[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) administered according to its licensed vaccination schedule (3-dose, 3D) and formulation (20 μg of each HPV antigen; 20/20F) has previously been demonstrated. This partially-blind, controlled, randomized trial (NCT00541970) evaluated 2-dose (2D) schedules using the licensed 20/20F or an alternative formulation containing 40 μg of each antigen (40/40F), compared with the licensed 3D schedule. Healthy females stratified by age (9-14, 15-19, 20-25 y) were randomized to receive 2 doses of 20/20F at Months (M) 0,6 (n=240), 40/40F at M0,6 (n=241) or 40/40F at M0,2 (n=240), or 3 doses of 20/20F at M0,1,6 (licensed schedule/formulation, n=239). One month after the last dose, the 3D schedule was not immunologically superior to 2D schedules except in the 40/40F M0,2 group for HPV-16 (lower limit of 95% CI geometric mean antibody titer (GMT) ratio [2D/3D] < 0.5). For both HPV-16 and HPV-18, the 2D schedules in girls 9-14 y were immunologically non-inferior to the 3D schedule in women 15-25 y (the age group in which efficacy has been demonstrated) (upper limit of 95% CI for GMT ratio [3D/2D] < 2) one month after the last dose. At Month 24, non-inferiority was maintained for the 2D M0,6 schedules in girls 9-14 y versus the 3D schedule in women 15-25 y. All formulations had acceptable reactogenicity and safety profiles. These results indicate that the HPV-16/18 vaccine on a 2D M0,6 schedule is immunogenic and generally well tolerated in girls 9-14 y and that the 2D schedule is likely adequate for younger females.
Human vaccines 12/2011; 7(12):1374-86. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The balance between the pain relief provided by opioid analgesics and the side effects caused by such agents is of particular significance to patients who take opioids for the long-term relief of non-cancer pain. The spectrum of signs and symptoms affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract associated with opioid use is known as opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Alvimopan is an orally administered, systemically available, peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor (PAM-OR) antagonist, approved in the US for the management of postoperative ileus in patients undergoing bowel resection (short-term, in-hospital use only). Alvimopan was under clinical development for long-term treatment of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) but this program has been discontinued. This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, part of the former OIC development program, enrolled patients (N = 485) receiving opioids for non-cancer pain. Patients were randomized to receive alvimopan .5 mg once daily, alvimopan .5 mg twice daily, or placebo, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients who experienced ≥ 3 spontaneous bowel movements (SBMs; bowel movements with no laxative use in the previous 24 hours) per week over the treatment period, and an average increase from baseline of ≥ 1 SBM per week. There were greater proportions of SBM responders in both alvimopan treatment groups (63% in both groups) compared with placebo (56%), although these differences were not statistically significant. Secondary efficacy analyses indicated that alvimopan was numerically superior to placebo in improving opioid-induced bowel dysfunction symptoms and patients' global assessment of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, and reduced the requirement for rescue laxatives. Active treatment was well tolerated and alvimopan did not antagonize opioid analgesia. PERSPECTIVE: Although the primary endpoint was not met in this study, the magnitude of alvimopan-induced improvements versus baseline, together with previous study results, suggest that a PAM-OR antagonist has the potential to improve OIC.
The journal of pain: official journal of the American Pain Society 02/2011; 12(2):175-84. · 3.78 Impact Factor