[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel, predominantly expressed by peripheral sensory neurones, which is known to play a key role in the detection of noxious painful stimuli, such as capsaicin, acid and heat. To date, a number of antagonists have been used to study the physiological role of TRPV1; however, antagonists such as capsazepine are somewhat compromised by non-selective actions at other receptors and apparent modality-specific properties. SB-366791 is a novel, potent, and selective, cinnamide TRPV1 antagonist isolated via high-throughput screening of a large chemical library. In a FLIPR-based Ca(2+)-assay, SB-366791 produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the response to capsaicin with an apparent pK(b) of 7.74 +/- 0.08. Schild analysis indicated a competitive mechanism of action with a pA2 of 7.71. In electrophysiological experiments, SB-366791 was demonstrated to be an effective antagonist of hTRPV1 when activated by different modalities, such as capsaicin, acid or noxious heat (50 degrees C). Unlike capsazepine, SB-366791 was also an effective antagonist vs. the acid-mediated activation of rTRPV1. With the aim of defining a useful tool compound, we also profiled SB-366791 in a wide range of selectivity assays. SB-366791 had a good selectivity profile exhibiting little or no effect in a panel of 47 binding assays (containing a wide range of G-protein-coupled receptors and ion channels) and a number of electrophysiological assays including hippocampal synaptic transmission and action potential firing of locus coeruleus or dorsal raphe neurones. Furthermore, unlike capsazepine, SB-366791 had no effect on either the hyperpolarisation-activated current (I(h)) or Voltage-gated Ca(2+)-channels (VGCC) in cultured rodent sensory neurones. In summary, SB-366791 is a new TRPV1 antagonist with high potency and an improved selectivity profile with respect to other commonly used TRPV1 antagonists. SB-366791 may therefore prove to be a useful tool to further study the biology of TRPV1.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuronal networks of the hippocampal CA3 region generate stereotyped patterns of electrical activity in response to activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) that consist of intermittent episodes of prolonged oscillatory activity. In light of the slow kinetics of such network responses, we investigated the possible contribution of the hyperpolarisation-activated inward current (I(h)) in the generation and maintenance of hippocampal oscillatory states. Hippocampal 'mini-slice' experiments in which the main subfields of the hippocampus were isolated by transection of the connecting afferents revealed that the CA3 region was the primary generator of both mGluR and mAChR-mediated network responses. Subsequent patch-clamp experiments confirmed the presence of a prominent hyperpolarisation-activated inward current in the principal cells of the CA3 region that was sensitive to caesium chloride and the selective I(h) blocker ZD-7288.Furthermore, in the presence of mAChR or mGluR agonists these cells exhibited a slow membrane potential oscillation that was independent of AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. Blockade of I(h) suppressed this oscillation as well as mGluR and mAChR-induced theta based intermittent network oscillatory behaviour. These data support the idea that the I(h) pacemaker current is important in the generation of patterned neuronal activities in the hippocampus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrophysiological recordings from identified noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurones in rat brain slices have revealed that the orexins can cause direct and reversible depolarisation of the postsynaptic membrane. Whilst it is known that the membrane depolarisation produced by orexin-A can triple the firing rate of spontaneously active LC neurones, quantitative pharmacological analysis that determines the receptor subtype(s) mediating the orexinergic response has not yet been performed. Here we demonstrate that the effects of orexin-A are five-fold more potent than orexin-B on LC neuronal excitability. We show further that the orexin receptor antagonist SB-334867-A inhibits the effects of both agonists with pK(B) values similar to those calculated for human OX1 receptors expressed in CHO cells. Finally, we found no evidence for tonic activation of OX1 receptors in LC noradrenergic neurones despite electron microscopic evidence that orexin terminals directly contact these neurones. These data demonstrate that SB-334867-A is a useful tool compound with which to study the physiology of OX1 receptors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent cloning of two GABA(B) receptor subunits, GABA(B1) and GABA(B2), has raised the possibility that differences in GABA(B) receptor subunit composition may give rise to pharmacologically or functionally distinct receptors. If present, such molecular diversity could permit the selective targeting of GABA(B) receptor subtypes specifically involved in pathologies such as drug addiction, spasticity, pain, and epilepsy. To address these issues we have developed a GABA(B1) subunit knockout mouse using gene targeting techniques. In the brains of GABA(B1) null mice, all pre- and postsynaptic GABA(B) receptor function was absent demonstrating that the GABA(B1) subunit is essential for all GABA(B) receptor-mediated mechanisms. Despite this, GABA(B1) null mice appeared normal at birth, although by postnatal week four their growth was retarded and they developed a generalized epilepsy that resulted in premature death. In addition, GABA(B1) heterozygote animals showed enhanced prepulse inhibition responses compared to littermate controls, suggesting that GABA(B1) deficient mice exhibit increased sensorimotor gating mechanisms. These data suggest that GABA(B) receptor antagonists may be of benefit in the treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders in which attentional processing is impaired.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 07/2001; 17(6):1059-70. · 3.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 5-HT3 receptor is a transmitter-gated ion channel of the Cys-loop superfamily. Uniquely, 5-HT3 receptor subunits (5-HT3A and 5-HT3B) possess a positively charged lysine residue within the putative channel lining M2 domain (4' position). Using whole cell recording techniques, we examined the role of this residue in receptor function using wild-type (WT) and mutant 5-HT3A receptor subunits of murine origin transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. WT 5-HT3A receptors mediated rapidly activating currents in response to 5-HT (10-90 % rise time, 103 ms; EC50, 2.34 microM; Hill coefficient, nH, 2.87). The currents rectified inwardly, reversed in sign at a potential of -9 mV and desensitized in the continuous presence of agonist (half-time of desensitization, t(1/2), 2.13 s). 5-HT3A receptor subunits in which the 4'lysine was mutated to arginine, glutamine, serine or glycine formed functional receptors. 5-HT EC50 values were approximately 2-fold lower than for WT 5-HT3A receptors, but Hill coefficients, kinetics of current activation, rectification, and reversal potentials were unaltered. Each of the mutants desensitized more slowly than the WT 5-HT3A receptor, with the arginine and glycine mutations exhibiting the greatest effect (5-fold reduction). The rank order of effect was arginine > glycine > serine > glutamine. The single-channel conductance of the WT 5-HT3A receptor, as assessed by fluctuation analysis of macroscopic currents, was 390 fS. A similar value was obtained for the 4'lysine mutant receptors. Thus it appears unlikely that 4'lysine is exposed to the channel lumen. Mutation of residues immediately adjacent to 4'lysine to glutamate or lysine resulted in lack of receptor expression or function. We conclude that 4'lysine does not form part of the channel lining, but may play an important role in 5-HT3 receptor desensitization.
The Journal of Physiology 02/2000; 522 Pt 2:187-98. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of GABA(B) autoreceptors in the regulation of GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor-mediated inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (IPSPs) during repetitive synaptic activation has been established. In the present study the role of these receptors in the regulation of depolarising GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic potentials (DPSP(A)s) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus is documented. Following blockade of AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic excitation, DPSP(A)s could be evoked by a single stimulus. The size of this response was enhanced by increasing the stimulus number (1-10 shocks) or stimulus frequency (10-100 Hz). Conversely, the amplitude of the DPSP(A) was dramatically reduced by a priming pulse (single shock) or priming burst (four shocks) delivered 200 ms beforehand. This activity-dependent depression was eliminated by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP 35348 (1 mM). As such, GABA(B) autoreceptor-mediated regulation of DPSP(A)s prevented a pronounced, potentially epileptogenic, DPSP(A) from occurring during theta burst stimulation. Thus, during repetitive stimulation, activation of GABA(B) autoreceptors not only enables a transient reduction in GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition sufficient to enable NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity [Davies, C.H., Collingridge, G.L., 1996. J. Physiol. 496.2, 451-470] but also prevents the development of a potentially pathogenic depolarising GABA-mediated synaptic potential.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. The pharmacological and biophysical properties of a recombinant 5-HT3 receptor have been studied by use of patch-clamp techniques applied to HEK 293 cells stably transfected with the murine 5-HT3 R-A cDNA. 2. At a holding potential of -60 mV, 77% of cells investigated responded to ionophoretically applied 5-HT with an inward current. Such currents were unaffected by methysergide (1 microM), or ketanserin (1 microM), but were antagonized in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner by the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron (IC50 = 440 pM) and the non-selective antagonists (+)-tubocurarine (IC50 = 1.8 nM) and metoclopramide (IC50 50 nM). 3. The 5-HT-induced current reversed in sign (E5-HT) at approximately -2mV and exhibited inward rectification. The influence of extra- and intracellular ion substitutions upon E5-HT indicates the 5-HT-evoked current to be mainly mediated by a mixed monovalent cation conductance. 4. Calcium and magnesium (0.1-10 nM) produced a concentration-dependent, voltage-independent, inhibition of the 5-HT-induced response. Zinc (0.3-300 microM) exerted a biphasic effect with low concentrations enhancing, and high concentrations depressing, the 5-HT-evoked current. 5. Fluctuation analysis of inward currents evoked by a low (1 microM) concentration of 5-HT suggests the current to be mediated by the opening of channels with a conductance of 420 fS. 6. The pharmacological and biophysical properties of the 5-HT3 R-A are similar to those previously described for 5-HT3 receptors native to murine neuroblastoma cell lines, with the exception that the function of the recombinant receptor was enhanced by low concentrations of zinc. This observation suggests that the properties of the native receptor are not completely represented by the 5-HT3 R-A subunit alone.
British Journal of Pharmacology 04/1995; 114(6):1211-21. · 5.07 Impact Factor