[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied 4,058 subjects from a representative sample of the Singapore population 1) to determine the association between the S447X polymorphism at the LPL locus and serum lipid concentration in Chinese, Malays, and Asian Indians living in Singapore and 2) to explore any interactions with apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, exercise, obesity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol intake. Information on obesity, lifestyle factors (including smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise frequency), glucose tolerance, and fasting lipids was obtained. Male and female carriers of the X447 allele had lower serum triglyceride concentrations and higher HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. The association between the X447 allele and serum HDL-C concentration was modulated by APOE genotype in males and cigarette smoking and alcohol intake in females. The effect of the X447 allele was greatest in men who carried the E4 allele and women who smoked or consumed alcohol. The X447 allele at the LPL locus is common and associated with a less atherogenic lipid profile in Asian populations. Interactions with APOE genotype, cigarette smoking, and alcohol intake reinforce the importance of examining genetic associations, such as this one, in the context of the population of interest.
The Journal of Lipid Research 07/2004; 45(6):1132-9. · 4.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A substantial number of physicians in Asian countries believe that Asian patients need lower doses of statins to achieve therapeutic lipid target because of the smaller size of patients. This belief is deep rooted and we looked at the SGH Lipid Clinic to determine if our experience bears out this belief. Between 1996 and August 2000, the Lipid Unit treated a total of 841 patients, of which 548 patients (77.5% Chinese, 12.1% Malays, 7.6% Asian Indians; 49.6% males, 50.4% females; 54.7% diabetics, 45.3% non-diabetic) were on statins alone. These patients had > or =2 coronary risk factors, diabetes mellitus or documented coronary heart disease. The pre-treatment lipid levels or the worst lipid levels available were entered as the baseline lipid values (mean LDL-C: 5.38+1.5 mmol/l). Duration of therapy ranged from six months to five years. The choice and titration of statins were determined by attending physicians. The median statin dose (Simvastatin equivalent) was 20.0 mg with 52.5% requiring 20 mg or more. Statin dose did not differ between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. The median statin dose was 15 mg for the lower two tertiles and 20 mg for the upper tertile; this difference did not achieve statistical significance. The reduction in LDL cholesterol was 41.5% (40.1-42.8) and total cholesterol was 33.0% (32.9-34.1). Only 25% of our patients achieved LDL cholesterol of less than 2.6 mmol/l whilst 77.5% had LDL cholesterol less than 3.4 mmol/l. Our experience at the Lipid Clinic suggests that the Asian patients require similar statin doses to achieve target cholesterol levels.
Singapore medical journal 01/2004; 44(12):635-8. · 0.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum lipid concentrations are modulated by environmental factors such as exercise, alcohol intake, smoking, obesity and dietary intake and genetic factors. Polymorphisms at the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) locus have consistently shown a significant association with total and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). However, their impact on HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) may be population dependent. Having three major ethnic groups within a similar social environment allows us to study the role of genetics and their interactions with lifestyle factors on the serum lipid profile and coronary risk in Asians.
This study included 1740 males (1146 Chinese, 327 Malays and 267 Asian Indians) and 1950 females (1329 Chinese, 360 Malays and 261 Asian Indians) with complete data on anthropometric indices, fasting lipids, smoking status, alcohol consumption, exercise frequency and genotype at the APOE locus.
Malays and Asian Indians were more obese compared with the Chinese. Smoking was uncommon in all females but Malay males had significantly higher prevalence of smokers. Malays had the highest LDL-C whilst Indians had the lowest HDL-C, The epsilon 3 allele was the most frequent allele in all three ethnic groups. Malays had the highest frequency of epsilon 4 (0.180 and 0.152) compared with Chinese (0.085 and 0.087) and Indians (0.108 and 0.075) in males and females, respectively. The epsilon 2 allele was the least common in Asian Indians. Total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C was highest in epsilon 4 carriers and lowest in epsilon 2 carriers. The reverse was seen in HDL-C with the highest levels seen in epsilon 2 subjects. The association between ethnic group and HDL-C differed according to APOE genotype and gender. Asian Indians had the lowest HDL-C for each APOE genotype except in Asian Indian males with epsilon 2, where HDL-C concentrations were intermediate between Chinese and Malays.
Ethnic differences in lipid profile could be explained in part by the higher prevalence of epsilon 4 in the Malays. Ethnicity may influence the association between APOE genotypes and HDL-C. APOE genotype showed no correlation with HDL-C in Malay males whereas the association in Asian Indians was particularly marked. Further studies of interactions between genes and environmental factors will contribute to the understanding of differences of coronary risk amongst ethnic groups.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe three patients who developed small fibre neuropathy after 1 month of statin therapy with clinical resolution upon prompt drug withdrawal. All patients showed abnormal sympathetic skin responses (SSR) in comparison with controls. SSRs returned to normal in tandem with clinical improvement. One patient redeveloped small and large fibre neuropathy when the similar drug was readministered. The SSR is of value in the electrophysiological assessment and follow-up of statin-related small fibre neuropathy.
Journal of the Neurological Sciences 05/2003; 208(1-2):105-8. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Singapore population comprises Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians. Within this population, Asian Indians have the highest rates of coronary heart disease, whereas Chinese have the lowest. Conversely, Indians have the lowest high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, followed by Malays and Chinese. We studied the TaqIB and -629C>A polymorphisms at the CETP locus in 1300 Chinese, 364 Malay and 282 Asian Indian men, and in 1558 Chinese, 397 Malay and 306 Asian Indian women, to determine whether these polymorphisms are responsible for the ethnic difference in HDL-C concentration. The frequency of the B2 allele in Chinese, Malays and Indians was 0.384, 0.339 and 0.449 in men, and 0.379, 0.329 and 0.415 in women, respectively (p < 0.001). For the A-629 allele, the relative frequencies were 0.477, 0.423 and 0.592 in men and 0.486, 0.416 and 0.575 in women (p < 0.001). The two polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium (D / Dmax= 0.9772, p < 0.00001). The B2 and the A-629 alleles were associated with increased HDL-C concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. The B2 allele continued to show an association with HDL-C concentration, even after controlling for the genotype at position -629. Dietary cholesterol showed a significant interaction with the TaqIB polymorphism in determining HDL-C concentrations in Indians and Malays, but not in Chinese. In conclusion, the high frequencies of these polymorphisms in Asian Indians could not explain the observed ethnic differences in HDL-C concentration. Moreover, we observed an ethnic-specific interaction among dietary cholesterol, the TaqIB polymorphism and HDL-C concentrations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic subjects of different ethnic groups, and between new and known diabetic subjects, in the Singapore National Health Survey '92.
Disproportionate stratified sampling followed by systematic sampling were used in 3568 (total) respondents of whom 2743 were non-diabetics, 179 newly diagnosed diabetics and 150 known diabetics. Amongst the diabetics, there were 185 Chinese, 66 Malays and 78 Asian Indians. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) was based on the 2 h glucose alone, after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, glucose, insulin and anthropometric indices were obtained from all subjects.
Subjects with diabetes (new and known) exhibited significantly higher triglyceride (TG), lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein (LDL)/apolipoprotein B (apo B) ratio (LDL size) compared with normoglycaemic subjects. They were more obese (generalised and central) and had higher systolic and diastolic BP. There was no difference in lipid risk factors between the two groups with diabetes although those with new diabetes were more obese whilst those with known diabetes had higher fasting glucose. Amongst subjects with diabetes, there were no significant differences between ethnic groups in TG, HDL-C, LDL/apo B ratio, or waist to hip ratio (WHR). Female Malays with diabetes had higher total cholesterol and were more obese whilst male Asian Indians with diabetes had higher fasting insulin.
Asian Indians had lower HDL-C and LDL/apo B ratio than Chinese or Malays amongst normoglycaemic subjects. However, these differences between ethnic groups were not seen in subjects with DM.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 (FDB) represent ligand-receptor disorders that are complementary. Individuals with both FH and FDB are unusual. We report a family with both disorders and the impact of the mutations on the phenotypes of the family members.
We used single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for genetic analysis of all 18 exons and the promoter region of the LDL receptor and DGGE for genetic analysis of the apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B-100) gene. The functional significance of the apo B-100 mutation was studied using a U937 cell proliferation assay. Fasting serum lipid profiles were determined for the index case and seven first-degree relatives.
One of the patient's sisters had a missense mutation (Asp(407)-->Lys) in exon 9 of the LDL receptor and a serum LDL-cholesterol concentration of 4.07 mmol/L. Four other first-degree relatives had hyperlipidemia but no LDL-receptor mutation. However, these subjects had a mutation of the apo B-100 gene (Arg(3500)-->Trp). The cell proliferation rate of U937 cells fed with LDL from other subjects with the same mutation was fourfold less than that of controls. The index case had both FH- and FDB-related mutations. Her serum LDL-cholesterol (9.47 mmol/L) was higher than all other relatives tested.
Existence of both FH and FDB should be considered in families with LDL-receptor mutations in some but not all individuals with hypercholesterolemia or when some individuals in families with FH exhibit exaggerated hypercholesterolemia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of micronised fenofibrate on lipids and low density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction in well-controlled diabetic subjects with mild elevations in cholesterol levels.
Thirty-five male type 2 diabetic subjects with LDL(3) greater than 100 mg/dl and good glycemic control (mean HbA1c 6.7%) were treated with micronised fenofibrate in an open labeled study for 6 months. Anthropometric indices, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, insulin, apolipoprotein A-I and B, and LDL subfraction by density ultracentrifugation were obtained after an overnight fast of 10 h, at the beginning and end of the 6 months treatment period.
The blood pressure, waist to hip ratio, body mass index and glycemic control remained unchanged throughout the 6 months study period. Mean serum triglyceride fell from 2.49 to 1.72 mmol/l (33%) whilst HDL cholesterol increased from 0.88 to 0.96 mmol/l (10.8%). There were no significant changes in total or LDL cholesterol. Both LDL(1) and LDL(2) rose significantly whilst the dense LDL(3) fell from a mean of 148 to 85 mg/dl (43% reduction). Fenofibrate changed the LDL subfraction distribution from dense LDL(3) particles towards buoyant LDL(1) and LDL(2) particles in 63% of the subjects. No subjects had elevations in transaminases greater than three-fold or creatine kinase greater than ten-fold from pre-treatment levels.
Diabetic subjects with mild hypercholesterolemia and good glycemic control may benefit from therapy with micronised fenofibrate because of the reduction in serum triglyceride, elevation in HDL cholesterol and a shift in LDL subfraction towards a non-atherogenic form.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of Absorbitol on body weight, anthropometry, body composition, blood pressures and lipid profiles in obese, hypercholesterolaemic subjects without dietary restriction.
A randomised, double blind. Placebo-controlled study.
Normal volunteers with no history of chronic illnesses (n=88) who were obese (body fat percentage > 20% in males and > 30% in females) and hypercholesterolaemic (total cholesterol > 5.20 mmol/L). Sixty-eight (72.3%) subjects completed the study.
After a 4 week run in phase, 4 placebo/Absorbitol (250 mg) capsules were prescribed 3 times a day before meals. Subjects received written information on healthy lifestyle but there was no dietary restriction or monitoring.
Weight, body mass index, lean body mass, waist, hip, blood pressure, fasting lipids and insulin levels were taken at baseline, 4th and 16th week of the study.
Analyses were on an intention-to-treat basis. Comparisons between groups were made using Student's t and Mann-Whitney tests for parametric and non-parametric data respectively.
There was no significant change in the measured parameters in Absorbitol treated subjects compared to those on placebo, with exception of HDL-cholesterol which increased in the absorbitol group and decreased in the placebo group (p=0.048). The side effects of Absorbitol were also comparable to that of placebo.
In the absence of dietary surveillance, Absorbitol does not bring about improvement in weight, anthropometry, body composition, blood pressure or lipid profile.
Singapore medical journal 02/2001; 42(1):6-10. · 0.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare cardiovascular risk factors and LDL particle size in well-controlled Type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal subjects.
Ninety-three Type 2 diabetic males and 186 age-matched, male controls were studied. Glycaemic control was stable for at least 3 months prior to recruitment. None were on insulin or lipid lowering therapy. Anthropometric indices, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, insulin, apolipoprotein A1 and B, LDL subfraction by density ultracentrifugation were obtained after an overnight fast of 10 h.
Diabetic subjects (mean HbA(1c) 6.6%+/-0.10) did not differ from controls in total cholesterol levels (5.04+/-0.08 vs. 5.16+/-0.05 mmol/l, respectively) but had lower serum HDL cholesterol (0.98+/-0.03 vs. 1.12+/-0.02 mmol/l, P<0.001), higher serum triglyceride (2.38+/-0.16 vs. 1.80+/-0.08 mmol/l, P<0.001), lower LDL(1) and LDL(2) and higher LDL(3) concentration. An LDL(3) concentration exceeding 100 mg/dl was found in 59.1% of diabetics and 39.1% of non-diabetics (P<0.001). Diabetic subjects also had higher body mass index, waist to hip ratio and insulin resistance (HOMA). Difference in LDL subfraction between groups disappeared after adjustments were made for either triglyceride or HDL cholesterol.
Well controlled Type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects exhibit an increased cardiovascular burden through low HDL cholesterol and predominance of small, dense LDL particles.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 02/2001; 51(2):107-14. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the new American Diabetes Association (ADA) fasting plasma glucose (FPG) criteria to the 1985 World Health Organization (WHO) 2-h post glucose (2hPG) criteria when used for screening of those with no prior history of diabetes mellitus.
The study included 3,407 subjects without a history of diabetes in whom both FPG and 2hPG were available from the 1992 Singapore National Health Survey. The agreement (kappa) between FPG and 2hPG for the diagnosis of DM was assessed. The optimal cut-off of FPG for the detection of individuals with 2hPG > or = 11.1 mmol/l was determined by receiver-operating characteristics analysis.
The prevalence of diabetes diagnosed by FPG alone was 7.3% compared to 8.4% diagnosed by 2hPG. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 8.0%. FPG and 2hPG showed moderate agreement (kappa = 0.646, 95% confidence interval 0.584-0.708). Age, ethnic group and obesity did not affect the degree of agreement. Of those with 2hPG > or = 11.1 mmol/l, 40.8% had FPG in the non-diabetic range while 24.8% of those with FG > or = 7.0 mmol/l had 2hPG in the non-diabetic range. The optimal FPG for the detection of 2hPG > or =11.1 mmol/l was 6.1 mmol/l. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) in those with 6.0 mmol/ < FPG < 7.0 mmol/l resulted in the diagnosis of diabetes in 90.7% of individuals at risk of microvascular complications.
FPG provides a simple screening test for diabetes, which shows moderate agreement with the 2hPG. A two-step strategy of OGTT in those with impaired fasting glucose improves the detection of at-risk individuals. However, diabetes should not be diagnosed on a single test. The test should be repeated on another day if an individual tests positive for diabetes.
Diabetic Medicine 11/2000; 17(11):771-5. · 3.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied insulin resistance and beta-cell function with reference to ethnic group, glucose tolerance and other coronary artery disease risk factors in a cross section of the Singapore population which comprises Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians. 3568 individuals aged 18-69 were examined. Blood pressure, anthropometric data, blood lipids, glucose and insulin were assayed in the fasting state. Glucose and serum insulin were measured 2 h after an oral glucose challenge. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function were calculated using homeostasis model assessment. Asian Indians had higher insulin resistance than Chinese or Malays. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM) were associated with greater insulin resistance and impaired beta-cell function compared to normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Insulin resistance was positively correlated with blood pressure in women and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride in both men and women. It was negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol and LDL/apolipoprotein B ratio. beta-cell function showed no significant correlations with the cardiovascular risk factors studied. It appears that both impaired beta-cell function and insulin resistance are important for the development of hyperglycemia whereas insulin resistance alone seems more important in the development of coronary artery disease as it correlates with several known coronary artery disease risk factors.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 09/2000; 49(2-3):159-68. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To systematically examine the correlations between insulin resistance, plasma leptin concentration, obesity and the distribution of fat assessed by anthropometry and magnetic resonance imaging in Asian women.
A cross sectional study of non-diabetic, normal weight women.
Twenty-one healthy women aged 38.8 y (s.d. 11.7) and BMI 22.6 kg/m2 (s.d. 2.3).
Intraperitoneal, retroperitoneal and subcutaneous abdominal fat volume was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Anthropometric data were collected. Total fat mass was assessed by bioelectric impedance analysis. Fasting serum lipids, insulin and plasma leptin were assayed.
Generalized obesity correlated with subcutaneous abdominal fat mass (r=0.83, P<0.001), but not with intra-abdominal fat mass. Both intraperitoneal fat mass and retroperitoneal fat mass increased with age (r=0.58, P=0.005 and r=0. 612, P=0.003, respectively). Abdominal subcutaneous fat mass was the most important determinant of insulin resistance and plasma leptin. Of the serum lipids, only fasting triglyceride correlated significantly with the waist-to-hip ratio.
It is possible that the large size of the subcutaneous depot compared to the intra-abdominal depot overwhelms any metabolic differences between adipose tissue from these two sites, resulting in the stronger correlation between insulin resistance and subcutaneous abdominal fat mass rather than intra-abdominal fat mass. On the other hand, the distribution of fat between subcutaneous fat depots may be important in the metabolic syndrome given the correlation of fasting triglyceride with waist to hip ratio but not with abdominal fat. However, the study population was small, younger and leaner compared to previous studies and we may not be able to generalize these results to all segments of the population. We confirm that subcutaneous fat mass is the major determinant of plasma leptin.
International Journal of Obesity 07/2000; 24(6):751-7. · 5.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 1997, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommended a new diagnostic category, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), to describe individuals with borderline glucose tolerance. On the other hand, the World Health Organization (WHO) suggested retaining the category of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We studied the prevalence of IFG and IGT in a multiethnic society and compared the cardiovascular risk profiles of subjects with IFG, IGT, or both IFG and IGT.
A total of 3,568 subjects were examined from the 1992 National Health Survey of Singapore, which involved a combination of disproportionately stratified sampling and systematic sampling. Anthropometric, blood pressure, insulin, lipid profile, and uric acid measurements were taken, and a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed after a 10-h overnight fast.
The prevalence rates of IFG only, IGT only, and both IFT and IGT were 3.45, 10.2, and 3.4%, respectively. The degree of agreement (kappa) between the two diagnostic criteria (the ADA IFG and the WHO IGT) was only 0.25. A fasting glucose level of 5.5 mmol/l was the optimal cutoff for predicting a 2-h postload glucose level of > or =7.8 mmol/l. The following cardiovascular risk factors were higher in subjects with both IFG and IGT compared with those with either IFG or IGT alone: systolic blood pressure (131 +/- 20 vs. 125 +/- 21 and 125 +/- 19 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively); diastolic blood pressure (77 +/- 12 vs. 73 +/- 12 and 74 +/- 12 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05); BMI (26.2 +/- 4.2 vs. 24.4 +/- 4.0 and 24.6 +/- 4.4 kg/m2, respectively; P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively); waist circumference (84.1 +/- 10.3 vs. 79.3 +/- 10.7 and 79.3 +/- 10.6 cm, respectively; P < 0.001); waist-to-hip ratio (0.84 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.82 +/- 0.09 and 0.81 +/- 0.08, respectively; P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively); fasting insulin (12.1 +/- 9.7 vs. 9.2 +/- 5.3 and 9.9 +/- 7.7 mU/l; P < 0.01); insulin resistance (by homeostasis model assessment [HOMA]) (3.41 +/- 2.77 vs. 2.58 +/- 1.50 and 2.43 +/- 1.83, respectively; P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively); total cholesterol (5.81 +/- 1.1 vs. 5.51 +/- 1.1 and 5.53 +/- 1.1 mmol/l, respectively; P < 0.05) and apolipoprotein(B) [apo(B)] (1.5 +/- 0.38 vs. 1.40 +/- 0.34 and 1.39 +/- 0.35 mmol/l, respectively; P < 0.01). The pattern of difference remained significant only for fasting insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA), and apo(B) (borderline) after adjustment for age, sex, and ethnic differences.
Obvious discordance was evident in the classification of glycemic status when applying the criteria proposed by the ADA (IFG) or WHO (IGT) in a multiethnic society like Singapore. However, subjects with either IFG or IGT had similar cardiovascular risk profiles. Therefore, both criteria identified individuals at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Individuals with both IFG and IGT had a greater incidence of the cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome.
Diabetes Care 03/2000; 23(3):278-82. · 7.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of an 80-year-old man with osteoblastic metastases from advanced carcinoma of the prostate presenting with a grand mal seizure resulting from severe hypocalcaemia. He had low serum phosphate and ionised calcium levels, elevated serum skeletal alkaline phosphatase and intact parathormone levels. 99mTc radioisotope bone scan revealed a "super bone scan" suggestive of osteomalacia. The serum 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol level was unexpectedly elevated. The biochemical abnormalities persisted despite high dose calcium replacement, but improved with supraphysiological doses of 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 (Rocaltrol) therapy. We hypothesise that the hypocalcaemia in this patient was due to vitamin D resistance secondary to a humoral factor secreted by the tumour.
Singapore medical journal 03/2000; 41(2):74-6. · 0.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with increased coronary artery disease risk. This is at least partially mediated by increased prevalence of other risk factors such as dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. Various anthropometric indices have been used to quantify generalised and central obesity. Correlations between these measurements and risk factors are specific to the population and findings cannot be extrapolated to other ethnic groups. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) is a simple means of estimating percentage body fat. We compared body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and percentage body fat measure by BIA as predictors of fasting lipid profiles and insulin resistance in 109 Singaporean Chinese. BMI was significantly correlated with insulin resistance and there appeared to be a threshold at 26 kg/m2 above which the regression line became more steep. WHR best predicted fasting triglyceride in both men and women. In women, it was inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol. A similar association was seen in men but this did not reach statistical significance. We conclude that measurement of BMI and WHR should be part of the assessment of cardiovascular risk in our population as they connote different aspects of risk. BIA was not found to be a useful tool for the prediction of coronary artery disease risk factors in our population.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore 06/1999; 28(3):445-50. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with isolated low HDL cholesterol are at increased risk of coronary artery disease. It has been reported previously that this is an insulin-resistant state. We analyzed data from the 1992 Singapore National Health Survey with the objective of defining the clinical and metabolic parameters associated with isolated low HDL cholesterol. A total of 3,568 individuals were selected by stratified random sampling. Subjects with low HDL cholesterol (<0.9 mmol/l) and "ideal" total cholesterol (<5.2 mmol/l) were identified. Data on anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), insulin resistance, glucose tolerance, sex, smoking habit, and ethnic group were examined. We found that this group was heterogeneous. Those with fasting triglyceride (TG) >1.7 mmol/l (low HDL/high TG) displayed features of the insulin resistance syndrome characterized by obesity, higher diastolic BP, greater insulin resistance, and a greater tendency to have diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). If fasting TG was <1.7 mmol/l (isolated low HDL cholesterol), individuals were similar to the general population in terms of insulin resistance and obesity. Both groups were more commonly men and Asian Indian. The ethnic difference in prevalence could not be explained by differences in diet, exercise, alcohol ingestion, or smoking. Our data support the view that Asian Indians are genetically predisposed to isolated low HDL cholesterol as well as the insulin resistance syndrome. The higher prevalence of isolated low HDL cholesterol, the young age at which individuals exhibit this phenotype (mean age 32.5 years), along with the greater propensity for Asian Indians to develop insulin resistance and IGT contribute to the threefold increased incidence of myocardial infarction in those <65 years of age in this ethnic group.