Bruce Budowle

King Abdulaziz University, Djidda, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

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Publications (496)1266.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology is capable of determining the sizes of short tandem repeat (STR) alleles as well as their individual nucleotide sequences. Thus, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the repeat regions of STRs and variations in the pattern of repeat units in a given repeat motif can be used to differentiate alleles of the same length. In this study, MPS was used to sequence 28 forensically-relevant Y-chromosome STRs in a set of 41 DNA samples from the 3 major U.S. population groups (African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics). The resulting sequence data, which were analyzed with STRait Razor v2.0, revealed 37 unique allele sequence variants that have not been previously reported. Of these, 19 sequences were variations of documented sequences resulting from the presence of intra-repeat SNPs or alternative repeat unit patterns. Despite a limited sampling, two of the most frequently-observed variants were found only in African American samples. The remaining 18 variants represented allele sequences for which there were no published data with which to compare. These findings illustrate the great potential of MPS with regard to increasing the resolving power of STR typing and emphasize the need for sample population characterization of STR alleles.
    09/2015; 13(4). DOI:10.1016/j.gpb.2015.08.001
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    ABSTRACT: While capillary electrophoresis-based technologies have been the mainstay for human identity typing applications, there are limitations with this methodology's resolution, scalability, and throughput. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers the capability to multiplex multiple types of forensically-relevant markers and multiple samples together in one run all at an overall lower cost per nucleotide than traditional capillary electrophoresis-based methods; thus, addressing some of these limitations. MPS also is poised to expand forensic typing capabilities by providing new strategies for mixture deconvolution with the identification of intra-STR allele sequence variants and the potential to generate new types of investigative leads with an increase in the overall number and types of genetic markers being analyzed. The beta version of the Illumina ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit is a MPS library preparation method with a streamlined workflow that allows for targeted amplification and sequencing of 63 STRs and 95 identity SNPs, with the option to include an additional 56 ancestry SNPs and 22 phenotypic SNPs depending on the primer mix chosen for amplification, on the MiSeq desktop sequencer (Illumina). This study was divided into a series of experiments that evaluated reliability, sensitivity of detection, mixture analysis, concordance, and the ability to analyze challenged samples. Genotype accuracy, depth of coverage, and allele balance were used as informative metrics for the quality of the data produced. The ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit produced reliable, reproducible results and obtained full profiles with DNA input amounts of 1 ng. Data were found to be concordant with current capillary electrophoresis methods, and mixtures at a 1:19 ratio were resolved accurately. Data from the challenged samples showed concordant results with current DNA typing methods with markers in common and minimal allele drop out from the large number of markers typed on these samples. This set of experiments indicates the beta version of the ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit is a valid tool for forensic DNA typing and warrants full validation studies of this MPS technology.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics 09/2015; 20. DOI:10.1016/j.fsigen.2015.09.009 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    Croatian Medical Journal 08/2015; 56(4):385-6. DOI:10.3325/cmj.2015.56.385 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    Sarah E. Schmedes · Jonathan L. King · Bruce Budowle ·
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    ABSTRACT: Whole-genome data are invaluable for large-scale comparative genomic studies. Current sequencing technologies have made it feasible to sequence entire bacterial genomes with relative ease and time with a substantially reduced cost per nucleotide, hence cost per genome. More than 3,000 bacterial genomes have been sequenced and are available at the finished status. Publically available genomes can be readily downloaded; however, there are challenges to verify the specific supporting data contained within the download and to identify errors and inconsistencies that may be present within the organizational data content and metadata. AutoCurE, an automated tool for bacterial genome database curation in Excel, was developed to facilitate local database curation of supporting data that accompany downloaded genomes from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. AutoCurE provides an automated approach to curate local genomic databases by flagging inconsistencies or errors by comparing the downloaded supporting data to the genome reports to verify genome name, RefSeq accession numbers, the presence of archaea, BioProject/UIDs, and sequence file descriptions. Flags are generated for nine metadata fields if there are inconsistencies between the downloaded genomes and genomes reports and if erroneous or missing data are evident. AutoCurE is an easy-to-use tool for local database curation for large-scale genome data prior to downstream analyses.
    Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 08/2015; DOI:10.3389/fbioe.2015.00138
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial DNA is a useful marker for population studies, human identification, and forensic analysis. Commonly used hypervariable regions I and II (HVI/HVII) were reported to contain as little as 25 % of mitochondrial DNA variants and therefore the majority of power of discrimination of mitochondrial DNA resides in the coding region. Massively parallel sequencing technology enables entire mitochondrial genome sequencing. In this study, buccal swabs were collected from 114 unrelated Estonians and whole mitochondrial genome sequences were generated using the Illumina MiSeq system. The results are concordant with previous mtDNA control region reports of high haplogroup HV and U frequencies (47.4 and 23.7 % in this study, respectively) in the Estonian population. One sample with the Northern Asian haplogroup D was detected. The genetic diversity of the Estonian population sample was estimated to be 99.67 and 95.85 %, for mtGenome and HVI/HVII data, respectively. The random match probability for mtGenome data was 1.20 versus 4.99 % for HVI/HVII. The nucleotide mean pairwise difference was 27 ± 11 for mtGenome and 7 ± 3 for HVI/HVII data. These data describe the genetic diversity of the Estonian population sample and emphasize the power of discrimination of the entire mitochondrial genome over the hypervariable regions.
    Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00414-015-1249-4 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and multiplex amplification with fluorescent tagging have been routinely used for STR typing in forensic genetics. However, CE-based methods restrict the number of markers that can be multiplexed simultaneously and cannot detect any intra-repeat variations within STRs. Several studies already have indicated that massively parallel sequencing (MPS) may be another potential technology for STR typing. In this study, the prototype PowerSeq™ Auto System (Promega) containing the 23 STR loci and amelogenin was evaluated using Illumina MiSeq. Results showed that single source complete profiles could be obtained using as little as 62pg of input DNA. The reproducibility study showed that the profiles generated were consistent among multiple typing experiments for a given individual. The mixture study indicated that partial STR profiles of the minor contributor could be detected up to 19:1 mixture. The mock forensic casework study showed that full or partial profiles could be obtained from different types of single source and mixture samples. These studies indicate that the PowerSeq Auto System and the Illumina MiSeq can generate concordant results with current CE-based methods. In addition, MPS-based systems can facilitate mixture deconvolution with the detection of intra-repeat variations within length-based STR alleles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    07/2015; 19. DOI:10.1016/j.fsigen.2015.07.015
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    ABSTRACT: Human physical performance is a complex multifactorial trait. Historically, environmental factors (e.g., diet, training) alone have been unable to explain the basis of all prominent phenotypes for physical performance. Therefore, there has been an interest in the study of the contribution of genetic factors to the development of these phenotypes. Support for a genetic component is found with studies that shown that monozygotic twins were more similar than were dizygotic twins for many physiological traits. The evolution of molecular techniques and the ability to scan the entire human genome enabled association of several genetic polymorphisms with performance. However, some biases related to the selection of cohorts and inadequate definition of the study variables have complicated the already difficult task of studying such a large and polymorphic genome, often resulting in inconsistent results about the influence of candidate genes. This review aims to provide a critical overview of heritable genetic aspects. Novel molecular technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, are discussed and how they can contribute to improving understanding of the molecular basis for athletic performance. It is important to ensure that the large amount of data that can be generated using these tools will be used effectively by ensuring well-designed studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/sms.12503 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To perform a blind study to assess the capability of the Ion Personal Genome Machine® (PGM™) system to sequence forensically relevant genetic marker panels and to characterize unknown individuals for ancestry and possible relatedness. Twelve genomic samples were provided by a third party for blinded genetic analysis. For these 12 samples, the mitochondrial genome and three PGM™ panels containing human identity single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), ancestry informative SNPs, and short tandem repeats (STRs) were sequenced on the PGM™ system and analyzed. All four genetic systems were run and analyzed on the PGM™ system in a reasonably quick time frame. Completeness of genetic profiles, depth of coverage, strand balance, and allele balance were informative metrics that illustrated the quality and reliability of the data produced. SNP genotypes allowed for identification of sex, paternal lineage, and population ancestry. STR genotypes were shown to be in complete concordance with genotypes generated by standard capillary electrophoresis-based technologies. Variants in the mitochondrial genome data provided information on population background and maternal relationships. All results from analysis of the 12 genomic samples were consistent with sample information provided by the sample providers at the end of the blinded study. The relatively easy identification of intra-STR allele SNPs offered the potential for increased discrimination power. The promising nature of these results warrants full validation studies of this massively parallel sequencing technology and its further development for forensic data analysis.
    Croatian Medical Journal 06/2015; 56(3):218-29. DOI:10.3325/cmj.2015.56.218 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    DESCRIPTION: National Institute of Justice report (January 2015), Office of Investigative and Forensic Sciences; in collaboration with the Forensic Technology Center of Excellence (FTCOE)
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    ABSTRACT: STR typing in forensic genetics has been performed traditionally using capillary electrophoresis (CE). However, CE-based method has some limitations: a small number of STR loci can be used; stutter products, dye artifacts and low level alleles. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has been considered a viable technology in recent years allowing high-throughput coverage at a relatively-affordable price. Some of the CE-based limitations may be overcome with the application of MPS. In this study, a prototype multiplex STR System (Promega) was amplified and prepared using the TruSeq DNA LT Sample Preparation Kit (Illumina) in 24 samples. Results showed that the MinElute PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen) was a better size selection method compared with recommended diluted bead mixtures. The library input sensitivity study showed that a wide range of amplicon product (6–200 ng) could be used for library preparation without apparent differences in the STR profile. PCR sensitivity study indicated that 62 pg may be minimum input amount for generating complete profiles. Reliability study results on 24 different individuals showed that high depth of coverage (DoC) and balanced heterozygote allele coverage ratios (ACRs) could be obtained with 250 pg of input DNA, and 62 pg could generate complete or nearly complete profiles. These studies indicate that this STR multiplex system and the Illumina MiSeq can generate reliable STR profiles at a sensitivity level that competes with current widely used CE-based method.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics 05/2015; 16. DOI:10.1016/j.fsigen.2014.11.022 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of STR loci are not ideal for the analysis of forensic samples with degraded and/or low template DNA. One alternative to overcome these limitations is the use of bi-allelic markers, which have low mutation rates and shorter amplicons. Human identification (HID) InDel marker panels have been described in several countries, including Brazil. The commercial kit available is, however, mostly suitable for Europeans, with lower discrimination power for other population groups. Recently a combination of 49 InDel markers used in four different ethnic groups in the United States has been shown to be more informative than another panel from Portugal, already tested in a Rio de Janeiro sample. However, these 49 InDels have yet to be applied to other admixed or isolated populations. We assessed the efficiency of this panel in two urban admixed populations (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Tripoli, Libya), and one isolated Native Brazilian community. All markers are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) after the Bonferroni correction, and no Linkage disequilibrium was detected. Assuming loci independence and no substructure effect, cumulative RMP were 2.7x10- 18, 1.5x10-20, and 4.5x10-20 for Native Brazilian, Rio de Janeiro, and Tripoli populations, respectively. The overall Fst value was 0.05512. Rio de Janeiro and Tripoli showed similar admixture levels, however for Native Brazilians one parental cluster represented over 60% of the total parental population. We conclude that this panel is suitable for HID on these urban populations, but is less efficient for the isolated group.
    International Journal of Legal Medicine 03/2015; 129(2). DOI:10.1007/s00414-014-1137-3 · 2.69 Impact Factor

  • Forensic Science International: Genetics 01/2015; 16C:203-204. DOI:10.1016/j.fsigen.2015.01.007 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies have the capacity to sequence targeted regions or whole genomes of multiple nucleic acid samples with high coverage by sequencing millions of DNA fragments simultaneously. Compared with Sanger sequencing, MPS also can reduce labor and cost on a per nucleotide basis and indeed on a per sample basis. In this study, whole genomes of human mitochondria (mtGenome) were sequenced on the Personal Genome Machine (PGMTM) (Life Technologies, San Francisco, CA), the out data were assessed, and the results were compared with data previously generated on the MiSeqTM (Illumina, San Diego, CA). The objectives of this paper were to determine the feasibility, accuracy, and reliability of sequence data obtained from the PGM. Results 24 samples were multiplexed (in groups of six) and sequenced on the at least 10 megabase throughput 314 chip. The depth of coverage pattern was similar among all 24 samples; however the coverage across the genome varied. For strand bias, the average ratio of coverage between the forward and reverse strands at each nucleotide position indicated that two-thirds of the positions of the genome had ratios that were greater than 0.5. A few sites had more extreme strand bias. Another observation was that 156 positions had a false deletion rate greater than 0.15 in one or more individuals. There were 31-98 (SNP) mtGenome variants observed per sample for the 24 samples analyzed. The total 1237 (SNP) variants were concordant between the results from the PGM and MiSeq. The quality scores for haplogroup assignment for all 24 samples ranged between 88.8%-100%. Conclusions In this study, mtDNA sequence data generated from the PGM were analyzed and the output evaluated. Depth of coverage variation and strand bias were identified but generally were infrequent and did not impact reliability of variant calls. Multiplexing of samples was demonstrated which can improve throughput and reduce cost per sample analyzed. Overall, the results of this study, based on orthogonal concordance testing and phylogenetic scrutiny, supported that whole mtGenome sequence data with high accuracy can be obtained using the PGM platform.
    BMC Genomics 01/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-16-S1-S4 · 3.99 Impact Factor
  • Sarah Schmedes · Bruce Budowle ·
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    ABSTRACT: Biothreats are a high priority concern for public safety and national security. The field of microbial forensics was developed to analyze evidence associated with biological crimes in which microbes or their toxins are used as weapons. Microbial forensics is the scientific discipline dedicated to analyzing evidence from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, hoax, or inadvertent microorganism/toxin release for attribution purposes. Microbial forensics combines the practices of epidemiology with the characterization of microbial and microbial-related evidence to assist in determining the specific source of the sample, as individualizing as possible, and/or the methods, means, processes and locations involved to determine the identity of the perpetrator(s) of an attack.
    Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, Edited by Michael Caplan, 01/2015: chapter Medical Microbiology; Elsevier Inc.., ISBN: ISBN: 978-0-12-801238-3
  • Antti Sajantila · Bruce Budowle ·
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    ABSTRACT: The European Journal of Human Genetics is the official Journal of the European Society of Human Genetics, publishing high-quality, original research papers, short reports, News and Commentary articles and reviews in the rapidly expanding field of human genetics and genomics.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 12/2014; DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2014.247 · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The TruSeq™ Forensic Amplicon library preparation protocol, originally designed to attach sequencing adapters to chromatin-bound DNA for chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (TruSeq™ ChIP-Seq), was used here to attach adapters directly to amplicons containing markers of forensic interest. In this study, the TruSeq™ Forensic Amplicon library preparation protocol was used to detect 160 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including human identification SNPs (iSNPs), ancestry, and phenotypic SNPs (apSNPs) in 12 reference samples. Results were compared with those generated by a second laboratory using the same technique, as well as to those generated by whole genome sequencing (WGS). The genotype calls made using the TruSeq™ Forensic Amplicon library preparation protocol were highly concordant. The protocol described herein represents an effective and relatively sensitive means of preparing amplified nuclear DNA for massively parallel sequencing (MPS).
    Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 11/2014; 129(1):1-6. DOI:10.1007/s00414-014-1108-8 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Carey Davis · Dixie Peters · David Warshauer · Jonathan King · Bruce Budowle ·
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial DNA testing is a useful tool in the analysis of forensic biological evidence. In cases where nuclear DNA is damaged or limited in quantity, the higher copy number of mitochondrial genomes available in a sample can provide information about the source of a sample. Currently, Sanger-type sequencing (STS) is the primary method to develop mitochondrial DNA profiles. This method is laborious and time consuming. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) can increase the amount of information obtained from mitochondrial DNA samples while improving turnaround time by decreasing the numbers of manipulations and more so by exploiting high throughput analyses to obtain interpretable results. In this study 18 buccal swabs, three different tissue samples from five individuals, and four bones samples from casework were sequenced at hypervariable regions I and II using STS and MPS. Sample enrichment for STS and MPS was PCR-based. Library preparation for MPS was performed using Nextera® XT DNA Sample Preparation Kit and sequencing was performed on the MiSeq™ (Illumina, Inc.). MPS yielded full concordance of base calls with STS results, and the newer methodology was able to resolve length heteroplasmy in homopolymeric regions. This study demonstrates short amplicon MPS of mitochondrial DNA is feasible, can provide information not possible with STS, and lays the groundwork for development of a whole genome sequencing strategy for degraded samples.
    10/2014; 17(2). DOI:10.1016/j.legalmed.2014.10.004
  • David H Warshauer · Jonathan L King · Bruce Budowle ·
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    ABSTRACT: STRait Razor (the STR Allele Identification Tool – Razor) was developed as a bioinformatic software tool to detect short tandem repeat (STR) alleles in massively parallel sequencing (MPS) raw data. The method of detection used by STRait Razor allows it to make reliable allele calls for all STR types in a manner that is similar to that of capillary electrophoresis. STRait Razor v2.0 incorporates several new features and improvements upon the original software, such as a larger default locus configuration file that increases the number of detectable loci (now including X-chromosome STRs and Amelogenin), an enhanced custom locus list generator, a novel output sorting method that highlights unique sequences for intra-repeat variation detection, and a genotyping tool that emulates traditional electropherogram data. Users also now have the option to choose whether the program detects autosomal, X-chromosome, Y-chromosome, or all STRs. Concordance testing was performed, and allele calls produced by STRait Razor v2.0 were completely consistent with those made by the original software.
    10/2014; 14. DOI:10.1016/j.fsigen.2014.10.011

Publication Stats

11k Citations
1,266.66 Total Impact Points


  • 2013-2015
    • King Abdulaziz University
      Djidda, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
  • 2009-2015
    • University of North Texas HSC at Fort Worth
      • Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics
      Fort Worth, Texas, United States
    • Fort Worth Nature Center & Refuge
      Fort Worth, Texas, United States
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Anthropology
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 2009-2012
    • University of North Texas
      • • Department of Forensic and Investigative Genetics
      • • Health Science Center
      Denton, Texas, United States
  • 2010
    • Bond University
      • Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine
      Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
  • 1991-2009
    • Federal Bureau of Investigation
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • National Public Health Institute
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2008
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
      Атланта, Michigan, United States
  • 2007
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Genetics
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005-2006
    • Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
      • • Department of Medicine (RWJ Medical School)
      • • Department of Medicine
      Newark, NJ, United States
    • William Penn University
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
    • Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Timisoara
      Freidorf, Timiş, Romania
  • 2003
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Environmental Health
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
    • University of Zaragoza
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Zaragoza, Aragon, Spain
  • 2001-2003
    • University of Granada
      • Facultad de Medicina
      Granada, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2000
    • Ministrstvo za notranje zadeve
      Lubliano, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • 1999-2000
    • Universität Bern
      • Institute of Legal Medicine
      Bern, BE, Switzerland
  • 1998
    • University of Oslo
      • Institute of Medical Informatics (IMI)
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
  • 1997
    • University of Innsbruck
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria
    • University of Münster
      • Institute of Legal Medicine
      Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1981-1988
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • • Department of Microbiology
      • • Diabetes Research and Training Center (DRTC)
      Birmingham, AL, United States