[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The global malaria burden has fallen since 2000, sometimes before large-scale vector control programmes were initiated. While long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying are highly effective interventions, this study tests the hypothesis that improved housing can reduce malaria by decreasing house entry by malaria mosquitoes.
A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess whether modern housing is associated with a lower risk of malaria than traditional housing, across all age groups and malaria-endemic settings. Six electronic databases were searched to identify intervention and observational studies published from 1 January, 1900 to 13 December, 2013, measuring the association between house design and malaria. The primary outcome measures were parasite prevalence and incidence of clinical malaria. Crude and adjusted effects were combined in fixed- and random-effects meta-analyses, with sub-group analyses for: overall house type (traditional versus modern housing); screening; main wall, roof and floor materials; eave type; ceilings and elevation.
Of 15,526 studies screened, 90 were included in a qualitative synthesis and 53 reported epidemiological outcomes, included in a meta-analysis. Of these, 39 (74 %) showed trends towards a lower risk of epidemiological outcomes associated with improved house features. Of studies assessing the relationship between modern housing and malaria infection (n = 11) and clinical malaria (n = 5), all were observational, with very low to low quality evidence. Residents of modern houses had 47 % lower odds of malaria infection compared to traditional houses (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0°53, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 0°42-0°67, p < 0°001, five studies) and a 45-65 % lower odds of clinical malaria (case-control studies: adjusted OR 0°35, 95 % CI 0°20-0°62, p <0°001, one study; cohort studies: adjusted rate ratio 0°55, 95 % CI 0°36-0°84, p = 0°005, three studies). Evidence of a high risk of bias was found within studies.
Despite low quality evidence, the direction and consistency of effects indicate that housing is an important risk factor for malaria. Future research should evaluate the protective effect of specific house features and incremental housing improvements associated with socio-economic development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the state of the public and private malaria diagnostics market shortly after WHO updated its guidelines for testing all suspected malaria cases prior to treatment.
10 nationally representative cross-sectional cluster surveys were conducted in 2011 among public and private health facilities, community health workers, and retail outlets (pharmacies and drug shops) in 9 countries (Tanzania-mainland and Zanzibar surveyed separately). Eligible outlets had antimalarials in stock on the day of interview or had stocked antimalarials in the past three months.
3,439 RDT products from 39 manufacturers were audited among 12,197 outlets interviewed. Availability was typically highest in public health facilities, though availability in these facilities varied greatly across countries, from 15% in Nigeria to >90% in Madagascar and Cambodia. Private for-profit sector availability was 46% in Cambodia, 20% in Zambia, but low in other countries. Median retail prices for RDTs in the private for-profit sector ranged from $0.00 in Madagascar to $3.13 in Zambia. The reported number of RDTs used in the 7 days before the survey in public health facilities ranged from 3 (Benin) to 50 (Zambia).
18 months after WHO updated its case management guidelines, RDT availability remained poor in the private sector in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the ongoing importance of the private sector as a source of fever treatment, the goal of universal diagnosis will not be achievable under current circumstances. These results constitute national baselines against which progress in scaling-up diagnostic tests can be assessed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 02/2015; 20(6). DOI:10.1111/tmi.12491 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To estimate the effect of unimproved household water and toilet facilities on pregnancy-related mortality in Afghanistan. Methods
The data source was a population-based cross-sectional study, the Afghan Mortality Survey 2010. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out, comparing 69 pregnancy-related deaths (cases) and 15386 surviving women (non-cases) who had a live birth or stillbirth between 2007 and 2010. ResultsAfter adjusting for confounders, households with unimproved water access had 1.91 the odds of pregnancy-related mortality [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-3.30] compared to households with improved water access. We also found an association between unimproved toilet facilities and pregnancy-related mortality (OR=2.25; 95% CI 0.71-7.19; P-value=0.169), but it was not statistically significant. Conclusions
Unimproved household water access was an important risk factor for pregnancy-related mortality in Afghanistan. However, we were unable to discern whether unimproved water source is a marker of unhygienic environments or socio-economic position. There was weak evidence for the association between unimproved toilet facilities and pregnancy-related mortality; this association requires confirmation from larger studies. ObjectifEstimer l'effet des installations d'eau et de toilettes non ameliorees dans les menages sur la mortalite liee a la grossesse en Afghanistan. MethodesLa source des donnees est une etude transversale basee sur la population, l'Enquete Afghane de 2010 sur la Mortalite. Des analyses de regression logistique descriptives, univariees et multivariees ont ete effectuees, en comparant 69 deces lies a la grossesse (cas) et 15 356 femmes survivantes (non-cas) qui avaient eu une naissance vivante ou une mortinaissance entre 2007 et 2010. ResultatsApres ajustement pour les facteurs confusionnels, les menages ayant acces a l'eau non amelioree avaient 1,91 fois de chance de mortalite liee a la grossesse (intervalle de confiance [IC] 95%: 1,11 a 3,30) compares aux menages ayant acces a l'eau amelioree. Nous avons egalement trouve une association entre les installations de toilettes non ameliorees et la mortalite liee a la grossesse (OR=2,25; IC 95%: 7,19 a 0,71; P=0,169), mais qui n'etait pas statistiquement significative. ConclusionsL'acces des menages a l'eau non ameliorees etait un important facteur de risque pour la mortalite liee a la grossesse en Afghanistan. Cependant, sur base des informations disponibles, nous etions incapables de discerner si la source d'eau non amelioree etait un marqueur de mauvaises conditions d'hygiene ou de la situation socioeconomique. Il y avait de faibles preuves pour l'association entre les installations de toilettes non ameliorees et la mortalite liee a la grossesse; cette association requiert une confirmation par des etudes plus larges. ObjetivoCalcular el efecto del acceso en los hogares al agua no segura y a instalaciones sanitarias inadecuadas sobre la mortalidad materna relacionada con el embarazo en Afganistan. MetodosLa fuente de datos es un estudio croseccional basado en la poblacion, la Encuesta de Mortalidad de Afganistan del 2010. Se realizaron analisis descriptivos y regresiones logisticas simples y multiples, comparando 69 muertes maternas relacionados con el embarazo (casos) y 15,356 mujeres vivas (controles) que habian tenido un parto, con feto vivo o de mortinato, entre el 2007 y 2010. ResultadosDespues de ajustar para posibles factores de confusion, los hogares con acceso a agua no segura tenian una mayor probabilidad de mortalidad materna relacionada con el embarazo (1.91, [IC] 95% 1.11-3.30) que los hogares con un acceso a agua potable. Tambien encontramos una asociacion entre el uso de instalaciones sanitarias inadecuadas y la mortalidad materna relacionada con el embarazo (OR=2.25; IC 95% 0.71-7.19; P=0.169), pero no era estadisticamente significativa. ConclusionesEl acceso de los hogares a agua no segura era un importante factor de riesgo para la mortalidad materna relacionada con el embarazo en Afganistan. Sin embargo, con la informacion disponible, no pudimos discernir si el acceso a agua no potable es un marcador de ambientes poco higienicos o de posicion socio-economica. Habia una evidencia debil sobre la asociacion entre el uso de instalaciones sanitarias inadecuadas y la mortalidad materna relacionada con el embarazo; esta asociacion requiere de confirmacion a traves de estudios mas grandes.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 10/2014; 19(12). DOI:10.1111/tmi.12394 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Improving access to quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) is an important component of malaria control in low- and middle-income countries. In 2010 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria launched the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) program in seven African countries. The goal of the program was to decrease malaria morbidity and delay drug resistance by increasing the use of ACTs, primarily through subsidies intended to reduce costs. We collected data on price and retail markups on antimalarial medicines from 19,625 private for-profit retail outlets before and 6-15 months after the program's implementation. We found that in six of the AMFm pilot programs, prices for quality-assured ACTs decreased by US$1.28-$4.34, and absolute retail markups on these therapies decreased by US$0.31-$1.03. Prices and markups on other classes of antimalarials also changed during the evaluation period, but not to the same extent. In all but two of the pilot programs, we found evidence that prices could fall further without suppliers' losing money. Thus, concerns may be warranted that wholesalers and retailers are capturing subsidies instead of passing them on to consumers. These findings demonstrate that supranational subsidies can dramatically reduce retail prices of health commodities and that recommended retail prices communicated to a wide audience may be an effective mechanism for controlling the market power of private-sector antimalarial retailers and wholesalers.
Health Affairs 09/2014; 33(9):1576-85. DOI:10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0104 · 4.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of strategies to improve community case management (CCM) of malaria. Forty-three studies were included; most (38) reported indicators of community health worker (CHW) performance, 14 reported on malaria CCM integrated with other child health interventions, 16 reported on health system capacity, and 13 reported on referral. The CHWs are able to provide good quality malaria care, including performing procedures such as rapid diagnostic tests. Appropriate training, clear guidelines, and regular supportive supervision are important facilitating factors. Crucial to sustainable success of CHW programs is strengthening health system capacity to support commodity supply, supervision, and appropriate treatment of referred cases. The little evidence available on referral from community to health facility level suggests that this is an area that needs priority attention. The studies of integrated CCM suggest that additional tasks do not reduce the quality of malaria CCM provided sufficient training and supervision is maintained.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 06/2014; 91(3). DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.14-0094 · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
In neonatal encephalopathy (NE), infectious co-morbidity is difficult to diagnose accurately, but may increase the vulnerability of the developing brain to hypoxia-ischemia. We developed a novel panel of species-specific real-time PCR assays to identify bloodstream pathogens amongst newborns with and without NE in Uganda.
Multiplex real-time PCR assays for important neonatal bloodstream pathogens (gram positive and gram negative bacteria, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus(HSV) and P. falciparum) were performed on whole blood taken from 202 encephalopathic and 101 control infants. Automated blood culture (BACTEC) was performed for all cases and unwell controls.
Prevalence of pathogenic bacterial species amongst infants with NE was 3.6%, 6.9% and 8.9%, with culture, PCR and both tests in combination, respectively. More encephalopathic infants than controls had pathogenic bacterial species detected (8.9%vs2.0%, p = 0.028) using culture and PCR in combination. PCR detected bacteremia in 11 culture negative encephalopathic infants (3 Group B Streptococcus, 1 Group A Streptococcus, 1 Staphylococcus aureus and 6 Enterobacteriacae). Coagulase negative staphylococcus, frequently detected by PCR amongst case and control infants, was considered a contaminant. Prevalence of CMV, HSV and malaria amongst cases was low (1.5%, 0.5% and 0.5%, respectively).
This real-time PCR panel detected more bacteremia than culture alone and provides a novel tool for detection of neonatal bloodstream pathogens that may be applied across a range of clinical situations and settings. Significantly more encephalopathic infants than controls had pathogenic bacterial species detected suggesting that infection may be an important risk factor for NE in this setting.
PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e97259. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0097259 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Affordable Medicines Facility - malaria (AMFm) is primarily an artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) subsidy, aimed at increasing availability, affordability, market share and use of quality-assured ACTs (QAACTs). Mainland Tanzania was one of eight national scale programmes where AMFm was introduced in 2010. Here we present findings from outlet and household surveys before and after AMFm implementation to evaluate its impact from both the supply and demand side.
Outlet surveys were conducted in 49 randomly selected wards throughout mainland Tanzania in 2010 and 2011, and data on outlet characteristics and stocking patterns were collected from outlets stocking antimalarials. Household surveys were conducted in 240 randomly selected enumeration areas in three regions in 2010 and 2012. Questions about treatment seeking for fever and drugs obtained were asked of individuals reporting fever in the previous two weeks.
The availability of QAACTs increased from 25.5% to 69.5% among all outlet types, with the greatest increase among pharmacies and drug stores, together termed specialised drug sellers (SDSs), where the median QAACT price fell from $5.63 to $0.94. The market share of QAACTs increased from 26.2% to 42.2%, again with the greatest increase in SDSs. Household survey results showed a shift in treatment seeking away from the public sector towards SDSs. Overall, there was no change in the proportion of people with fever obtaining an antimalarial or ACT from baseline to endline. However, when broken down by treatment source, ACT use increased significantly among clients visiting SDSs.
Unchanged ACT use overall, despite increases in QAACT availability, affordability and market share in the private sector, reflected a shift in treatment seeking towards private providers. The reasons for this shift are unclear, but likely reflect both persistent stockouts in public facilities, and the increased availability of subsidised ACTs in the private sector.
PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e95607. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095607 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Affordable Medicines Facility - malaria (AMFm), implemented at national scale in eight African countries or territories, subsidized quality-assured artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and included communication campaigns to support implementation and promote appropriate anti-malarial use. This paper reports private for-profit provider awareness of key features of the AMFm programme, and changes in provider knowledge of appropriate malaria treatment.
This study had a non-experimental design based on nationally representative surveys of outlets stocking anti-malarials before (2009/10) and after (2011) the AMFm roll-out.
Based on data from over 19,500 outlets, results show that in four of eight settings, where communication campaigns were implemented for 5-9 months, 76%-94% awareness of the AMFm 'green leaf' logo, 57%-74% awareness of the ACT subsidy programme, and 52%-80% awareness of the correct recommended retail price (RRP) of subsidized ACT were recorded. However, in the remaining four settings where communication campaigns were implemented for three months or less, levels were substantially lower. In six of eight settings, increases of at least 10 percentage points in private for-profit providers' knowledge of the correct first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria were seen; and in three of these the levels of knowledge achieved at endline were over 80%.
The results support the interpretation that, in addition to the availability of subsidized ACT, the intensity of communication campaigns may have contributed to the reported levels of AMFm-related awareness and knowledge among private for-profit providers. Future subsidy programmes for anti-malarials or other treatments should similarly include communication activities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review evidence from sub-Saharan Africa for the association between the practice or promotion of essential newborn care behaviours and neonatal survival.
We searched MEDLINE for English language, peer-reviewed literature published since 2005. The study population was neonates residing in a sub-Saharan Africa country who were not HIV positive. Outcomes were all-cause neonatal or early neonatal mortality or one of the three main causes of neonatal mortality: complications of preterm birth, infections and intrapartum-related neonatal events. Interventions included were the practice or promotion of recommended newborn care behaviours including warmth, hygiene, breastfeeding, resuscitation and management of illness. We included study designs with a concurrent comparison group. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane EPOC or Newcastle-Ottawa tools and summarised using GRADE.
Eleven papers met the search criteria and most were at low risk of bias. We found evidence that delivering on a clean surface, newborn resuscitation, early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding, Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) for low-birthweight babies, and distribution of clean delivery kits were associated with reduced risks of neonatal mortality or the main causes of neonatal mortality. There was evidence that training community birth attendants in resuscitation and administering antibiotics, and establishing women's groups can improve neonatal survival.
There is a remarkable lack of robust evidence from sub-Saharan Africa on the association between practice or promotion of newborn care behaviours and newborn survival.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 09/2013; 18(11). DOI:10.1111/tmi.12193 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low birthweight (<2500 g), in 138 countries of low and middle income in 2010.
The Lancet Global Health 07/2013; 1(1):e26-e36. DOI:10.1016/S2214-109X(13)70006-8 · 10.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Future progress in tackling malaria mortality will probably be hampered by the development of resistance to drugs and insecticides and by the contraction of aid budgets. Historically, control was often achieved without malaria-specific interventions. Our aim was to assess whether socioeconomic development can contribute to malaria control.
We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether the risk of malaria in children aged 0-15 years is associated with socioeconomic status. We searched Medline, Web of Science, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Campbell Library, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Health Systems Evidence, and the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordinating Centre evidence library for studies published in English between Jan 1, 1980, and July 12, 2011, that measured socioeconomic status and parasitologically confirmed malaria or clinical malaria in children. Unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates were combined in fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analyses, with a subgroup analysis for different measures of socioeconomic status. We used funnel plots and Egger's linear regression to test for publication bias.
Of 4696 studies reviewed, 20 met the criteria for inclusion in the qualitative analysis, and 15 of these reported the necessary data for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The odds of malaria infection were higher in the poorest children than in the least poor children (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·66, 95% CI 1·35-2·05, p<0·001, I(2)=68%; adjusted OR 2·06, 1·42-2·97, p<0·001, I(2)=63%), an effect that was consistent across subgroups.
Although we would not recommend discontinuation of existing malaria control efforts, we believe that increased investment in interventions to support socioeconomic development is warranted, since such interventions could prove highly effective and sustainable against malaria in the long term.
UK Department for International Development.
The Lancet 06/2013; 382(9896). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60851-X · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Babies with low birthweight (<2500 g) are at increased risk of early mortality. However, low birthweight includes babies born preterm and with fetal growth restriction, and not all these infants have a birthweight less than 2500 g. We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and middle-income countries. Methods For this pooled analysis, we searched all available studies and identifi ed 20 cohorts (providing data for 2 015 019 livebirths) from Asia, Africa, and Latin America that recorded data for birthweight, gestational age, and vital statistics through 28 days of life. Study dates ranged from 1982 through to 2010. We calculated relative risks (RR) and risk diff erences (RD) for mortality associated with preterm birth (<32 weeks, 32 weeks to <34 weeks, 34 weeks to <37 weeks), small-for-gestational-age (SGA; babies with birthweight in the lowest third percentile and between the third and tenth percentile of a US reference population), and preterm and SGA combinations. Findings Pooled overall RRs for preterm were 6·82 (95% CI 3·56–13·07) for neonatal mortality and 2·50 (1·48–4·22) for post-neonatal mortality. Pooled RRs for babies who were SGA (with birthweight in the lowest tenth percentile of the reference population) were 1·83 (95% CI 1·34–2·50) for neonatal mortality and 1·90 (1·32–2·73) for post-neonatal mortality. The neonatal mortality risk of babies who were both preterm and SGA was higher than that of babies with either characteristic alone (15·42; 9·11–26·12). Interpretation Many babies in low-income and middle-income countries are SGA. Preterm birth aff ects a smaller number of neonates than does SGA, but is associated with a higher mortality risk. The mortality risks associated with both characteristics extend beyond the neonatal period. Diff erentiation of the burden and risk of babies born preterm and SGA rather than with low birthweight could guide prevention and management strategies to speed progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4—the reduction of child mortality.
The Lancet 06/2013; 382(9890):417–25. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60993-9 · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the greatest causes of mortality worldwide. Use of the most effective treatments for malaria remains inadequate for those in need, and there is concern over the emergence of resistance to these treatments. In 2010, the Global Fund launched the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm), a series of national-scale pilot programmes designed to increase the access and use of quality-assured artemisinin based combination therapies (QAACTs) and reduce that of artemisinin monotherapies for treatment of malaria. AMFm involves manufacturer price negotiations, subsidies on the manufacturer price of each treatment purchased, and supporting interventions such as communications campaigns. We present findings on the effect of AMFm on QAACT price, availability, and market share, 6-15 months after the delivery of subsidised ACTs in Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Niger, Nigeria, Uganda, and Tanzania (including Zanzibar). METHODS: We did nationally representative baseline and endpoint surveys of public and private sector outlets that stock antimalarial treatments. QAACTs were identified on the basis of the Global Fund's quality assurance policy. Changes in availability, price, and market share were assessed against specified success benchmarks for 1 year of AMFm implementation. Key informant interviews and document reviews recorded contextual factors and the implementation process. FINDINGS: In all pilots except Niger and Madagascar, there were large increases in QAACT availability (25·8-51·9 percentage points), and market share (15·9-40·3 percentage points), driven mainly by changes in the private for-profit sector. Large falls in median price for QAACTs per adult equivalent dose were seen in the private for-profit sector in six pilots, ranging from US$1·28 to $4·82. The market share of oral artemisinin monotherapies decreased in Nigeria and Zanzibar, the two pilots where it was more than 5% at baseline. INTERPRETATION: Subsidies combined with supporting interventions can be effective in rapidly improving availability, price, and market share of QAACTs, particularly in the private for-profit sector. Decisions about the future of AMFm should also consider the effect on use in vulnerable populations, access to malaria diagnostics, and cost-effectiveness. FUNDING: The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
The Lancet 10/2012; 380. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61732-2 · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To synthesize findings from recent studies of strategies to deliver insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) at scale in malaria-endemic areas.
Databases were searched for studies published between January 2000 and December 2010 in which: subjects resided in areas with endemicity for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria; ITN delivery at scale was evaluated; ITN ownership among households, receipt by pregnant women and/or use among children aged < 5 years was evaluated; and the study design was an individual or cluster-randomized controlled design, nonrandomized, quasi-experimental, before-and-after, interrupted time series or cross-sectional without temporal or geographical controls. Papers describing qualitative studies, case studies, process evaluations and cost-effectiveness studies linked to an eligible paper were also included. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias checklist and GRADE criteria. Important influences on scaling up were identified and assessed across delivery strategies.
A total of 32 papers describing 20 African studies were reviewed. Many delivery strategies involved health sectors and retail outlets (partial subsidy), antenatal care clinics (full subsidy) and campaigns (full subsidy). Strategies achieving high ownership among households and use among children < 5 delivered ITNs free through campaigns. Costs were largely comparable across strategies; ITNs were the main cost. Cost-effectiveness estimates were most sensitive to the assumed net lifespan and leakage. Common barriers to delivery included cost, stock-outs and poor logistics. Common facilitators were staff training and supervision, cooperation across departments or ministries and stakeholder involvement.
There is a broad taxonomy of strategies for delivering ITNs at scale.
Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 09/2012; 90(9):672-684E. DOI:10.2471/BLT.11.094771 · 5.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age in the high mortality setting of East Africa.
Members and collaborators of the Malaria and the MARCH Centers, at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, were contacted and protocols reviewed for East African studies that measured (1) birth weight, (2) gestational age at birth using antenatal ultrasound or neonatal assessment, and (3) neonatal mortality. Ten datasets were identified and four met the inclusion criteria. The four datasets (from Uganda, Kenya, and two from Tanzania) contained 5,727 births recorded between 1999-2010. 4,843 births had complete outcome data and were included in an individual participant level meta-analysis. 99% of 445 low birth weight (< 2,500 g) babies were either preterm (< 37 weeks gestation) or small for gestational age (below tenth percentile of weight for gestational age). 52% of 87 neonatal deaths occurred in preterm or small for gestational age babies. Babies born < 34 weeks gestation had the highest odds of death compared to term babies (odds ratio [OR] 58.7 [95% CI 28.4-121.4]), with little difference when stratified by weight for gestational age. Babies born 34-36 weeks gestation with appropriate weight for gestational age had just three times the likelihood of neonatal death compared to babies born term, (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.0-10.7]), but the likelihood for babies born 34-36 weeks who were also small for gestational age was 20 times higher (OR 19.8 [95% CI 8.3-47.4]). Only 1% of babies were born moderately premature and small for gestational age, but this group suffered 8% of deaths. Individual level data on newborns are scarce in East Africa; potential biases arising due to the non-systematic selection of the individual studies, or due to the methods applied for estimating gestational age, are discussed.
Moderately preterm babies who are also small for gestational age experience a considerably increased likelihood of neonatal death in East Africa.
PLoS Medicine 08/2012; 9(8):e1001292. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001292 · 14.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended for malaria prevention in infants (IPTi-SP). Serious adverse events, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), have been reported following exposure to SP, but few infant-specific data exist. The safety of IPTi-SP was evaluated as part of a pilot implementation programme in southern Tanzania using three methods: spontaneous adverse event reporting to capture suspected adverse drug reactions (ADR); a census survey documenting rash-related hospital admissions among children < 2 years of age; and verbal autopsies (VA) completed for rash-related deaths in 2-11-month-olds. Approximately 82 000 IPTi-SP doses were administered to approximately 29 000 children. In total, 119 suspected ADRs were reported, 13 in children aged <2 years, only one of whom had received IPTi-SP. The census involved 243 612 households. Only one rash-related admission was reported amongst 1292 children aged 2-11 months, but this child had no history of exposure to SP. Moreover, 30 of 699 deaths in 2-11-month-olds were said to have been associated with a skin rash. The rates of rash-associated death were 0.59/1000 person-years at risk (PYAR) and 1.17/1000 PYAR in intervention and comparison areas, respectively (P = 0.79). VAs did not suggest SJS or any other ADR. We conclude that IPTi-SP is associated with a very low incidence of severe skin reactions. [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00152204].
International Health 09/2011; 3(3):154-9. DOI:10.1016/j.inhe.2011.03.009 · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe and evaluate the use of handheld computers for the management of Health Management Information System data.
Electronic data capture took place in 11 sentinel health centres in rural southern Tanzania. Information from children attending the outpatient department (OPD) and the Expanded Program on Immunization vaccination clinic was captured by trained local school-leavers, supported by monthly supervision visits. Clinical data included malaria blood slides and haemoglobin colour scale results. Quality of captured data was assessed using double data entry. Malaria blood slide results from health centre laboratories were compared to those from the study's quality control laboratory.
The system took 5 months to implement, and few staffings or logistical problems were encountered. Over the following 12 months (April 2006-March 2007), 7056 attendances were recorded in 9880 infants aged 2-11 months, 50% with clinical malaria. Monthly supervision visits highlighted incomplete recording of information between OPD and laboratory records, where on average 40% of laboratory visits were missing the record of their corresponding OPD visit. Quality of microscopy from health facility laboratories was lower overall than that from the quality assurance laboratory.
Electronic capture of HMIS data was rapidly and successfully implemented in this resource-poor setting. Electronic capture alone did not resolve issues of data completeness, accuracy and reliability, which are essential for management, monitoring and evaluation; suggestions to monitor and improve data quality are made.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 03/2011; 16(6):721-30. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02751.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) consists of the administration of a treatment dose of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) at the time of routine vaccinations. The use of routine Health Management and Information Services (HMIS) data to investigate the effect of IPTi on malaria, anaemia, and all-cause attendance in children aged 2-11 months presenting to 11 health centres in southern Tanzania is described.
Clinical diagnosis of malaria was confirmed with a positive blood slide reading from a quality assurance laboratory. Anaemia was defined using two thresholds (mild [Hb<11 g/dL], severe [Hb<8 g/dL]). Incidence rates between IPTi and non-implementing health centres were calculated using Poisson regression, and all statistical testing was based on the t test due to the clustered nature of the data.
Seventy two per cent of infants presenting in intervention areas received at least one dose of IPTi--22% received all three. During March 2006-April 2007, the incidence of all cause attendance was two attendances per person, per year (pppy), including 0.2 episodes pppy of malaria, 0.7 episodes of mild and 0.13 episodes of severe anaemia. Point estimates for the effect of IPTi on malaria varied between 18% and 52%, depending on the scope of the analysis, although adjustment for clustering rendered these not statistically significant.
The point estimate of the effect of IPTi on malaria is consistent with that from a large pooled analysis of randomized control trials. As such, it is plausible that the difference seen in health centre data is due to IPTi, even thought the effect did not reach statistical significance. Findings draw attention to the challenges of robust inference of effects of interventions based on routine health centre data. Analysis of routine health information can reassure that interventions are being made available and having desired effects, but unanticipated effects should trigger data collection from representative samples of the target population.