[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 12-week intradialytic progressive resistance training (PRT) regimen on circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Forty-nine patients (62.6 ± 14.2 years) were recruited from the outpatient hemodialysis unit of the St. George Public Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Patients were randomized to: PRT + usual care (n = 24) or usual care control (n = 25). The PRT group performed two sets of 10 exercises at high intensity using free-weights, 3 times per week for 12 weeks during dialysis, while the control group did not exercise. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1b, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10, and interleukin-12 were measured in serum before and after the intervention period. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), intramuscular lipid, intermuscular adipose tissue, and subcutaneous and total thigh fat, evaluated via computed tomography of the non-dominant mid-thigh, were also collected at both time points. All cytokines were significantly elevated in the total cohort at baseline compared with normative data. There were no cytokine changes over time or between groups (p > 0.05). In secondary analyses pooling the groups, changes in logIL-6 and IL-8 were inversely related to changes subcutaneous thigh fat (p < 0.05) while changes in logIL-6 were also inversely related to changes in thigh muscle CSA, and total thigh fat (p < 0.03). These data suggest that 12 weeks of intradialytic progressive resistance training does not improve circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory markers. Further research is required to elucidate the implications and mechanisms of the relationships between IL-6 and IL-8 and body composition in ESRD.