[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the main goals in the current care of kidney transplant recipients is to extend long-term graft survival. Efficacious immunosuppressive agents devoid of nephrotoxicity are needed. In human clinical transplantation, sirolimus combined with other immunosuppressive drugs has proven to be a powerful immunosuppressant capable of preventing acute graft rejection, as well as of improving renal function, renal histology, and graft survival when compared with immunosuppressive regimens that include calcineurin inhibitors. The valuable experience gained through many clinical studies allows clinicians to plan sirolimus use. We present a review of the clinical experience and literature review on the use of sirolimus in the first 12 months posttransplantation.