Brittany Sullivan

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (5)20.83 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Murine noroviruses (MNV) are highly prevalent in research mouse colonies and infect macrophages and dendritic cells. Our laboratory found that MNV4 infection in mice lacking the LDL receptor alters the development of atherosclerosis, potentially confounding research outcomes. Therefore, we investigated whether MNV4 likewise altered atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. In the presence of oxidized LDL, MNV4 infection of ApoE(-/-) bone marrow-derived macrophages increased the gene expression of the inflammatory markers inducible nitric oxide synthase, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and IL6. In addition, proteins involved in cholesterol transport were altered in MNV4-infected ApoE -/- bone marrow-derived macrophages and consisted of increased CD36 and decreased ATP-binding cassette transporter A1. MNV4 infection of ApoE(-/-) mice at 12 wk of age (during the development of atherosclerosis) had a variable effect on atherosclerotic lesion size. In one study, MNV4 significantly increased atherosclerotic plaque area whereas in a second study, no effect was observed. Compared with controls, MNV4-infected mice had higher circulating Ly6C-positive monocytes, and viral RNA was detected in the aortas of some mice, suggesting potential mechanisms by which MNV4 alters disease progression. Plaque size did not differ when ApoE -/- mice were infected at 4 wk of age (early during disease development) or in ApoE -/- mice maintained on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet. Therefore, these data show that MNV4 has the potential to exert a variable and unpredictable effect on atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. We therefore propose that performing experiments in MNV-free mouse colonies is warranted.
    Comparative medicine 10/2015; 65(5):369-381. · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that murine norovirus (MNV), a virus prevalent in United States research institutions, increased atherosclerotic lesion size in Ldlr(-/-) mice when the mice were infected 8 wk after feeding an atherogenic diet. To determine whether the timing of MNV infection relative to atherosclerosis development altered the disease phenotype and to examine potential mechanisms by which MNV influences the disease process, we fed Ldlr(-/-) mice an atherogenic diet for 16 wk. Three days after initiating the atherogenic diet, half of the mice received MNV4 and the other half vehicle only (clarified cell-culture lysate; controls). Both groups of mice developed large aortic sinus lesions (control compared with MNV4: 133 ± 8 × 10(3) μm(2) compared with 140 ± 7 × 10(3) μm(2)) that were not significantly different in size. Because the timing of MNV infection relative to atherosclerosis development and hypercholesterolemia differed between our previous and the current studies, we examined whether hypercholesterolemia altered MNV4-induced changes in bone-marrow-derived macrophages. MNV4 infection increased the potential of macrophages to take up and store cholesterol by increasing CD36 expression while suppressing the ABCA1 transporter. Thus, the effects of MNV4 infection on atherosclerotic lesion size appear to be dependent on the timing of the infection: MNV4 infection promotes only established lesions. This effect may be due to MNV4's ability to increase cholesterol uptake and decrease efflux by regulating CD36 and ABCA1 protein expression.
    Comparative medicine 04/2015; 65(2):114-22. · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    J Yoon · S Subramanian · Y Ding · S Wang · L Goodspeed · B Sullivan · J Kim · K D O'Brien · A Chait ·

    Diabetologia 07/2011; 54(7):1941. DOI:10.1007/s00125-011-2156-y · 6.67 Impact Factor
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    J Yoon · S Subramanian · Y Ding · S Wang · L Goodspeed · B Sullivan · J Kim · K D O'Brien · A Chait ·
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin has anti-inflammatory effects in short-term experiments. However, the effects of chronic insulin administration on inflammation are unknown. We hypothesised that chronic insulin administration would beneficially alter adipose tissue inflammation and several circulating inflammatory markers. We administered two forms of long-acting insulin, insulin glargine (A21Gly,B31Arg,B32Arg human insulin) and insulin detemir (B29Lys[ε-tetradecanoyl],desB30 human insulin), to LDL-receptor-deficient mice. After 8 weeks on a diet that causes obesity, hyperglycaemia, adipose tissue macrophage accumulation and atherosclerosis, the mice received subcutaneous glargine, detemir or NaCl (control) for 12 weeks. Serum amyloid A (SAA) and serum amyloid P (SAP), metabolic variables, adipose tissue macrophages and aortic atherosclerosis were evaluated. Weight gain was equivalent in all groups. The glycated haemoglobin level fell equivalently in both insulin-treated groups. Plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, and hepatic triacylglycerol level significantly improved in the glargine compared with the detemir or control groups. Levels of mRNA expression for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and F4/80, a macrophage marker, in adipose tissue were decreased only in the glargine group (p < 0.05). Visceral adipose tissue macrophage content decreased in both insulin groups (p < 0.05), whereas atherosclerosis decreased only in the glargine group. Circulating SAA and SAP did not decrease in either insulin-treated group, but IL-6 levels fell in the glargine-treated mice. While chronic insulin administration did not decrease SAA and SAP, administration of glargine but not detemir insulin improved dyslipidaemia, IL-6 levels and atherosclerosis, and both insulins reduced macrophage accumulation in visceral adipose tissue. Thus, chronic insulin therapy has beneficial tissue effects independent of circulating inflammatory markers in this murine model of diet-induced obesity and diabetes.
    Diabetologia 02/2011; 54(5):1252-60. DOI:10.1007/s00125-011-2055-2 · 6.67 Impact Factor

  • Scientific Sessions on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology; 11/2010