Brett P Monia

Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Carlsbad, California, United States

Are you Brett P Monia?

Claim your profile

Publications (221)1531.23 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Next-generation sequencing technologies have greatly expanded our understanding of cancer genetics. Antisense technology is an attractive platform with the potential to translate these advances into improved cancer therapeutics, because antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) inhibitors can be designed on the basis of gene sequence information alone. Recent human clinical data have demonstrated the potent activity of systemically administered ASOs targeted to genes expressed in the liver. We describe the preclinical activity and initial clinical evaluation of a class of ASOs containing constrained ethyl modifications for targeting the gene encoding the transcription factor STAT3, a notoriously difficult protein to inhibit therapeutically. Systemic delivery of the unformulated ASO, AZD9150, decreased STAT3 expression in a broad range of preclinical cancer models and showed antitumor activity in lymphoma and lung cancer models. AZD9150 preclinical activity translated into single-agent antitumor activity in patients with highly treatment-refractory lymphoma and non-small cell lung cancer in a phase 1 dose-escalation study.
    Science translational medicine 11/2015; 7(314):314ra185. DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.aac5272 · 15.84 Impact Factor
  • Merrill D Benson · Elizabeth J Ackermann · Brett P Monia ·

    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 11/2015; 10(Suppl 1):P7. DOI:10.1186/1750-1172-10-S1-P7 · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To preserve photoreceptor cell structure and function in a rodent model of retinitis pigmentosa with P23H rhodopsin by selective inhibition of the mutant rhodopsin allele using a second generation antisense oligonucleotide (ASO). Methods: Wild-type mice and rats were treated with ASO by intravitreal (IVT) injection and rhodopsin mRNA and protein expression were measured. Transgenic rats expressing the murine P23H rhodopsin gene (P23H transgenic rat Line 1) were administered either a mouse-specific P23H ASO or a control ASO. The contralateral eye was injected with PBS and used as a comparator control. Electroretinography (ERG) measurements and analyses of the retinal outer nuclear layer were conducted and correlated with rhodopsin mRNA levels. Results: Rhodopsin mRNA and protein expression was reduced after a single ASO injection in wild-type mice with a rhodopsin-specific ASO. Transgenic rat eyes that express a murine P23H rhodopsin gene injected with a murine P23H ASO had a 181 ± 39% better maximum amplitude response (scotopic a-wave) as compared with contralateral PBS-injected eyes; the response in control ASO eyes was not significantly different from comparator contralateral eyes. Morphometric analysis of the outer nuclear layer showed a significantly thicker nuclear layer in eyes injected with murine P23H ASO (18%) versus contralateral PBS-injected eyes. Conclusions: Allele-specific ASO-mediated knockdown of mutant P23H rhodopsin expression slowed the rate of photoreceptor degeneration and preserved the function of photoreceptor cells in eyes of the P23H rhodopsin transgenic rat. Our data indicate that ASO treatment is a potentially effective therapy for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 10/2015; 56(11):6362-6375. DOI:10.1167/iovs.15-16400 · 3.40 Impact Factor
  • Source

    Haematologica 09/2015; 124. DOI:10.3324/haematol.2015.133348 · 5.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The tissue half-life of second-generation antisense oligonucleotide drugs (ASOs) is generally longer than traditional small molecule therapeutics. Thus, a strategy to reverse the activity of antisense drugs is warranted in certain settings. In this study, we describe a strategy employing the administration of a complementary sense oligonucleotide antidote (SOA). As a model system we have chosen to target the coagulation factor and antithrombotic drug target, prothrombin, to assess the feasibility of this approach. ASO targeting mouse prothrombin specifically suppressed >90% hepatic prothrombin mRNA levels and circulating prothrombin protein in mice. These effects were dose- and time-dependent, and as expected produced predictable increases in anticoagulation activity [prothrombin time/activated partial thromboplastin time (PT/aPTT)]. Treatment with prothrombin SOAs resulted in a dose-dependent reversal of ASO activity, as measured by a return in prothrombin mRNA levels and thrombin activity, and normalization of aPTT and PT. The antithrombotic activity of prothrombin ASOs was demonstrated in a FeCl3-induced thrombosis mouse model, and as predicted for this target, the doses required for antithrombotic activity were also associated with increased bleeding. Treatment with SOA was able to prevent prothrombin ASO-induced bleeding in a dose-dependent manner. These studies demonstrate for the first time the utility of SOAs to selectively and specifically reverse the intracellular effects of an antisense therapy.
    09/2015; DOI:10.1089/nat.2015.0560
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sickle cell disease (SCD) results in vascular occlusions, chronic hemolytic anemia, and cumulative organ damage. A conspicuous feature of SCD is chronic inflammation and coagulation system activation. Thrombin (FIIa) is both a central protease in hemostasis and a key modifier of inflammatory processes. To explore the hypothesis that reduced prothrombin (FII) levels in SCD will limit vaso-occlusion, vasculopathy, and inflammation, we employed two strategies to suppress FII in mice with SCD. Weekly administration of a FII antisense oligonucleotide "gapmer" to Berkeley SCD mice to selectively reduce circulating FII levels to ~10% of normal for 15 weeks significantly diminished early mortality. More comprehensive, long-term comparative studies were done employing mice with genetic diminution of circulating FII. Here, cohorts of FII(lox/-) mice (constitutively carrying ~10% normal FII) and FII(WT) mice were tracked in parallel for a year following the imposition of SCD via hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from Berkeley SCD donors. This genetically-imposed chronic suppression of FII levels resulted in an impressive reduction in inflammation (reduction in leukocytosis, thrombocytosis and circulating IL-6 levels), reduced endothelial cell dysfunction (reduced endothelial activation and circulating sVCAM), and a significant improvement in SCD-associated end-organ damage (nephropathy, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary inflammation, liver function, inflammatory infiltration and micro-infarctions). Notably, all of these benefits were achieved with relatively modest 1.25-fold increase in prothrombin times, and in the absence of hemorrhagic complications. Taken together, these data establish that prothrombin is a powerful modifier of SCD-induced end-organ damage, and presents a novel therapeutic target to ameliorate SCD pathologies. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hematology.
    Blood 08/2015; 126(15). DOI:10.1182/blood-2015-01-625707 · 10.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that manifests in widespread complement activation and deposition of complement fragments in the kidney. The complement pathway is believed to play a significant role in the pathogenesis and in the development of lupus nephritis. Complement factor B is an important activator of the alternative complement pathway and increasing evidence supports reducing factor B as a potential novel therapy to lupus nephritis. Here we investigated whether pharmacological reduction of factor B expression using antisense oligonucleotides could be an effective approach for the treatment of lupus nephritis. We identified potent and well tolerated factor B antisense oligonucleotides that resulted in significant reductions in hepatic and plasma factor B levels when administered to normal mice. To test the effects of factor B antisense oligonucleotides on lupus nephritis, we used two different mouse models, NZB/W F1 and MRL/lpr mice, that exhibit lupus nephritis like renal pathology. Antisense oligonucleotides mediated reductions in circulating factor B levels were associated with significant improvements in renal pathology, reduced glomerular C3 deposition and proteinuria, and improved survival. These data support the strategy of using factor B antisense oligonucleotides for treatment of lupus nephritis in humans. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.
    Immunobiology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.imbio.2015.08.001 · 3.04 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thrombin-mediated proteolysis is a major determinant of metastasis, but is not universally important for primary tumor growth. Here we report that colorectal adenocarcinoma represents one important exception whereby thrombin-mediated functions support both primary tumor growth and metastasis. In contrast to studies of multiple non-gastrointestinal cancers, we found that the growth of primary tumors formed by murine and human colon cancer cells was reduced in mice by genetic or pharmacological reduction of circulating prothrombin. Reduced prothrombin expression associated with lower mitotic indices and invasion of surrounding tissue. Mechanistic investigations revealed that thrombin-driven colonic adenocarcinoma growth relied upon at least two targets of thrombin-mediated proteolysis, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) expressed by stromal cells, and the extracellular matrix protein, fibrinogen. Colonic adenocarcinoma growth was reduced in PAR-1-deficient mice, implicating PAR-1 as a stromal cell target for thrombin important for tumor outgrowth. Furthermore, tumor growth was dramatically impeded in fibrinogen-deficient mice, offering the first direct evidence of a critical functional role for fibrinogen in malignant tumor growth. Tumors harvested from fibrinogen-deficient mice displayed a relative reduction in cell proliferative indices, as well as increased tumor necrosis and decreased tumor vascular density. Collectively, our findings established a functional role for thrombin and its targets PAR-1 and fibrinogen in the pathogenesis of colonic adenocarcinoma, supporting tumor growth as well as local invasion and metastasis. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-0964 · 9.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx) is a complex and well-orchestrated biological process in which synchronized cell proliferation is induced in response to the loss of liver mass. To define long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that participate in the regulation of liver regeneration, we performed microarray analysis and identified more than 400 lncRNAs exhibiting significantly altered expression. Of these, one lncRNA, LncPHx2 (Long noncoding RNA induced by PHx 2), was highly upregulated during liver regeneration. Depletion of LncPHx2 during liver regeneration using antisense oligonucleotides led to a transient increase in hepatocyte proliferation and more rapid liver regeneration. Gene expression analysis showed that LncPHx2 depletion resulted in upregulation of mRNAs encoding proteins known to promote cell proliferation, including MCM components, DNA polymerases, histone proteins, and transcription factors. LncPHx2 interacts with the mRNAs of MCM components, making it a candidate to regulate the expression of MCMs and other genes post-transcriptionally. Collectively, our data demonstrate that LncPHx2 is a key lncRNA that participates in a negative feedback loop modulating hepatocyte proliferation through RNA-RNA interactions.
    PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7):e0132798. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0132798 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Factor (F) XII, a key component of the contact system, triggers clotting via the intrinsic pathway, and is implicated in propagating thrombosis. Although nucleic acids are potent activators, it is unclear how the contact system is regulated to prevent uncontrolled clotting. Previously, we showed that histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) binds FXIIa and attenuates its capacity to trigger coagulation. To investigate the role of HRG as a regulator of the intrinsic pathway, we compared RNA- and DNA-induced thrombin generation in plasma from HRG-deficient and wild-type mice. Thrombin generation was enhanced in plasma from HRG-deficient mice and accelerated clotting was restored to normal with HRG reconstitution. Although blood loss after tail tip amputation was similar in HRG-deficient and wild-type mice, carotid artery occlusion after FeCl3 injury was accelerated in HRG-deficient mice and HRG administration abrogated this effect. To confirm that HRG modulates the contact system, we used DNase, RNase and antisense oligonucleotides to characterize the FeCl3 model. Whereas DNase or FVII knockdown had no effect, carotid occlusion was abrogated with RNase or FXII knockdown; confirming that FeCl3-induced thrombosis is triggered by RNA in a FXII-dependent fashion. Therefore, in a nucleic acid-driven model, HRG inhibits thrombosis by modulating the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hematology.
    Blood 02/2015; 125(17). DOI:10.1182/blood-2014-11-611319 · 10.45 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose:Enzalutamide (ENZ) is a potent androgen receptor (AR) antagonist with activity in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC); however, progression to ENZ-resistant (ENZ-R) CRPC frequently occurs with rising serum PSA levels, implicating AR full-length (ARFL) or variants (AR-Vs) in disease progression. Experimental Design:To define functional roles of ARFL and AR-Vs in ENZ-R CRPC, we designed 3 antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) targeting exon-1, intron-1, and exon-8 in AR pre-mRNA to knockdown ARFL alone or with AR-Vs, and examined their effects in three CRPC cell lines and patient-derived xenografts. Results:ENZ-R-LNCaP cells express high levels of both ARFL and AR-V7 compared to CRPC-LNCaP; in particular ARFL levels were ~12-fold higher than AR-V7. Both ARFL and AR-V7 are highly expressed in the nuclear fractions of ENZ-R-LNCaP cells even in the absence of exogenous androgens. In ENZ-R-LNCaP cells, knockdown of ARFL alone, or ARFL plus AR-Vs, similarly induced apoptosis, suppressed cell growth and AR-regulated gene expression, and delayed tumour growth in vivo. In 22Rv1 cells that are inherently ENZ-resistant, knockdown of both ARFL and AR-Vs more potently suppressed cell growth, AR transcriptional activity and AR-regulated gene expression than knockdown of ARFL alone. Exon-1 AR-ASO also inhibited tumor growth of LTL-313BR patient-derived CRPC xenografts. Conclusions:These data identify the AR as an important driver of ENZ resistance, and while the contributions of ARFL and AR-Vs can vary across cell systems, ARFL is the key driver in the ENZ-R LNCaP model. AR targeting strategies against both ARFL and AR-Vs is a rational approach for AR-dependent CRPC. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Clinical Cancer Research 01/2015; 21(7). DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-1108 · 8.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Circulating transthyretin (TTR) is a critical determinant of plasma retinol-binding-protein 4 (RBP4) levels. Elevated RBP4 causes insulin resistance and lowering RBP4 improves glucose homeostasis. Since lowering TTR increases renal clearance of RBP4, we determined if decreasing TTR with antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obesity. TTR-ASO treatment of mice with genetic or dietary-induced obesity resulted in 80-95% decrease in circulating TTR and RBP4. TTR-ASO, but not Control ASO, decreased insulin levels by 30-60% and improved insulin sensitivity in ob/ob mice and high-fat-diet-fed mice as early as 2 weeks of treatment. The reduced insulin levels were sustained for up to 9 weeks of treatment and were associated with reduced adipose tissue inflammation. Body weight was not changed. TTR-ASO treatment decreased LDL cholesterol in high-fat-diet-fed mice. The glucose infusion rate during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was 50% increased in high-fat-diet-fed mice treated with TTR-ASO demonstrating improved insulin sensitivity. This was also demonstrated by 20% greater inhibition of hepatic glucose production, 45-60% increase of glucose-uptake into skeletal and cardiac muscle, and 2-fold increase in insulin signaling in muscle. These data show that decreasing circulating TTR levels or altering TTR-RBP4 binding could be a potential therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes 12/2014; 64(5). DOI:10.2337/db14-0970 · 8.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Experimental data indicate that reducing factor XI levels attenuates thrombosis without causing bleeding, but the role of factor XI in the prevention of postoperative venous thrombosis in humans is unknown. FXI-ASO (ISIS 416858) is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide that specifically reduces factor XI levels. We compared the efficacy and safety of FXI-ASO with those of enoxaparin in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Methods In this open-label, parallel-group study, we randomly assigned 300 patients who were undergoing elective primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty to receive one of two doses of FXI-ASO (200 mg or 300 mg) or 40 mg of enoxaparin once daily. The primary efficacy outcome was the incidence of venous thromboembolism (assessed by mandatory bilateral venography or report of symptomatic events). The principal safety outcome was major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. Results Around the time of surgery, the mean (±SE) factor XI levels were 0.38±0.01 units per milliliter in the 200-mg FXI-ASO group, 0.20±0.01 units per milliliter in the 300-mg FXI-ASO group, and 0.93±0.02 units per milliliter in the enoxaparin group. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 36 of 134 patients (27%) who received the 200-mg dose of FXI-ASO and in 3 of 71 patients (4%) who received the 300-mg dose of FXI-ASO, as compared with 21 of 69 patients (30%) who received enoxaparin. The 200-mg regimen was noninferior, and the 300-mg regimen was superior, to enoxaparin (P<0.001). Bleeding occurred in 3%, 3%, and 8% of the patients in the three study groups, respectively. Conclusions This study showed that factor XI contributes to postoperative venous thromboembolism; reducing factor XI levels in patients undergoing elective primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty was an effective method for its prevention and appeared to be safe with respect to the risk of bleeding. (Funded by Isis Pharmaceuticals; FXI-ASO TKA number, NCT01713361 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 12/2014; 372(3). DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1405760 · 55.87 Impact Factor

  • Cancer Research 10/2014; 74(19 Supplement):LB-227-LB-227. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2014-LB-227 · 9.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Triantennary N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc, GN3), a high-affinity ligand for the hepatocyte-specific asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), enhances the potency of second-generation gapmer antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) 6–10-fold in mouse liver. When combined with next-generation ASO designs comprised of short S-cEt (S-2′-O-Et-2′,4′-bridged nucleic acid) gapmer ASOs, ∼60-fold enhancement in potency relative to the parent MOE (2′-O-methoxyethyl RNA) ASO was observed. GN3-conjugated ASOs showed high affinity for mouse ASGPR, which results in enhanced ASO delivery to hepatocytes versus non-parenchymal cells. After internalization into cells, the GN3-ASO conjugate is metabolized to liberate the parent ASO in the liver. No metabolism of the GN3-ASO conjugate was detected in plasma suggesting that GN3 acts as a hepatocyte targeting prodrug that is detached from the ASO by metabolism after internalization into the liver. GalNAc conjugation also enhanced potency and duration of the effect of two ASOs targeting human apolipoprotein C-III and human transthyretin (TTR) in transgenic mice. The unconjugated ASOs are currently in late stage clinical trials for the treatment of familial chylomicronemia and TTR-mediated polyneuropathy. The ability to translate these observations in humans offers the potential to improve therapeutic index, reduce cost of therapy and support a monthly dosing schedule for therapeutic suppression of gene expression in the liver using ASOs.
    Nucleic Acids Research 07/2014; 42(13). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku531 · 9.11 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Coagulation factor XI is proposed as therapeutic target for anticoagulation. However, it is still unclear whether the antithrombotic properties of factor XI inhibitors influence atherosclerotic disease and atherothrombosis. Our aim is to investigate whether factor XI antisense oligonucleotides could prevent thrombus formation on acutely ruptured atherosclerotic plaques. Approach and results: Atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries of Apoe(-/-) mice were acutely ruptured using ultrasound. The subsequent thrombus formation was visualized and quantified by intravital microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Mice were pretreated with either factor XI antisense or nonsense oligonucleotides (50 mg/kg) to lower factor XI plasma levels. A tail bleeding assay was used to determine the safety. On plaque rupture, initial platelet adhesion and platelet plug formation were not impaired in animals treated with factor XI antisense oligonucleotides. However, the ensuing thrombus formation and fibrin deposition were significantly lower after 5 to 10 minutes (P<0.05) in factor XI antisense oligonucleotide-treated animals without inducing a bleeding tendency. Furthermore, thrombi from antisense-treated animals were less stable than thrombi from placebo-treated animals. Moreover, macrophage infiltration and collagen deposition were lower in the carotid arteries of factor XI antisense-treated animals. No neutrophils were present. Conclusions: Factor XI antisense oligonucleotides safely prevent thrombus formation on acutely ruptured atherosclerotic plaques in mice. Furthermore, perturbed carotid arteries from factor XI antisense-treated animals show a less severe inflammatory response.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 06/2014; 34(8). DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.303209 · 6.00 Impact Factor

  • Diabetologie und Stoffwechsel 05/2014; 9(S 01). DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1374908 · 0.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is caused by the polyglutamine androgen receptor (polyQ-AR), a protein expressed by both lower motor neurons and skeletal muscle. Although viewed as a motor neuronopathy, data from patients and mouse models suggest that muscle contributes to disease pathogenesis. Here, we tested this hypothesis using AR113Q knockin and human bacterial artificial chromosome/clone (BAC) transgenic mice that express the full-length polyQ-AR and display androgen-dependent weakness, muscle atrophy, and early death. We developed antisense oligonucleotides that suppressed AR gene expression in the periphery but not the CNS after subcutaneous administration. Suppression of polyQ-AR in the periphery rescued deficits in muscle weight, fiber size, and grip strength, reversed changes in muscle gene expression, and extended the lifespan of mutant males. We conclude that polyQ-AR expression in the periphery is an important contributor to pathology in SBMA mice and that peripheral administration of therapeutics should be explored for SBMA patients.
    Cell Reports 04/2014; 7(3). DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2014.02.008 · 8.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In obesity and type 2 diabetes, Glut4 glucose transporter expression is decreased selectively in adipocytes. Adipose-specific knockout or overexpression of Glut4 alters systemic insulin sensitivity. Here we show, using DNA array analyses, that nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (Nnmt) is the most strongly reciprocally regulated gene when comparing gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) from adipose-specific Glut4-knockout or adipose-specific Glut4-overexpressing mice with their respective controls. NNMT methylates nicotinamide (vitamin B3) using S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. Nicotinamide is a precursor of NAD(+), an important cofactor linking cellular redox states with energy metabolism. SAM provides propylamine for polyamine biosynthesis and donates a methyl group for histone methylation. Polyamine flux including synthesis, catabolism and excretion, is controlled by the rate-limiting enzymes ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and spermidine-spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT; encoded by Sat1) and by polyamine oxidase (PAO), and has a major role in energy metabolism. We report that NNMT expression is increased in WAT and liver of obese and diabetic mice. Nnmt knockdown in WAT and liver protects against diet-induced obesity by augmenting cellular energy expenditure. NNMT inhibition increases adipose SAM and NAD(+) levels and upregulates ODC and SSAT activity as well as expression, owing to the effects of NNMT on histone H3 lysine 4 methylation in adipose tissue. Direct evidence for increased polyamine flux resulting from NNMT inhibition includes elevated urinary excretion and adipocyte secretion of diacetylspermine, a product of polyamine metabolism. NNMT inhibition in adipocytes increases oxygen consumption in an ODC-, SSAT- and PAO-dependent manner. Thus, NNMT is a novel regulator of histone methylation, polyamine flux and NAD(+)-dependent SIRT1 signalling, and is a unique and attractive target for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes.
    Nature 04/2014; 508(7495):258-62. DOI:10.1038/nature13198 · 41.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The established association between inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer underscores the importance of inflammation in colon cancer development. Based on evidence that hemostatic proteases are powerful modifiers of both inflammatory pathologies and tumor biology, gene-targeted mice carrying low levels of prothrombin were used to directly test the hypothesis that prothrombin contributes to tumor development in colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). Remarkably, imposing a modest 50% reduction in circulating prothrombin in fII+/- mice, a level that carries no significant bleeding risk, dramatically decreased adenoma formation following an azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate challenge. Similar results were obtained with pharmacological inhibition of prothrombin expression or inhibition of thrombin proteolytic activity. Detailed longitudinal analyses showed that the role of thrombin in tumor development in CAC was temporally associated with the antecedent inflammatory colitis. However, direct studies of the antecedent colitis showed that mice carrying half-normal prothrombin levels were comparable to control mice in mucosal damage, inflammatory cell infiltration and associated local cytokine levels. These results suggest that thrombin supports early events coupled to inflammation-mediated tumorigenesis in CAC that are distinct from overall inflammation-induced tissue damage and inflammatory cell trafficking. That prothrombin is linked to early events in CAC was strongly inferred by the observation that prothrombin deficiency dramatically reduced the formation of very early, pre-cancerous aberrant crypt foci. Given the importance of inflammation in the development of colon cancer, these studies suggest that therapeutic interventions at the level of hemostatic factors may be an effective means to prevent and/or impede colitis-associated colon cancer progression.
    Cancer Research 04/2014; 74(11). DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-3276 · 9.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
1,531.23 Total Impact Points


  • 1996-2015
    • Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
      Carlsbad, California, United States
    • Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
      Carlsbad, California, United States
  • 2014
    • Drug Discovery Consultants
      Northbrook, Illinois, United States
  • 2011-2014
    • Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
      • Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2007
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Dallas, TX, United States
  • 2006
    • Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 2004-2006
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      • • Diabetes Research Center
      • • Department of Molecular Pharmacology
      New York City, NY, United States
    • Western General Hospital
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • Medical University of Vienna
      • Institute for Social Medicine
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 2002-2004
    • University of Vienna
      • Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 2003
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Indianapolis, IN, United States
  • 2001
    • The University of Chicago Medical Center
      • Section of Hematology/Oncology
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
      Newark, New Jersey, United States
  • 2000
    • Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research
      • Department of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1999-2000
    • University of Houston
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Colorado
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 1994
    • Wayne State University
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 1993
    • Molecular and Cellular Biology Program
      • Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1989
    • William Penn University
      • Biology
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1986
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Medicine
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States