 < nH < 107.5 cm−3) when compared to the FLIL emitting region (103.0 < nH < 104.5 cm−3). We use the photoionization results to calculate the CLiF regions radial distances (0.04 < RCLiF < 32.5 pc) and find that they are comparable to the dust grain sublimation distances (0.10 < RSUB < 4.3 pc). As a result, we suggest that the inner torus wall is the most likely location of the CLiF region, and the unusual strength of the FHILs is due to a specific viewing angle giving a maximal view of the far wall of the torus without the continuum being revealed.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2015; 448(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv113 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use deep Herschel Space Observatory observations of a 90 per cent complete sample of 32 intermediate-redshift 2Jy radio galaxies (0.05 < z < 0.7) with strong emission lines to estimate the dust masses of their host galaxies and thereby investigate the triggering mechanisms for their quasar-like AGN. The dust masses derived for the radio galaxies (7.2 × 105 < Md < 2.6 × 108 M⊙) are intermediate between those of quiescent elliptical galaxies on the one hand, and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) on the other. Consistent with simple models for the co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, these results suggest that most radio galaxies represent the late time re-triggering of AGN activity via mergers between the host giant elliptical galaxies and companion galaxies with relatively low gas masses. However, a minority of the radio galaxies in our sample (∼20 per cent) have high, ULIRG-like dust masses, along with evidence for prodigious star formation activity. The latter objects are more likely to have been triggered in major, gas-rich mergers that represent a rapid growth phase for both their host galaxies and their supermassive black holes.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters 08/2014; 445(1). DOI:10.1093/mnrasl/slu135 · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present new HST ACS medium- and narrow-band images and long-slit, optical (4000 - 7200A) spectra obtained using the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) on La Palma, of the merging system Mrk273. The HST observations sample the [OIII]4959,5007 emission from the galaxy and the nearby continuum. The images show that the morphologies of the extended continuum and the ionised gas emission from the galaxy are decoupled, extending almost perpendicular to each other. In particular, we detect for the first time a spectacular structure of ionised gas in the form of filaments extending ~23 kpc to the east of the nuclear region. The quiescent ionised gas kinematics at these locations suggests that these filaments are tidal debris left over from a secondary merger event that are illuminated by an AGN in the nuclear regions. The images also reveal a complex morphology in the nuclear region of the galaxy for both the continuum and the [OIII] emission. Kinematic disturbance, in the form of broad (FWHM > 500 km s-1) and/or strongly shifted (abs(\DeltaV) >150 km s-1) emission line components, is found at almost all locations within a radius of ~4 kpc to the east and west of the northern nucleus. We fit the profiles of all the emission lines of different ionisation with a kinematic model using up to 3 Gaussian components. From these fits we derive diagnostic line ratios that are used to investigate the ionisation mechanisms at the different locations in the galaxy. We show that, in general, the line ratios are consistent with photoionization by an AGN as the main ionisation mechanism. Finally, the highest surface brightness [OIII] emission is found in a compact region that is coincident with the so-called SE nuclear component. The compactness, kinematics and emission line ratios of this component suggest that it is a separate nucleus with its own AGN.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2014; 571. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201423540 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present high-angular (~0.4") resolution mid-infrared (MIR) polarimetric observations in the 8.7 ${\mu}$m and 11.6 ${\mu}$m filters of Cygnus A using CanariCam on the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. A highly polarized nucleus is observed with a degree of polarization of 11${\pm}$3% and 12${\pm}$3% and position angle of polarization of 27${\pm}$8 degrees and 35${\pm}$8 degrees in a 0.38" (~380 pc) aperture for each filter. The observed rising of the polarized flux density with increasing wavelength is consistent with synchrotron radiation from the pc-scale jet close to the core of Cygnus A. Based on our polarization model, the synchrotron emission from the pc-scale jet is estimated to be 14% and 17% of the total flux density in the 8.7 ${\mu}$m and 11.6 ${\mu}$m filters, respectively. A blackbody component with a characteristic temperature of 220 K accounts for >75% of the observed MIR total flux density. The blackbody emission arises from a combination of (1) dust emission in the torus; and (2) diffuse dust emission around the nuclear region, but the contributions of the two components cannot be well constrained in these observations.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 793(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/793/2/81 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of 2.05 μm Hubble Space Telescope polarimetric data for a sample of 13 nearby Fanaroff–Riley type II (FRII) 3CR radio sources (0.03 < z < 0.11) that are classified as narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRG) at optical wavelengths. We find that the compact cores of the NLRG in our sample are intrinsically highly polarized in the near-infrared (near-IR) (6 < P2.05 μm < 60 per cent), with the electric vector (E-vector) perpendicular to the radio axis in 54 per cent of the sources. The levels of extinction required to produce near-IR polarization by the dichroic extinction mechanism are consistent with the measured values recently reported in Ramírez et al., provided that this mechanism has its maximum efficiency. This consistency suggests that the nuclear polarization could be due to dichroic extinction. In this case, toroidal magnetic fields that are highly coherent would be required in the circumnuclear tori to align the elongated dust grains responsible for the dichroic extinction. However, it is not entirely possible to rule out other polarization mechanisms (e.g. scattering, synchrotron emission) with our observations at only one near-IR wavelength. Therefore, further polarimetry observations at mid-IR and radio wavelengths will be required to test whether all the near-IR polarization is due to dichroic extinction.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2014; 444(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1390 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    C. Tadhunter · R. Morganti · M. Rose · J. B. R. Oonk · T. Oosterloo
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    ABSTRACT: Massive outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are widely recognised to play a key role in the evolution of galaxies, heating the ambient gas, expelling it from the nuclear regions, and thereby affecting the star formation histories of the galaxy bulges. It has been proposed that the powerful jets of relativistic particles launched by some AGN can both accelerate and heat the molecular gas, which often dominates the mass budgets of the outflows. However, clear evidence for this mechanism in the form of detailed associations between the molecular gas kinematics and features in the radio-emitting jets has been lacking. Here we show that the warm molecular hydrogen gas in the western radio lobe of the Seyfert galaxy IC5063 is moving at high velocities - up to 600 km/s - relative to the galaxy disk. This suggests that the molecules have been accelerated by fast shocks driven into the interstellar medium (ISM) by the expanding radio jets. These results demonstrate the general feasibility of accelerating molecular outflows in fast shocks driven by AGN.
    Nature 07/2014; 511(7510). DOI:10.1038/nature13520 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It remains uncertain which continuum and emission line diagnostics best indicate the bolometric powers of active galactic nuclei (AGN), especially given the attenuation caused by the circum-nuclear material, and the possible contamination by components related to star formation. Here we use mid-IR spectra along with the multi-wavelength data to investigate the merit of various diagnostics of AGN radiative power, including the mid-IR [NeIII]25.89 micron and [OIV]25.89 micron fine structure lines, the optical [OIII]5007 forbidden line, and mid-IR 24 micron, 5GHz radio, and X-ray continuum emission, for complete samples of 46 2Jy radio galaxies (0.05<z<0.7) and 17 3CRR FRII radio galaxies (z<0.1). We find that the mid-IR [OIV] line is the most reliable indicator of AGN power for powerful radio-loud AGN. By assuming that the [OIV] is emitted isotropically, and comparing the [OIII] and 24 micron luminosities of the broad- and narrow-line AGN in our samples at fixed [OIV] luminosity, we show that the [OIII] and 24 micron emission are both mildly attenuated in the narrow-line compared to the broad-line objects by a factor 2. However, despite this attenuation, the [OIII] and 24 micron luminosities are better AGN power indicators for our sample than either the 5 GHz radio or the X-ray continuum luminosities. We also detect the mid-IR 9.7 micron silicate feature in the spectra of many objects but not ubiquitously: at least 40% of the sample show no clear evidence for these features. We conclude that, for the majority of powerful radio galaxies, the mid-IR lines are powered by AGN photoionisation.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2014; 788(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/788/2/98 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It remains uncertain which continuum and emission line diagnostics best indicate the bolometric powers of active galactic nuclei (AGN), especially given the attenuation caused by the circum-nuclear material, and the possible contamination by components related to star formation. Here we use mid-IR spectra along with the multi-wavelength data to investigate the merit of various diagnostics of AGN radiative power, including the mid-IR [NeIII]25.89 micron and [OIV]25.89 micron fine structure lines, the optical [OIII]5007 forbidden line, and mid-IR 24 micron, 5GHz radio, and X-ray continuum emission, for complete samples of 46 2Jy radio galaxies (0.05
  • E. A. Ramírez · C. N. Tadhunter · D. Dicken · M. Rose · D. Axon · W. Sparks · C. Packham
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of infrared Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Spitzer data for a sample of 13 Fanaroff-Riley II (FRII) radio galaxies at 0.03 < z < 0.11 that are classified as narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs). In the context of unified schemes for active galactic nuclei (AGNs), our direct view of AGNs in NLRGs is impeded by a parsec-scale dusty torus structure. Our high-resolution infrared observations provide new information about the degree of extinction resulting from the torus, and about the incidence of obscured AGNs in NLRGs.We find that the point-like nucleus detection rate increases from 25 per cent at 1.025 μm, to 80 per cent at 2.05 μm, and to 100 per cent at 8.0 μm. This supports the idea that most NLRG host an obscured AGN in their centre. We estimate the extinction from the obscuring structures using X-ray, near-IR and mid-IR data. We find that the optical extinction derived from the 9.7 μm silicate absorption feature is consistently lower than the extinction derived using other techniques. This discrepancy challenges the assumption that all the mid-infrared emission of NLRG is extinguished by a simple screen of dust at larger radii. This disagreement can be explained in terms of either weakening of the silicate absorption feature by (i) thermal mid-IR emission from the narrow-line region, (ii) non-thermal emission from the base of the radio jets, or (iii) by direct warm dust emission that leaks through a clumpy torus without suffering major attenuation.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2014; 439(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt2444 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We carry out a systematic study of the X-ray emission from the active nuclei of the 0.02<z<0.7 2Jy sample, using Chandra and XMM-Newton observations. We combine our results with those from mid-IR, optical emission line and radio observations, and add them to those of the 3CRR sources. We show that the low-excitation objects in our samples \redit{show signs} of radiatively inefficient accretion. We study the effect of the jet-related emission on the various luminosities, confirming that it is the main source of soft X-ray emission for our sources. We also find strong correlations between the accretion-related luminosities, and identify several sources whose optical classification is incompatible with their accretion properties. We derive the bolometric and jet kinetic luminosities for the samples and find a difference in the total Eddington rate between the low and high-excitation populations, with the former peaking at ~1 per cent and the latter at ~20 per cent Eddington. Our results are consistent with a simple Eddington switch when the effects of environment on radio luminosity and black hole mass calculations are considered. The apparent independence of jet kinetic power and radiative luminosity in the high-excitation population in our plots supports a model in which jet production and radiatively efficient accretion are not strongly correlated in high-excitation objects, though they have a common underlying mechanism.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2014; 440(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu263 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    E. A. Ramírez · C. N. Tadhunter · D. Dicken · M. Rose · D. Axon · W. Sparks · C. Packham
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    ABSTRACT: We present the analysis of infrared HST and Spitzer data for a sample of 13 FRII radio galaxies at $0.03<z<0.11$ that are classified as narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRG). In the context of the unified schemes for active galactic nuclei (AGN), our direct view of the AGN in NLRG is impeded by a parsec-scale dusty torus structure. Our high resolution infrared observations provide new information about the degree of extinction induced by the torus, and the incidence of obscured AGN in NLRG. We find that the point-like nucleus detection rate increases towards longer infrared wavelengths. This supports the idea that most NLRG host an obscured AGN in their centre. We estimate the extinction from the obscuring structures using X-ray, near-IR and mid-IR data. We find that the optical extinction derived by the 9.7$\mu$m silicate absorption feature is consistently lower than the extinction derived using other techniques. This discrepancy challenges the assumption that all the mid-infrared emission of NLRG is extinguished by a simple screen of dust at larger radii. This disagreement can be explained in terms of either wakening of the silicate absorption feature by (a) thermal mid-IR emission from the narrow-line region, (b) non-thermal emission from the base of the radio jets, or (c) by direct warm dust emission that leaks through a clumpy torus without suffering major attenuation.
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    ABSTRACT: The idea that the central regions of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are obscured by a circum-nuclear torus of dusty molecular gas is a keystone of the AGN Unified Scheme. However, the size and structure of the torus are not well constrained by observations. Here, we present early results from an international campaign to determine the size of the torus in a sample of 12 Seyfert galaxies using reverberation mapping techniques, focussing on the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 6418. We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope to acquire mid infrared (3.6 and 4.5 micron) observations for over a year with a high cadence of 3 days. Optical V band observations were obtained concurrently using several ground based telescopes. Cross-correlation of the 3.6 micron and optical (V-band) light curves, indicates that the size for the region 3.6 micron-emitting region to be 30.7 +/- 2.2 light days. We also find a lag of 11.5 +/- 0.9 days between the 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron channels. We discuss the implications of these results.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a CO(1-0) survey for cold molecular gas in a representative sample of 13 high-z radio galaxies (HzRGs) at 1.4<z<2.8, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We detect CO(1-0) emission associated with five sources: MRC 0114-211, MRC 0152-209, MRC 0156-252, MRC 1138-262 and MRC 2048-272. The CO(1-0) luminosities are in the range $L'_{\rm CO} \sim (5 - 9) \times 10^{10}$ K km/s pc$^{2}$. For MRC 0152-209 and MRC 1138-262 part of the CO(1-0) emission coincides with the radio galaxy, while part is spread on scales of tens of kpc and likely associated with galaxy mergers. The molecular gas mass derived for these two systems is M$_{\rm H2} \sim 6 \times 10^{10}\, {\rm M}_{\odot}$ (M$_{\rm H2}$/$L'_{\rm CO}$=0.8). For the remaining three CO-detected sources, the CO(1-0) emission is located in the halo (~50-kpc) environment. These three HzRGs are among the fainter far-IR emitters in our sample, suggesting that similar reservoirs of cold molecular halo gas may have been missed in earlier studies due to pre-selection of IR-bright sources. In all three cases the CO(1-0) is aligned along the radio axis and found beyond the brightest radio hot-spot, in a region devoid of 4.5$\mu$m emission in Spitzer imaging. The CO(1-0) profiles are broad, with velocity widths of ~ 1000 - 3600 km/s. We discuss several possible scenarios to explain these halo reservoirs of CO(1-0). Following these results, we complement our CO(1-0) study with detections of extended CO from the literature and find at marginal statistical significance (95% level) that CO in HzRGs is preferentially aligned towards the radio jet axis. For the eight sources in which we do not detect CO(1-0), we set realistic upper limits of $L'_{\rm CO} \sim 3-4 \times 10^{10}$ K km/s pc$^{2}$. Our survey reveals a CO(1-0) detection rate of 38%, allowing us to compare the CO(1-0) content of HzRGs with that of other types of high-z galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2013; 438(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt2398 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present deep, intermediate resolution, long slit Gemini GMOS-S optical spectra of the SDSS type II quasar J002531-104022, which is a highly disturbed system currently undergoing a major merger event. We use these data to model the ages and reddenings of the stellar populations in three distinct spatial regions and find a remarkable uniformity in the properties of the young stellar populations (YSP) that dominate the optical spectra. The YSPs are all found to have relatively young ages (tysp < 40$ Myr), strongly implying that the latest episode of star formation and quasar activity have been triggered quasi-simultaneously. The lack of reddening deduced from both continuum modelling and the measured Balmer decrements (E(B-V) <0.3) suggests that starburst and/or AGN induced outflows have already effectively removed a substantial proportion of the gas and dust from the central region. These findings starkly contrast with model predictions which suggest an offset of a few 100 Myr between the peak of merger induced star formation and the emergence of the optically visible quasar activity. Based on our stellar population fits we also show that the total stellar mass is in the range (4 - 17) X 10^10 solar masses, lower than typically found for quasar host galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2013; 438(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt2333 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a comparison between the environments of 1) a complete sample of 46 southern 2Jy radio galaxies at intermediate redshifts (0.05 < z < 0.7), 2) a complete sample of 20 radio-quiet type-2 quasars (0.3 < z < 0.41), and 3) a control sample of 107 quiescent early-type galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.7 in the Extended Groth Strip (EGS). The environments have been quantified using angular clustering amplitudes (Bgq) derived from deep optical imaging data. Based on these comparisons, we discuss the role of the environment in the triggering of powerful radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars. When we compare the Bgq distributions of the type-2 quasars and quiescent early-type galaxies, we find no significant difference between them. This is consistent with the radio-quiet quasar phase being a short-lived but ubiquitous stage in the formation of all massive early-type galaxies. On the other hand, PRGs are in denser environments than the quiescent population, and this difference between distributions of Bgq is significant at the 3 sigma level. This result supports a physical origin of radio loudness, with high density gas environments favouring the transformation of AGN power into radio luminosity, or alternatively, affecting the properties of the supermassive black holes themselves. Finally, focussing on the radio-loud sources only, we find that the clustering of weak-line radio galaxies (WLRGs) is higher than the strong-line radio galaxies (SLRGs), constituting a 3 sigma result. 82% of the 2Jy WLRGs are in clusters, according to our definition (Bgq > 400) versus only 31% of the SLRGs.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2013; 436(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt1595 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nearby radio galaxy 3C293 is one of a small group of objects where extreme outflows of neutral hydrogen have been detected. However, due to the limited spatial resolution of previous observations, the exact location of the outflow was not able to be determined. In this letter, we present new higher resolution VLA observations of the central regions of this radio source and detect a fast outflow of HI with a FWZI velocity of \Delta v~1200 km/s associated with the inner radio jet, approximately 0.5 kpc west of the central core. We investigate possible mechanisms which could produce the observed HI outflow and conclude that it is driven by the radio-jet. However, this outflow of neutral hydrogen is located on the opposite side of the nucleus to the outflow of ionised gas previously detected in this object. We calculate a mass outflow rate in the range of 8-50 solar masses/yr corresponding to a kinetic energy power injected back into the ISM of 1.38x10^{42} - 1.00x10^{43} erg/s or 0.01 - 0.08 percent of the Eddington luminosity. This places it just outside the range required by some galaxy evolution simulations for negative feedback from the AGN to be effective in halting star-formation within the galaxy.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; 435(1). DOI:10.1093/mnrasl/slt094 · 5.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
945.13 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2015
    • The University of Sheffield
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Sheffield, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • University of Tasmania
      • School of Mathematics & Physics
      Hobart Town, Tasmania, Australia
  • 2003–2007
    • University of Groningen
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
    • University of Hertfordshire
      Hatfield, England, United Kingdom
  • 1990–1993
    • Durham University
      • Department of Physics
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
    • European Space Agency
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1992
    • National Research Council
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1989
    • European Southern Observatory
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1988
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 1987
    • University of Sussex
      • Astronomy Centre
      Brighton, England, United Kingdom
    • University of St Andrews
      Saint Andrews, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1986
    • University of Brighton
      Brighton, England, United Kingdom