Bruce Budowle

King Abdulaziz University, Djidda, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

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Publications (429)1047.39 Total impact

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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Allele frequencies for 15 autosomal STR loci (N = 290) and haplotype data for 17 Y-STR loci (N = 157) were determined for an admixed population from Belize. There were no detectable departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations at any autosomal STR loci except for the D8S1179 locus (p = 0.002). The combined power of discrimination (PD) and combined power of exclusion (PE) were greater than 0.99999999 and 0.99999951, respectively. In addition, a total of 144 distinct Y-STR haplotypes were observed with 133 Y-STR haplotypes observed only once. The most common Y-STR haplotype was observed three times for two separate haplotypes. The various analyses of these forensically relevant STR loci showed that these markers are informative in the Belize population for forensic and parentage testing applications.
    International Journal of Legal Medicine 09/2014; · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vuorio A, Laukkala T, Navathe P, Budowle B, Eyre A, Sajantila A. Aircraft-assisted pilot suicides: lessons to be learned. Aviat Space Environ Med 2014; 85:841–6. Aircraft assisted suicides were studied in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Finland during 1956-2012 by means of literature search and accident case analysis. According to our study the frequency varied slightly between the studies. Overall, the new estimate of aircraft assisted suicides in the United States in a 20-yr period (1993-2012) is 0.33% (95% CI 0.21-0.49) (24/7244). In the detailed accident case analysis, it was found that in five out of the eight cases from the United States, someone knew of prior suicidal ideation before the aircraft assisted fatality. The caveats of standard medico-legal autopsy and accident investigation methods in investigation of suspected aircraft assisted suicides are discussed. It is suggested that a psychological autopsy should be performed in all such cases. Also the social context and possibilities of the prevention of aviation-related suicides were analyzed. In addition, some recent aircraft assisted suicides carried out using commercial aircraft during scheduled services and causing many casualties are discussed.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 08/2014; 85(8). · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Short tandem repeat (STR) typing is used routinely for associating or excluding individuals with biological evidence left at a crime scene. Improvements have been made to reduce the turnaround time and labor involved with profile generation, but there is still some lag time between sample collection and interpretation of results. The RapidHIT(®) (IntegenX; Pleasanton, CA, USA) system is an automated instrument that is configured to perform DNA extraction, bead-based DNA normalization, amplification, electrophoresis of PCR amplicons, and data analysis of five reference swabs simultaneously. The RapidHIT system provided reliable STR profiles from reference buccal swabs in approximately 90min with nominal "hands-on" sample loading time with no evidence of contamination between samples. The overall success rate of typing buccal swabs was comparable to standard typing systems. In the event of a failed run due to instrument failure, the swab can be removed from the cartridge and reanalyzed in the RapidHIT system or with standard STR genotyping workflows.
    Forensic science international. Genetics. 07/2014; 13C:104-111.
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    ABSTRACT: Success of DNA typing is related to the amount of target material recovered from an evidentiary item. Generally, the more DNA that is recovered, the better the chance is of obtaining a typing result that will be robust and reliable. One method of collecting stain materials is by swabbing. Recovery of DNA from a number of commercially available swabs is not an efficient process. The X-Swab™ (Diomics Corporation, La Jolla, CA) is a unique bio-specimen collection material with highly absorptive properties and can be dissolved during certain extraction conditions. Therefore, more DNA may be collected from a substrate and be released from the swab matrix than other swabs. The ability to recover DNA from X-Swab material and success in STR typing were compared with the Copan 4N6FLOQSwab™ (Brescia, Italy), a device which utilizes a proprietary flocked-swab technology to maximize DNA collection and elution efficiency. Both types of swabs were impregnated with known amounts of DNA and body fluids and allowed to air dry. In addition, blood was placed onto glass slides, allowed to dry and collected using both types of swabs. DNA recovery was assessed by DNA quantitation and by STR typing. Results suggested that X-Swab material yielded greater DNA recovery, particularly of low quantity samples (defined as diluted neat samples), compared with the 4N6FLOQSwab. Results also indicated that X-Swab material itself enhances yield of PCR products.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics 06/2014; · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA recovery, purity and overall extraction efficiency of a protocol employing a novel silica-based column, Hi-Flow(®) (Generon Ltd., Maidenhead, UK), were compared with that of a standard organic DNA extraction methodology. The quantities of DNA recovered by each method were compared by real-time PCR and quality of DNA by STR typing using the PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 Pro System (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI) on DNA from 10 human bone samples. Overall, the Hi-Flow method recovered comparable quantities of DNA ranging from 0.8ng±1 to 900ng±159 of DNA compared with the organic method ranging from 0.5ng±0.9 to 855ng±156 of DNA. Complete profiles (17/17 loci tested) were obtained for at least one of three replicates for 3/10 samples using the Hi-Flow method and from 2/10 samples with the organic method. All remaining bone samples yielded partial profiles for all replicates with both methods. Compared with a standard organic DNA isolation method, the results indicated that the Hi-Flow method provided equal or improved recovery and quality of DNA without the harmful effects of organic extraction. Moreover, larger extraction volumes (up to 20mL) can be employed with the Hi-Flow method which enabled more bone sample to be extracted at one time.
    Forensic science international. Genetics. 06/2014; 12C:155-160.
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    ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) contains genetic information amenable to numerous applications such as medical research, population and evolutionary studies, and human identity testing. However, inconsistent nomenclature assignment makes haplotype comparison difficult and can lead to false exclusion of potentially useful profiles. Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS) is a platform for sequencing large datasets and potentially whole populations with relative ease. However, the data generated are not easily parsed and interpreted. With this in mind, mitoSAVE has been developed to enable fast conversion of Variant Call Format (VCF) files. mitoSAVE is an Excel-based workbook that converts data within the VCF into mtDNA haplotypes using phylogenetically-established nomenclature as well as rule-based alignments consistent with current forensic standards. mitoSAVE is formatted for human mitochondrial genome; however, it can easily be adapted to support other reasonably small genomes.
    Forensic science international. Genetics. 06/2014; 12C:122-125.
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    ABSTRACT: One parameter that impacts the robustness and reliability of forensic DNA analyses is the amount of template DNA used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). With short tandem repeat (STR) typing, low copy number (LCN) DNA samples can present exaggerated stochastic effects during the PCR that result in heterozygote peak height imbalance, allele drop out, and increased stutter. Despite these effects, there has been little progress toward decreasing the formation of stutter products and heterozygote peak imbalance effects during PCR. In an attempt to develop a more robust system that is less refractory to stochastic effects, the PCR additives, betaine, DMSO, PEG, and PCRboost®, were investigated on low-quantity DNA samples. The effects of the additives were assessed by evaluating STR typing results. Of the four additives, the only positive effects were observed with betaine treatment. Betaine, at a final concentration of 1.25 mol/L, was found to improve the robustness of the amplification, specifically by decreasing stutter in a dual locus system. In contrast, the addition of 1.25 mol/L betaine to commercial STR amplification kits did not affect stutter ratios. However, the addition of betaine did lead to increased yield of PCR products in all commercial kits tested. The results support that betaine can improve amplification efficiency of LCN DNA samples.
    International journal of legal medicine. 05/2014;
  • Forensic Science International: Genetics 05/2014; · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies on DNA damage and repair have involved in vitro laboratory procedures that induce a single type of lesion in naked templates. Although repair of singular, sequestered types of DNA damage has shown some success, forensic and ancient specimens likely contain a number of different types of lesions. This study sought to (1) develop protocols to damage DNA in its native state, (2) generate a pool of candidate samples for repair that more likely emulate authentic forensic samples, and (3) assess the ability of the PreCR(TM) Repair Mix to repair the resultant lesions. Complexed, native DNA is more difficult to damage than naked DNA. Modified procedures included the use of higher concentrations and longer exposure times. Three types of samples, those that demonstrated damage based on short tandem repeat (STR) profile signals, were selected for repair experiments: environmentally damaged bloodstains, bleach-damaged whole blood, and human skeletal remains. Results showed trends of improved performance of STR profiling of bleach-damaged DNA. However, the repair assay did not improve DNA profiles from environmentally damaged bloodstains or bone, and in some cases resulted in lower RFU values for STR alleles. The extensive spectrum of DNA damage and myriad combinations of lesions that can be present in forensic samples appears to pose a challenge for the in vitro PreCR(TM) assay. The data suggest that the use of PreCR in casework should be considered with caution due to the assay's varied results.
    Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 05/2014; · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The GlobalFiler™ Express PCR Amplification Kit uses 6-dye fluorescent chemistry to enable multiplexing of 21 autosomal STRs, 1 Y-STR, 1 Y-indel and the sex-determining marker amelogenin. The kit is specifically designed for processing reference DNA samples in a high throughput manner. Validation studies were conducted to assess the performance and define the limitations of this direct amplification kit for typing blood and buccal reference DNA samples on various punchable collection media. Studies included thermal cycling sensitivity, reproducibility, precision, sensitivity of detection, minimum detection threshold, system contamination, stochastic threshold and concordance. Results showed that optimal amplification and injection parameters for a 1.2 mm punch from blood and buccal samples were 27 and 28 cycles, respectively, combined with a 12 s injection on an ABI 3500xL Genetic Analyzer. Minimum detection thresholds were set at 100 and 120 RFUs for 27 and 28 cycles, respectively, and it was suggested that data from positive amplification controls provided a better threshold representation. Stochastic thresholds were set at 250 and 400 RFUs for 27 and 28 cycles, respectively, as stochastic effects increased with cycle number. The minimum amount of input DNA resulting in a full profile was 0.5 ng, however, the optimum range determined was 2.5–10 ng. Profile quality from the GlobalFiler™ Express Kit and the previously validated AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® Direct Kit was comparable. The validation data support that reliable DNA typing results from reference DNA samples can be obtained using the GlobalFiler™ Express PCR Amplification Kit.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics 05/2014; 10:33-39. · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    Croatian Medical Journal 04/2014; 55(2):163-6. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a worldwide collaborative effort, 19,630 Y-chromosomes were sampled from 129 different populations in 51 countries. These chromosomes were typed for 23 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, GATAH4, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS643) and using the PowerPlex Y23 System (PPY23, Promega Corporation, Madison, WI). Locus-specific allelic spectra of these markers were determined and a consistently high level of allelic diversity was observed. A considerable number of null, duplicate and off-ladder alleles were revealed. Standard single-locus and haplotype-based parameters were calculated and compared between subsets of Y-STR markers established for forensic casework. The PPY23 marker set provides substantially stronger discriminatory power than other available kits but at the same time reveals the same general patterns of population structure as other marker sets. A strong correlation was observed between the number of Y-STRs included in a marker set and some of the forensic parameters under study. Interestingly a weak but consistent trend towards smaller genetic distances resulting from larger numbers of markers became apparent.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics 04/2014; 12:12-23. · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The EX20+4Y System is a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based amplification kit that enables typing of 19 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci (i.e., CSF1PO, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, FGA, TH01, TPOX, vWA, Penta D, Penta E, D2S1338, D19S433, D12S391, D6S1043), four widely used Y chromosome-specific STR (Y-STR) loci (DYS458, DYS456, DYS391, DYS635), and amelogenin. In this study, this multiplex system was validated for sensitivity of detection, DNA mixtures, inhibitor tolerance, species specificity based on the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis methods (SWGDAM) developmental validation guidelines, and the Chinese criteria for the human fluorescent STR multiplex PCR reagent. The results show that the EX20+4 System is a robust and reliable amplification kit which can be used for human identification testing.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics 03/2014; 11C:207-213. · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 120-year-old skeletal remains of Confederate Civil War soldier Captain Ezekiel “Zeke” Harper were exhumed by court order in January 2011 for DNA analysis. The goal of the DNA testing was to support or refute whether Captain Harper had fathered a son (Earl J. Maxwell) with his Native American maid prior to his murder in 1892. Bones with adequate structural integrity (left tibia, right tibia, right femur, mandible, four teeth) were retrieved from the burial site and sent to the Institute of Applied Genetics in Fort Worth, Texas for analysis. Given the age and condition of the remains, three different extraction methods were used to maximize the probability of DNA recovery. The majority of the DNA isolates from over fifty separate bone sections yielded partial autosomal STR genotypes and partial Y-STR haplotypes. After comparing the partial results for concordance, consensus profiles were generated for comparison to reference samples from alleged family members. Considering the genetic recombination that occurs in autosomal DNA over the generations within a family, Y-STR analysis was determined to be the most appropriate and informative approach for determining potential kinship. Two of Earl J. Maxwell’s grandsons submitted buccal samples for comparison. The Y-STR haplotypes obtained from both of these reference samples were identical to each other and to the alleles in Ezekiel Harper’s consensus profile at all 17 loci examined. This Y-STR haplotype was not found in either of two major Y-STR population databases (U.S. Y-STR database and YHRD). The fact that the Y-STR haplotype obtained from Ezekiel’s skeletal remains and Earl’s grandsons is not found in either population database demonstrates its rarity and further supports a paternal lineage relationship among them. Results of the genetic analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that Earl J. Maxwell is the son of Ezekiel Harper.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics 01/2014; · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial DNA typing in forensic genetics has been performed traditionally using Sanger-type sequencing. Consequently sequencing of a relatively-large target such as the mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) is laborious and time consuming. Thus, sequencing typically focuses on the control region due to its high concentration of variation. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has become more accessible in recent years allowing for high-throughput processing of large target areas. In this study, Nextera® XT DNA Sample Preparation Kit and the Illumina MiSeq™ were utilized to generate quality whole genome mitochondrial haplotypes from 283 individuals in a both cost-effective and rapid manner. Results showed that haplotypes can be generated at a high depth of coverage with limited strand bias. The distribution of variants across the mitochondrial genome was described and demonstrated greater variation within the coding region than the non-coding region. Haplotype and haplogroup diversity were described with respect to whole mtGenome and HVI/HVII. An overall increase in haplotype or genetic diversity and random match probability, as well as better haplogroup assignment demonstrates that MPS of the mtGenome using the Illumina MiSeq system is a viable and reliable methodology.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics. 01/2014; 12:128–135.
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    ABSTRACT: Increased height of stutter peaks is a phenomenon with low copy number (LCN) short tandem repeat (STR) typing that can impact interpretation. An alternative strategy of lowering the annealing/extension temperature (LT) at 56°C was designed to attempt to decrease the heights of stutter peaks. STR typing results were generated in terms of stutter ratios using LT-PCR conditions and compared with data obtained using standard (STD) PCR conditions. DNA samples ranging from 100 to 25pg were amplified using reagents contained in the AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) PCR Amplification or AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) Plus PCR Amplification kits with 32 or 34 PCR cycles. Stutter ratios decreased by an average of 14.7%, 14.9% and 18.1% at 100, 50 and 25pg of template DNA under LT conditions compared with those of STD conditions in the Identifiler(®) Kit amplified samples. The LT conditions also decreased average stutter ratios by 13.3% compared with those of STD conditions in the Identifiler(®) Plus Kit amplified samples. The overall PCR efficiency obtained with STD and LT conditions with the two STR kits was comparable in terms of the number of detected alleles, peak heights and peak height ratios. These results support the hypothesis that a lower temperature annealing/extension step reduces the likelihood of slippage during PCR by enhancing the stability of the DNA polymerase/template DNA complex or the stability of the generated duplex than the conditions of the standard extension step. This stability in turn would result in lower stutter ratios.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics 01/2014; 8(1):213-8. · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    Forensic Science International: Genetics. 01/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: DNA recovery, purity and overall extraction efficiency of a protocol employing a novel silica-based column, Hi-Flow® (Generon Ltd., Maidenhead, UK), were compared with that of a standard organic DNA extraction methodology. The quantities of DNA recovered by each method were compared by real-time PCR and quality of DNA by STR typing using the PowerPlex® ESI 17 Pro System (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI) on DNA from 10 human bone samples. Overall, the Hi-Flow method recovered comparable quantities of DNA ranging from 0.8 ng ± 1 to 900 ng ± 159 of DNA compared with the organic method ranging from 0.5 ng ± 0.9 to 855 ng ± 156 of DNA. Complete profiles (17/17 loci tested) were obtained for at least one of three replicates for 3/10 samples using the Hi-Flow method and from 2/10 samples with the organic method. All remaining bone samples yielded partial profiles for all replicates with both methods. Compared with a standard organic DNA isolation method, the results indicated that the Hi-Flow method provided equal or improved recovery and quality of DNA without the harmful effects of organic extraction. Moreover, larger extraction volumes (up to 20 mL) can be employed with the Hi-Flow method which enabled more bone sample to be extracted at one time.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics. 01/2014; 12:155–160.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In a worldwide collaborative effort, 19,630 Y-chromosomes were sampled from 129 different populations in 51 countries. These chromosomes were typed for 23 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, GATAH4, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS643) and using the PowerPlex Y23 System (PPY23, Promega Corporation, Madison, WI). Locus-specific allelic spectra of these markers were determined and a consistently high level of allelic diversity was observed. A considerable number of null, duplicate and off-ladder alleles were revealed. Standard single-locus and haplotype-based parameters were calculated and compared between subsets of Y-STR markers established for forensic casework. The PPY23 marker set provides substantially stronger discriminatory power than other available kits but at the same time reveals the same general patterns of population structure as other marker sets. A strong correlation was observed between the number of Y-STRs included in a marker set and some of the forensic parameters under study. Interestingly a weak but consistent trend towards smaller genetic distances resulting from larger numbers of markers became apparent.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics 01/2014; · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High throughput sequencing (HTS) generates large amounts of high quality sequence data for microbial genomics. The value of HTS for microbial forensics is the speed at which evidence can be collected and the power to characterize microbial-related evidence to solve biocrimes and bioterrorist events. As HTS technologies continue to improve, they provide increasingly powerful sets of tools to support the entire field of microbial forensics. Accurate, credible results allow analysis and interpretation, significantly influencing the course and/or focus of an investigation, and can impact the response of the government to an attack having individual, political, economic or military consequences. Interpretation of the results of microbial forensic analyses relies on understanding the performance and limitations of HTS methods, including analytical processes, assays and data interpretation. The utility of HTS must be defined carefully within established operating conditions and tolerances. Validation is essential in the development and implementation of microbial forensics methods used for formulating investigative leads attribution. HTS strategies vary, requiring guiding principles for HTS system validation. Three initial aspects of HTS, irrespective of chemistry, instrumentation or software are: 1) sample preparation, 2) sequencing, and 3) data analysis. Criteria that should be considered for HTS validation for microbial forensics are presented here. Validation should be defined in terms of specific application and the criteria described here comprise a foundation for investigators to establish, validate and implement HTS as a tool in microbial forensics, enhancing public safety and national security.
    Investigative genetics. 01/2014; 5:9.

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,047.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013–2014
    • King Abdulaziz University
      Djidda, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
    • Elsevier B.V.
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Forensic Molecular Biology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2009–2014
    • University of North Texas HSC at Fort Worth
      • Department of Forensic and Investigative Genetics
      Fort Worth, Texas, United States
    • Fort Worth Nature Center & Refuge
      Fort Worth, Texas, United States
    • Hampden-Sydney College
      United States
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Anthropology
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • University of North Texas
      • • Department of Forensic and Investigative Genetics
      • • Health Science Center
      Denton, Texas, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Southern Mississippi
      • School of Criminal Justice
      Hattiesburg, MS, United States
    • Northern Arizona University
      Flagstaff, Arizona, United States
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Forensic Molecular Biology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Helsinki
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 1991–2010
    • Federal Bureau of Investigation
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • Central Forensic Laboratory of the Police
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2005–2009
    • Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
      • • Department of Medicine (RWJ Medical School)
      • • Department of Medicine
      Newark, NJ, United States
    • Promega
      Fitchburg, Wisconsin, Switzerland
    • Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
      Carlsbad, California, United States
  • 2004–2009
    • University of Cincinnati
      • • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      • • Department of Environmental Health
      Cincinnati, OH, United States
  • 2008
    • Ibis Biosciences
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Hospital Vozandes Quito
      Κίτο, Pichincha, Ecuador
  • 2006–2008
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      Atlanta, Michigan, United States
  • 2006–2007
    • Uppsala University
      • The Rudbeck Laboratory
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2003–2007
    • Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Timisoara
      Freidorf, Timiş, Romania
    • University of the Republic, Uruguay
      • Departamento de Geomática
      Montevideo, Departamento de Montevideo, Uruguay
  • 1998–2007
    • Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics
      • Department of Cardiovascular Genetics and Forensic Genetics
      Lefkoşa, Lefkosia, Cyprus
    • University of Rome Tor Vergata
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1993–2007
    • University of Granada
      • • Departamento de Medicina Legal, Toxicología y Antropología Física
      • • Facultad de Medicina
      Granada, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2005–2006
    • Health Sciences Authority
      Tumasik, Singapore
  • 2002–2006
    • George Washington University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
    • West Virginia University
      Morgantown, West Virginia, United States
    • Mexican Institute of Social Security
      Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico
  • 2000–2004
    • University of Zaragoza
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Zaragoza, Aragon, Spain
    • Ministrstvo za notranje zadeve
      Lubliano, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • 1997–2003
    • DNA Analysis, LLC
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
    • University of Innsbruck
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria
    • United Arab Emirates University
      Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
    • University of Münster
      • Institute of Legal Medicine
      Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2001
    • The Police Academy of the Czech Republic in Prague
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
  • 1999–2000
    • Universität Bern
      • Institute of Legal Medicine
      Bern, BE, Switzerland
    • University of Houston
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1994–1996
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Chemistry
      Charlottesville, VA, United States
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • Human Genetics Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1991–1994
    • National Public Health Institute
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 1989
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (College of Medicine)
      Charleston, SC, United States