[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sepsis caused by LPS is characterized by an intense systemic inflammatory response affecting the lungs, causing acute lung injury (ALI). Dysfunction of mitochondria and the role of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species produced by mitochondria have already been proposed in the pathogenesis of sepsis; however, the exact molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Oxidative stress induces cyclophilin D (CypD)-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT), leading to organ failure in sepsis. In previous studies mPT was inhibited by cyclosporine A which, beside CypD, inhibits cyclophilin A, B, C and calcineurin, regulating cell death and inflammatory pathways. The immunomodulatory side effects of cyclosporine A make it unfavorable in inflammatory model systems. To avoid these uncertainties in the molecular mechanism, we studied endotoxemia-induced ALI in CypD-/- mice providing unambiguous data for the pathological role of CypD-dependent mPT in ALI. Our key finding is that the loss of this essential protein improves survival rate and it can intensely ameliorate endotoxin-induced lung injury through attenuated proinflammatory cytokine release, down-regulation of redox sensitive cellular pathways such as MAPKs, Akt, and NF-κB and reducing the production of ROS. Functional inhibition of NF-κB was confirmed by decreased expression of NF-κB-mediated proinflammatory genes. We demonstrated that impaired mPT due to the lack of CypD reduces the severity of endotoxemia-induced lung injury suggesting that CypD specific inhibitors might have a great therapeutic potential in sepsis-induced organ failure. Our data highlight a previously unknown regulatory function of mitochondria during inflammatory response.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease 09/2015; 1852(12). DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2015.09.004 · 4.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we found that the unconventional small human heat-shock protein HSPB11 inhibits cell death by HSP90 mediated cholesterol-rich membrane microdomain dependent activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B pathway and by stabilising the mitochondrial membrane systems. Also, progressive cytoplasmic expression of HSPB11 correlated with brain tumor malignancy. In the present study we investigated how cytoplasmic abundance of HSPB11 augments tumor malignancy. We up- and downregulated the cytoplasmic level of HSPB11 before paclitaxel exposure in NIH3T3 and HeLa cells, which normally express low and high levels, respectively, of the HSPB11 protein. We examined the paclitaxel-mediated induction of cell death, mitochondrial fission, HSPB11 mitochondrial translocation and inhibitory phosphorylation of dynamin-like protein-1 (DLP1). We found that increasing cytoplasmic abundance of HSPB11 in NIH3T3 cells protected against paclitaxel-induced apoptosis, while suppressing HSPB11 in HeLa cells sensitised the cells toward paclitaxel. Also, paclitaxel enhanced mitochondrial translocation of HSPB11 in wild type HeLa but not in NIH3T3 cells. More importantly, increased cytoplasmic level of HSPB11 in NIH3T3 cells enhanced the inhibitory phosphorylation of DLP1 and attenuated paclitaxel-induced mitochondrial fission. All these results suggest that increased cytoplasmic abundance of HSPB11 augments inhibitory phosphorylation of DLP1 thereby reduces mitochondrial fission that eventually leads to decreased apoptosis. This novel mechanism may explain the resistance to apoptosis and increased malignancy of HSPB11-overexpressing tumours. The clinical significance of this mechanism has already been highlighted by the finding that the kinase inhibitor tyrphostin A9 induces cancer cell death by DLP1-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation.
Journal of Cancer 04/2015; 6(5):470-6. DOI:10.7150/jca.11494 · 3.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to recent results, various mitochondrial processes can actively regulate the immune response. In the present report, we studied whether mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) has such a role. To this end, we compared bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in cyclophilin D (CypD) knock-out and wild-type mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. CypD is a regulator of mPT; therefore, mPT is damaged in CypD(-/-) cells. We chose this genetic modification-based model because the mPT inhibitor cyclosporine A regulates inflammatory processes by several pathways unrelated to the mitochondria. The LPS increased mitochondrial depolarisation, cellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, nuclear factor-κB activation, and nitrite- and tumour necrosis factor α accumulation in wild-type cells, but these changes were diminished or absent in the CypD-deficient macrophages. Additionally, LPS enhanced Akt phosphorylation/activation as well as FOXO1 and FOXO3a phosphorylation/inactivation both in wild-type and CypD(-/-) cells. However, Akt and FOXO phosphorylation was significantly more pronounced in CypD-deficient compared to wild-type macrophages. These results provide the first pieces of experimental evidence for the functional regulatory role of mPT in the LPS-induced early inflammatory response of macrophages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) is associated with high mortality due to right ventricular failure and hypoxia, therefore to understand the mechanism by which pulmonary vascular remodeling initiates these processes is very important. We used a well-characterized monocrotaline (MCT)-induced rat PH model, and analyzed lung morphology, expression of cytokines, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI-3k-Akt) pathway and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which sildenafil's protective effect in PH is exerted. Besides its protective effect on lung morphology, sildenafil suppressed multiple cytokines involved in neutrophil and mononuclear cells recruitment including cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2α/β, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, interleukin (IL)-1α, lipopolysaccharide induced CXC chemokine (LIX), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and MIP-3α. NF-κB activation and phosphorylation were also attenuated by sildenafil. Furthermore, sildenafil reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 MAPK activation while enhanced activation of the cytoprotective Akt pathway in PH. These data suggest a beneficial effect of sildenafil on inflammatory and kinase signaling mechanisms that substantially contribute to its protective effects, and may have potential implications in designing future therapeutic strategies in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.
PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104890. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104890 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a suitable model for studies of the complications of hypertension. It is known that activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme (PARP) plays an important role in the development of postinfarction as well as long-term hypertension induced heart failure. In this study, we examined whether PARP-inhibitor (L-2286) treatment could prevent the development of hypertensive cardiopathy in SHRs. 6-week-old SHR animals were treated with L-2286 (SHR-L group) or placebo (SHR-C group) for 24 weeks. Wistar-Kyoto rats were used as aged-matched, normotensive controls (WKY group). Echocardiography was performed, brain-derived natriuretic peptide (BNP) activity and blood pressure were determined at the end of the study. We detected the extent of fibrotic areas. The amount of heat-shock proteins (Hsps) and the phosphorylation state of Akt-1Ser473, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3βSer9, forkhead transcription factor (FKHR)Ser256, mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes were monitored. The elevated blood pressure in SHRs was not influenced by PARP-inhibitor treatment. Systolic left ventricular function and BNP activity did not differ among the three groups. L-2286 treatment decreased the marked left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy which was developed in SHRs. Interstitial collagen deposition was also decreased by L-2286 treatment. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2Thr183-Tyr185, Akt-1Ser473, GSK-3βSer9, FKHRSer256, and PKC εSer729 and the level of Hsp90 were increased, while the activity of PKC α/βIIThr638/641, ζ/λ410/403 were mitigated by L-2286 administration. We could detect signs of LV hypertrophy without congestive heart failure in SHR groups. This alteration was prevented by PARP inhibition. Our results suggest that PARP-inhibitor treatment has protective effect already in the early stage of hypertensive myocardial remodeling.
PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102148. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102148 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Abstract Purpose: Sensitizing cancer cells to irradiation is a major challenge in clinical oncology. We aimed to define the signal transduction pathways involved in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor-induced radiosensitization in various mammalian cancer lines.
Materials and methods:
Clonogenic survival assays and Western blot examinations were performed following telecobalt irradiation of cancer cells in the presence or absence of various combinations of PARP- and selective mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors.
HO3089 resulted in significant cytotoxicity when combined with irradiation. In human U251 glioblastoma and A549 lung cancer cell lines, Erk1/2 and JNK/SAPK were found to mediate this effect of HO3089 since inhibitors of these kinases ameliorated it. In murine 4T1 breast cancer cell line, p38 MAPK rather than Erk1/2 or JNK/SAPK was identified as the main mediator of HO3089's radiosensitizing effect. Besides the aforementioned changes in kinase signaling, we detected increased p53, unchanged Bax and decreased Bcl-2 expression in the A549 cell line.
HO3089 sensitizes cancer cells to photon irradiation via proapoptotic processes where p53 plays a crucial role. Activation of MAPK pathways is regarded the consequence of irradiation-induced DNA damage, thus their inhibition can counteract the radiosenzitizing effect of the PARP inhibitor.
International Journal of Radiation Biology 06/2014; 90(12):1-23. DOI:10.3109/09553002.2014.934927 · 1.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and neurohumoral factors play important role in the development of hypertension-induced vascular remodeling, likely by disregulating kinase cascades and transcription factors. Oxidative stress activates poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP-1), which promotes inflammation and cell death. We assumed that inhibition of PARP-1 reduces the hypertension-induced adverse vascular changes. This hypothesis was tested in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).
Ten-week-old male SHRs and wild-type rats received or not 5mg/kg/dayL-2286 (a water-soluble PARP-inhibitor) for 32weeks, then morphological and functional parameters were determined in their aortas. L-2286 did not affect the blood pressure in any of the animal groups measured with tail-cuff method. Arterial stiffness index increased in untreated SHRs compared to untreated Wistar rats, which was attenuated by L-2286 treatment. Electron and light microscopy of aortas showed prominent collagen deposition, elevation of oxidative stress markers and increased PARP activity in SHR, which were attenuated by PARP-inhibition. L-2286 treatment decreased also the hypertension-activated mitochondrial cell death pathway, characterized by the nuclear translocation of AIF. Hypertension activated all three branches of MAP-kinases. L-2286 attenuated these changes by inducing the expression of MAPK phosphatase-1 and by activating the cytoprotective PI-3-kinase/Akt pathway. Hypertension activated nuclear factor-kappaB, which was prevented by PARP-inhibition via activating its nuclear export.
PARP-inhibition has significant vasoprotective effects against hypertension-induced vascular remodeling. Therefore, PARP-1 can be a novel therapeutic drug target for preventing hypertension-induced vascular remodeling in a group of patients, in whom lowering the blood pressure to optimal range is harmful or causes intolerable side effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel immunosuppressive therapy facilitates long term allograft survival, but acute tubular necrosis and ischemia-reperfusion during transplantation can compromise allograft function. These processes are related to oxidative stress which activates poly- (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) contributing to the activation of cell death pathways. Here we raised the possibility that PARP inhibition curbs cell death pathways and shifts kinase signaling to improved graft survival.
In an acute rat kidney rejection model, we provided evidence that the PARP inhibitor 4-hydroxy-quinazoline (4OHQ) attenuates rejection processes initiated oxidative/nitrosative stress, nuclear poly-ADP-ribosylation and the disintegration of the tubulo-interstitial structures. The PARP inhibitor attenuated rejection processes induced pro-apoptotic pathways by increasing Bcl-2/Bax ratio and suppressing pro-apoptotic t-Bid levels. In transplanted kidneys, the cell death inducing JNK1/2 is normally activated, but PARP inhibition suppressed this activation with having only modest effects on ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinases. In untreated transplanted kidneys, no significant alterations were detected in the cytoprotective PI-3K-Akt pathway, but the PARP inhibitor significantly activated Akt (by S473 phosphorylation) and suppressed GSK-3β, as well as activated acute NF-kappaB activation contributing to graft protection.
These data show the protective role of PARP inhibition on graft survival by attenuating poly-ADP-ribosylation, oxidative stress, suppressing pro-apoptotic and increasing anti-apoptotic protein level, and by shifting MAP kinases and PI-3-K-Akt pathways to cytoprotective direction. Thus, addition of PARP inhibitors to standard immunosuppressive therapies during kidney transplantation may provide increased protection to prolong graft survival.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81928. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081928 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of the present study was to compare the efficacy of treatment with irradiation (IR), temozolomide, and quercetin, alone, or in combinations, on 2 glioblastoma cell lines, DBTRG-05 and U-251. Cell viability assay, flow cytometry analysis, colony formation assay, and Western blot analysis were used to compare the effects of treatment on the 2 cell lines. The greatest reduction in cell viability and colony formation was observed when cells were treated with a combination of the agents including quercetin. The treatment of cells with the combination of IR and quercetin was equal to the efficiency of the combination of IR and temozolomide in decreasing cell viability as well as colony formation. Quercetin alone, or in combination with IR, increased the cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP-1 showing an activated apoptosis and significantly reduced the level of phospho-Akt. Moreover, these treatments increased the levels of phospho-ERK, phospho-JNK, phospho-p38, and phospho-RAF1. Our data indicate that the supplementation of standard therapy with quercetin increases efficacy of treatment of experimental glioblastoma through synergism in the induction of apoptosis via the cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP-1 and by the suppression of the actitivation of Akt pathway.
Nutrition and Cancer 09/2013; 65(7). DOI:10.1080/01635581.2013.810291 · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Red wine polyphenols can prevent cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Resveratrol, the most extensively studied constituent, is unlikely to solely account for these beneficial effects because of its rather low abundance and bioavailability. Malvidin is far the most abundant polyphenol in red wine; however, very limited data are available about its effect on inflammatory processes and kinase signaling pathways. METHODS FINDINGS: The present study was carried out by using RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in the presence and absence of malvidin. From the cells, activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B/Akt and poly ADP-ribose polymerase, reactive oxygen species production, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and mitochondrial depolarization were determined. We found that malvidin attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-kappaB, poly ADP-ribose polymerase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial depolarization, while upregulated the compensatory processes; mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and Akt activation.
These effects of malvidin may explain the previous findings and at least partially account for the positive effects of moderate red wine consumption on inflammation-mediated chronic maladies such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease.
PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e65355. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0065355 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a highly potent endogenous lipid mediator that protects and rescues cells from programmed cell death. Earlier work identified the LPA(2) G protein-coupled receptor subtype as an important molecular target of LPA mediating the antiapoptotic signaling. Here we describe the results of a virtual screen using single-reference similarity searching that yielded compounds NSC12404, GRI977143, H2L5547924, and H2L5828102, novel nonlipid and drug-like hits that are specific for the LPA(2) receptor subtype. We characterized the antiapoptotic action of one of these hits GRI977143 that was effective in reducing activation of caspases 3, 7, 8, and 9 and inhibited poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 cleavage and DNA fragmentation in different extrinsic and intrinsic models of apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, GRI977143 promoted carcinoma cell invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers and fibroblast proliferation. These antiapoptotic cellular signaling responses were present selectively in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells derived from LPA(1&2) double knockout mice reconstituted with the LPA(2) receptor and were absent in vector-transduced control cells. GRI977143 was an effective stimulator of extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2 activation and promoted the assembly of a macromolecular signaling complex consisting of LPA(2), Na(+)-H(+) exchange regulatory factor 2, and thyroid receptor interacting protein 6, which has been shown previously as a required step in LPA-induced antiapoptotic signaling. The present findings indicate that nonlipid LPA(2)-specific agonists represent an excellent starting point for development of lead compounds with potential therapeutic utility for preventing the programmed cell death involved in many types of degenerative and inflammatory diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resveratrol was suggested to inhibit Toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-β (TRIF)-(TANK)-binding kinase 1, but the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88-tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) pathway is not involved in this effect. However, involvement of TRAF6 in this process is still elusive since cross talk between TRIF and TRAF6 has been reported in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced signaling. Using RAW 264.7 macrophages, we determined the effect of resveratrol on LPS-induced TRAF6 expression, ubiquitination as well as activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and Akt in order to elucidate its involvement in TLR4 signaling. LPS-induced transient elevation in TRAF6 mRNA and protein expressions is suppressed by resveratrol. LPS induces the ubiquitination of TRAF6, which has been reported to be essential for Akt activation and for transforming growth factor-β activated kinase-1-NAP kinase kinase 6 (MKK6)-mediated p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. We found that resveratrol diminishes the effect of LPS on TRAF6 ubiquitination and activation of JNK and p38 MAP kinases, while it has no effect on the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. The effect of resveratrol on MAP kinase inhibition is significant since TRAF6 activation was reported to induce activation of JNK and p38 MAP kinase while not affecting ERK1/2. Moreover, Akt was identified previously as a direct target of TRAF6, and we found that, similarly to MAPKs, phosphorylation pattern of Akt followed the activation of TRAF6, and it was inhibited by resveratrol at all time points. Here, we provide the first evidence that resveratrol, by suppressing LPS-induced TRAF6 expression and ubiquitination, attenuates the LPS-induced TLR4-TRAF6, MAP kinase and Akt pathways that can be significant in its anti-inflammatory effects.
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 08/2012; 24(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.04.017 · 3.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to the "membrane sensor" hypothesis, the membranes physical properties and microdomain organization play an initiating role in the heat shock response. Clinical conditions such as cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases are all coupled with specific changes in the physical state and lipid composition of cellular membranes and characterized by altered heat shock protein levels in cells suggesting that these "membrane defects" can cause suboptimal hsp-gene expression. Such observations provide a new rationale for the introduction of novel, heat shock protein modulating drug candidates. Intercalating compounds can be used to alter membrane properties and by doing so normalize dysregulated expression of heat shock proteins, resulting in a beneficial therapeutic effect for reversing the pathological impact of disease. The membrane (and lipid) interacting hydroximic acid (HA) derivatives discussed in this review physiologically restore the heat shock protein stress response, creating a new class of "membrane-lipid therapy" pharmaceuticals. The diseases that HA derivatives potentially target are diverse and include, among others, insulin resistance and diabetes, neuropathy, atrial fibrillation, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. At a molecular level HA derivatives are broad spectrum, multi-target compounds as they fluidize yet stabilize membranes and remodel their lipid rafts while otherwise acting as PARP inhibitors. The HA derivatives have the potential to ameliorate disparate conditions, whether of acute or chronic nature. Many of these diseases presently are either untreatable or inadequately treated with currently available pharmaceuticals. Ultimately, the HA derivatives promise to play a major role in future pharmacotherapy.
Current pharmaceutical design 08/2012; 19(3). DOI:10.2174/138161213804143716 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Atherosclerotic plaques progress in a highly individual manner. Plaque eccentricity has been associated with a rupture-prone phenotype and adverse coronary events in humans. Endothelial shear stress (ESS) critically determines plaque growth and low ESS leads to high-risk lesions. However, the factors responsible for rapid disease progression with increasing plaque eccentricity have not been studied. We investigated in vivo the effect of local hemodynamic and plaque characteristics on progressive luminal narrowing with increasing plaque eccentricity in humans.
Methods: Three-dimensional coronary artery reconstruction using angiographic and intravascular ultrasound data was performed in 374 patients at baseline (BL) and 6-10 months later (FU) to assess plaque natural history as part of the PREDICTION Trial. A total of 874 coronary arteries were divided into consecutive 3-mm segments. We identified 408 BL discrete luminal narrowings with a throat in the middle surrounded by gradual narrowing proximal and distal to the throat. Local BL ESS was assessed by computational fluid dynamics. The eccentricity index (EI) at BL and FU was computed as the ratio of max to min plaque thickness at the throat. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to investigate the effect of BL variables on the combined endpoint of substantial worsening of luminal narrowing (decrease in lumen area >1.8 mm2 or >20%) with an increase in plaque EI.
Results: Lumen worsening with an increase in plaque EI was evident in 73 luminal narrowings (18%). Independent predictors of worsening lumen narrowing with plaque EI increase were low BL ESS (<1 Pa) distal to the throat (odds ratio [OR] =2.2 [95% CI: 1.3-3.7]; p=0.003) and large BL plaque burden (>51%) at the throat (OR=1.7 [95% CI: 1.0-2.8]; p=0.051). The incidence of worsening lumen narrowing with increasing plaque eccentricity was 30% in the presence of both predictors versus 15% in luminal narrowings without this combination of characteristics (OR=2.4 [95% CI: 1.4-4.3]; p=0.002).
Conclusions: Low local ESS independently predicts areas with rapidly progressive luminal narrowing and increasing plaque eccentricity. Coronary regions manifesting an abrupt anatomic change, i.e., at highest risk to cause an adverse event, can be identified early by assessment of ESS and plaque burden.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
2,4-Dimethoxyphenyl-E-4-arylidene-3-isochromanone (IK11) was previously described to induce apoptotic death of A431 tumor cells. In this report, we investigated the molecular action of IK11 in the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line to increase our knowledge of the role of poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP), protein kinase B/Akt and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in the survival and death of tumor cells and to highlight the possible role of PARP-inhibitors in co-treatments with different cytotoxic agents in cancer therapy.
We found that sublethal concentrations of IK11 prevented proliferation, migration and entry of the cells into their G2 phase. At higher concentrations, IK11 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2), and substantial loss of HepG2 cells. ROS production appeared marginal in mediating the cytotoxicity of IK11 since N-acetyl cysteine was unable to prevent it. However, the PARP inhibitor PJ34, although not a ROS scavenger, strongly inhibited both IK11-induced ROS production and cell death. JNK2 activation seemed to be a major mediator of the effect of IK11 since inhibition of JNK resulted in a substantial cytoprotection while inhibitors of the other kinases failed to do so. Inhibition of Akt slightly diminished the effect of IK11, while the JNK and Akt inhibitor and ROS scavenger trans-resveratrol completely protected against it.
These results indicate significant involvement of PARP, a marginal role of ROS and a pro-apoptotic role of Akt in this system, and raise attention to a novel mechanism that should be considered when cancer therapy is augmented with PARP-inhibition, namely the cytoprotection by inhibition of JNK2.
Molecular Cancer 05/2012; 11(1):34. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-11-34 · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigate the cardiotoxic effects of the well-known cytostatic agent imatinib mesylate (Gleevec), and presented evidence for the cardioprotective effect of BGP-15 which is a novel insulin sensitizer. The cardiotoxic effect of imatinib mesylate was assessed in Langendorff rat heart perfusion system. The cardiac high-energy phosphate levels (creatine phosphate (PCr) and ATP) were monitored in situ by (31)P NMR spectroscopy. The protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and the activation of signaling pathways were determined from the freeze-clamped hearts. Prolonged treatment of the heart with imatinib mesylate (20 mg/kg) resulted in cardiotoxicity, which were characterized by the depletion of high-energy phosphates (PCr and ATP), and significantly increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Imatinib mesylate treatment-induced activation of MAP kinases (including ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) and the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta. BGP-15 (200 μM) prevented the imatinib mesylate-induced oxidative damages, attenuated the depletion of high-energy phosphates, altered the signaling effect of imatinib mesylate by preventing p38 MAP kinase and JNK activation, and induced the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta. The suppressive effect of BGP-15 on p38 and JNK activation could be significant because these kinases contribute to the cell death and inflammation in the isolated perfused heart.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several beneficial effects of resveratrol (RES), a natural antioxidant present in red wine have already been described. The aim of our study was to investigate if RES had a clinically measurable cardioprotective effect in patients after myocardial infarction. In this double-blind, placebo controlled trial 40 post-infarction Caucasian patients were randomized into two groups. One group received 10 mg RES capsule daily for 3 months. Systolic and diastolic left ventricular function, flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), several laboratory and hemorheological parameters were measured before and after the treatment. Left ventricular ejection fraction showed an increasing tendency (ns) by RES treatment. However, left ventricular diastolic function was improved significantly (p < 0.01) by RES. A significant improvement in endothelial function measured by FMD was also observed (p < 0.05). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the RES treated group. Red blood cell deformability decreased and platelet aggregation increased significantly in the placebo group (p < 0.05), while resveratrol treatment has prevented these unfavourable changes. Concerning other measured parameters no significant changes were observed neither in placebo nor in RES group. Our results show that resveratrol improved left ventricle diastolic function, endothelial function, lowered LDL-cholesterol level and protected against unfavourable hemorheological changes measured in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiomyopathy is one of the most severe side effects of the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX). The formation of reactive oxygen species plays a critical role in the development of cardiomyopathies, and the pathophysiological cascade activates nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and kinase pathways. We characterized the effects of the PARP-inhibitor and kinase-modulator compound L-2286 in DOX-induced cardiac injury models. We studied the effect of the established superoxide dismutase-mimic Tempol and compared the effects of this agent with those of the PARP inhibitor. In the rat H9C2 cardiomyocytes, in which DOX-induced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, L-2286 protected them from the DOX-induced injury in a concentration-dependent manner. In the in vivo studies, mice were pretreated (for 1 week) with L-2286 or Tempol before the DOX treatment. Both the agents improved the activation of cytoprotective kinases, Akt, phospho-specific protein kinase C ϵ, ζ/λ and suppressed the activity of cell death promoting kinases glycogen synthase kinase-3β, JNK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but the effect of PARP inhibitor was more pronounced and improved the survival as well. L-2286 activated the phosphorylation of proapoptotic transcription factor FKHR1 and promoted the expression of Hsp72 and Hsp90. These data suggest that the mode of the cytoprotective action of the PARP inhibitor may include the modulation of kinase pathways and heat shock protein expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present evidence, for the first time, that increasing the lipophilicity of mitochondria targeting SOD mimetics reverses their cytoprotective properties, destabilizing the mitochondrial membrane system and promoting cell death. A new mitochondria-directed apolar SOD mimetic, HO-3814, was found to provoke mitochondrial swelling and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and these effects were not inhibited by cyclosporine A. HO-3814-induced cell death was predominantly necrotic, caspase-independent, and not affected by mitochondrial permeability transition inhibitors or cyclophilin D-suppression, inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases or Akt, or various antioxidants. In contrast, Bcl-2 overexpression diminished the effects of HO-3814.