Axel Heidenreich

RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (566)2025.55 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy is an integral part in the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). With the introduction of new drugs the need of identifying non responder is increasing. Till now there are no prognostic parameters with the initiation of any treatment. CfDNA was isolated from serum specimen before chemotherapy. Its value was correlated to recurrence-free and overall survival using Kaplan-Meier Curves. Uni- and multivariate Cox regression analysis had been performed for identifying independent predictors. 48 (81.4 %) of 59 men, had a measurable PSA decrease from PSA baseline. The median follow-up was 15.0 (2.4-58.4) months. The median cfDNA concentration from all men in this study was 27.71 ng/ml (mean 32.64 ng/ml). A threshold of 55,03ng/ml was significantly associated with a poor PSA resonse <30% (p=0.005). In a univariate and multivariate analysis, cell-free circulating DNA was an independent predictor for overall survival (UV: hazard ratio 0.36; 95 % confidence interval, 0.13-0.97; p=0.044; MV: hazard ratio 0.34; 95 % confidence interval, 0.12-0.91; p=0.032). Limitation of the study is its retrospective character as well as first- and second-line therapies. In our trial, cfDNA concentration before therapy may be a useful predictive and prognostic biomarker for PSA response and survival. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Journal of urology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2015.04.055 · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • Axel Heidenreich, David Pfister
    Nature Reviews Urology 04/2015; DOI:10.1038/nrurol.2015.81 · 4.52 Impact Factor
  • Axel Heidenreich, David Pfister
    04/2015; 9(3-4):232. DOI:10.5489/cuaj.2877
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    ABSTRACT: To predict biochemical recurrence respecting the natural course of pT2 prostate cancer with positive surgical margin (R1) and no adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapy. A multicenter data analysis of 956 patients with pT2R1N0/Nx tumors was performed. Patients underwent radical prostatectomy between 1994 and 2009. No patients received neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. All prostate specimens were re-evaluated according to a well-defined protocol. The association of pathological and clinical features, in regard to BCR, was calculated using various statistical tests. With a mean follow-up of 48 months, BCR was found in 25.4 %. In univariate analysis, multiple parameters such as tumor volume, PSA, Gleason at positive margin were significantly associated with BCR. However, in multivariate analysis, Gleason score (GS) of the prostatectomy specimen was the only significant parameter for BCR. Median time to recurrence for GS ≤ 6 was not reached; 5-year BCR-free survival was 82 %; and they were 127 months and 72 % for GS 3+4, 56 months and 54 % for GS 4 + 3, and 27 months and 32 % for GS 8-10. The retrospective approach is a limitation of our study. Our study provides data on the BCR in pT2R1-PCa without adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapy and thus a rationale for an individual's risk stratification. The data support patients and physicians in estimating the individual risk and timing of BCR and thus serve to personalize the management in pT2R1-PCa.
    World Journal of Urology 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00345-015-1510-y · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Histological tumor subtyping, staging, and grading are of utmost importance to stratify patients with bladder cancer for treatment and should be as precise as possible. In the presented study, we investigated the prognostic impact of standard clinicopathological parameters in cystectomy patients and compared embedding of the entire bladder with standard partial embedding via a virtual superimposed approach. The study included 121 cystectomy specimens, which were completely embedded. Clinical and histopathological data of patients were obtained (median follow-up 21.5 months; range 1-67 months). For 88 patients two-dimensional tumor maps (macrophotographs and histology-based maps) were prepared, and embedding of the entire bladder was compared with a virtual standard partial embedding, created by a virtual overlay and data extraction of the tumor maps. Kaplan-Meier plots, Cox regression estimators, Chi-square, and McNemar tests were used. In a multivariate Cox regression model for overall survival, only venous invasion (p = 0.008, HR = 3.35, 95 % CI 1.375-8.161) and organ-confined (pTis-pT2) versus non-organ-confined diseases (pT3-pT4; p = 0.021, HR 2.669, 95 % CI 1.157-6.159) were found significant. Advanced versus standard embedding revealed significant improvement in the detection of carcinoma in situ (50 versus 61, p = 0.003) and lymphatic invasion (18 versus 24, p = 0.041), but no significant advantage in the detection of tumor stage, tumor multifocality, or venous invasion (all p > 0.05). TNM classification, including lymphatic and venous invasion, is of utmost importance to stratify patients with advanced invasive bladder cancer. Histopathological details are detected more reliably by whole organ embedding, but this approach showed no significant benefit in terms of outcome-related parameters (max. tumor stage, venous invasion) in our cohort.
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    ABSTRACT: Enzalutamide is an androgen receptor inhibitor with a demonstrated overall survival benefit in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. A phase 2 study of enzalutamide monotherapy in patients with hormone-naïve prostate cancer (HNPC) showed a high response rate for the prespecified primary endpoint (ie, prostate-specific antigen [PSA] response at week 25), regardless of metastases at baseline, and favorable tolerability. To determine the long-term efficacy and safety of enzalutamide monotherapy at 1 and 2 yr. Open-label, single-arm study in patients with HNPC and noncastrate testosterone (≥230 ng/dl). Oral enzalutamide 160mg/d until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. PSA response (≥80% decline from baseline) assessed at 1 yr (49 wk) and 2 yr (97 wk). The median (range) age was 73 (48-86) yr and 26 patients (39%) presented with metastases at study entry. Of 67 patients enrolled, 45 (67%) remained on enzalutamide at week 97. For patients remaining on therapy, the PSA response rate at week 97 was 100% (95% confidence interval 92-100%). Of 26 patients with metastases at baseline, 13 (50%) had a complete and four (15.4%) had a partial response as best overall tumor response up to 97 wk on treatment. There was overall maintenance of total-body bone mineral density (BMD) and moderate changes in lean and fat body mass at 49 and 97 wk. The most common adverse events were gynecomastia, nipple pain, fatigue, and hot flushes. The study limitations include lack of a control group and of endocrine, glycemic, and lipid data at 97 wk. Long-term enzalutamide monotherapy in men with noncastrate HNPC is associated with large sustained reductions in PSA, signals indicating a favorable tumor response, and favorable safety/tolerability profile, with relatively small negative effects on total-body BMD. In this long-term follow-up of the efficacy and safety of enzalutamide monotherapy in patients with hormone-naïve prostate cancer, enzalutamide maintained long-term reductions in prostate-specific antigen, with a minimal impact on total-body bone mineral density. NCT01302041. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    European Urology 02/2015; 65. DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2015.01.027 · 12.48 Impact Factor
  • D Pfister, D Porres, V Matveev, A Heidenreich
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    ABSTRACT: Postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) is associated with complications and decreased adjunctive surgery. Little data are available concerning PC-RPLND in patients with advanced seminomas and residual retroperitoneal tumor lesions. We examined intra- and postoperative complications as well as the frequency of adjunctive surgeries in patients with seminoma and compared the data to a cohort of patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) who underwent PC-RPLND. In our retrospective analysis, 580 patients (43 patients with advanced seminomas and 537 patients with NSGCT) underwent PC-RPLND between 1989 and 2010. The surgical approach was preferred via midline incision or a thoracoabdominal approach depending on the location of the residual tumor. Of the 43 patients with seminoma, a total number of 13 adjunctive surgeries were performed in 7 patients. There were only three intraoperative complications, two postoperative complications (prolonged intestinal paralyses). There were no significant differences in adjunctive surgeries and postoperative complications (p=0.49 and p=0.133) between the two groups. There were significantly fewer intraoperative complications in favor of seminomas (p=0.001). PCRLND in seminomas and NSGCT is a demanding surgical intervention. In contrast to other series we did not find significant differences in the two patient groups concerning adjunctive surgeries and postoperative complications. The indication for PCLND in patients with seminoma is limited, but if necessary it can be performed safely in experienced centers.
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to identify and validate potential new biomarkers for prostate cancer and to distinguish patients with and without biochemical relapse. Prostate tissue samples analyzed by 2D-DIGE (two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis) and mass spectrometry (MS) revealed downregulation of secernin-1 (P < 0.044) in prostate cancer, while vinculin showed significant upregulation (P < 0.001). Secernin-1 overexpression in prostate tissue was validated using Western blot and immunohistochemistry while vinculin expression was validated using immunohistochemistry. These findings indicate that secernin-1 and vinculin are potential new tissue biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis, respectively. For validation, protein levels in urine were also examined by Western blot analysis. Urinary vinculin levels in prostate cancer patients were significantly higher than in urine from nontumor patients (P = 0.006). Using multiple reaction monitoring-MS (MRM-MS) analysis, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) showed significant higher levels in the urine of prostate cancer patients compared to controls (P = 0.012), while galectin-3 showed significant lower levels in the urine of prostate cancer patients with biochemical relapse, compared to those without relapse (P = 0.017). Three proteins were successfully differentiated between patients with and without prostate cancer and patients with and without relapse by using MRM. Thus, this technique shows promise for implementation as a noninvasive clinical diagnostic technique.
    BioMed Research International 01/2015; 2015:454256. DOI:10.1155/2015/454256 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • A Heidenreich, D Pfister, B Brehmer, D Porres
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    ABSTRACT: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) represents the standard treatment for patients with prostate cancer (PCA) and osseous metastases. We explored the role of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy in PCA with low volume skeletal metastases in terms of a feasibility study. A total of 23 patients with biopsy proven PCA, minimal osseous metastases (≤3 hot spots on bone scan), absence of visceral or extensive lymph node metastases and a decrease in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to <1.0 ng/ml after neoadjuvant ADT were included in the feasibility study (group A). The control group (group B) consisted of 38 men with metastatic PCA who were treated by ADT alone. Surgery-related complications, time to castration resistance, symptom-free, cancer-specific and overall survival were analyzed using descriptive statistical analyses. The mean age was 61 years (range 42-69 years) and 64 years (47-83) in groups A and B, respectively, with similar patient characteristics in terms of initial PSA level, biopsy Gleason score, clinical stage and extent of metastatic disease. The median follow-up was 34.5 months (7-75 months) and 47 months (28-96 months) in groups A and B, respectively. Median time to castration resistance was 40 months (9-65 months) and 29 months (16-59 months) in groups A and B, respectively (p=0.04). Patients in group A experienced significantly better clinical symptom-free (38.6 versus 26.5 months, p=0.032) and cancer-specific survival rates (95.6% versus 84.2%, p=0.043) whereas the overall survival was similar. In group A none of the men underwent palliative surgical procedures for locally progressing PCA compared to 29% in group B. Cytoreductive radical prostatectomy is feasible in well-selected men with metastatic PCA who responded well to neoadjuvant ADT. These men have a long life expectancy and the risk of locally recurrent PCA and local complications are reduced. Cytoreductive radical prostatectomy might be a treatment option in the multimodal management of PCA with minimal osseous metastases.
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    ABSTRACT: Posttranslational protein modifications are known to modulate key biological processes like proliferation and apoptosis. Accumulating evidence shows that ST6GAL1, an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid onto galactose-containing substrates, is aberrantly expressed in various cancers and may affect cell motility and invasion. This is the first study to describe ST6GAL1 expression and regulation in human bladder cancer. ST6GAL1 mRNA expression levels in human cell lines (UROtsa, RT4, RT112 and J82) and tissue samples (n=15 normal urothelium (NU), n=13 papillary non-invasive tumors (pTa), n=12 carcinoma in situ (CIS), n=26 muscle invasive tumors (pT2-4)) were assessed using real-time PCR. In addition, ST6GAL1 protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Promoter methylation analysis was performed using methylation-specific PCR (MSP) in cell lines (n=4) and patient samples (n=23 NU, n=12 CIS, n=29 pTa, n=41 pT2-4). Epigenetic ST6GAL1 gene silencing was confirmed by in vitro demethylation of bladder cell lines. Data were validated by analysis of an independent bladder tumor data set (n=184) based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) portal. Semi-quantitative ST6GAL1 real-time PCR expression analysis showed two distinct trends: In muscle-invasive tumors ST6GAL1 expression was downregulation by 2.7-fold, while papillary non-invasive tumors showed an increased ST6GAL1 mRNA expression compared to normal urothelium. ST6GAL1 loss in muscle-invasive tumors was associated with increasing invasiveness. On the protein level, 69.2% (n=45/65) of all tumors showed a weak ST6GAL1 protein staining (IRS <= 4) while 25.6% (16/65) exhibited a complete loss (IRS=0) of ST6GAL1 protein. Tumor-specific DNA methylation of the ST6GAL1 promoter region was frequently found in pT2-4 tumors (53.6% (22/41)), whereas only 13.8% (4/29) of pTa tumors showed ST6GAL1 promoter methylation. Normal urothelium remained unmethylated. Importantly, we significantly revealed an inverse correlation between ST6GAL1 mRNA expression and ST6GAL1 promoter merthylation in primary bladder cancer. These findings were clearly verified by the TCGA public data set and in vitro demethylation assays functionally confirmed ST6GAL1 promoter methylation as a potential regulatory factor for ST6GAL1 gene silencing. Our study characterizes for the first time ST6GAL1 expression loss caused by aberrant ST6GAL1 promoter methylation potentially indicating a tumor suppressive role in bladder carcinogenesis.
    BMC Cancer 12/2014; 14(1):901. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-901 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CREB3L1 has been recently proposed as a novel metastasis suppressor gene in breast cancer. Our current study highlights CREB3L1 expression, regulation, and function in bladder cancer. We demonstrate a significant downregulation of CREB3L1 mRNA expression (n = 64) in primary bladder cancer tissues caused by tumor-specific CREB3L1 promoter hypermethylation (n = 51). Based on pyrosequencing CREB3L1 methylation was shown to be potentially associated with a more aggressive phenotype of bladder cancer. These findings were verified by an independent public data set containing data from 184 bladder tumors. In addition, immunohistochemical evaluation showed that CREB3L1 protein expression is decreased in bladder cancer tissues as well. Interestingly, protein loss is predominately observed in the nuclei of aggressive tumor cells. Based on in vitro models we clearly show that CREB3L1 re-expression mediates suppression of tumor cell migration and colony growth of high grade and invasive bladder cancer cells. The candidate tumor suppressor and TGF-β signaling inhibitor HTRA3 was furthermore identified as putative target gene of CREB3L1 in both invasive J82 bladder cells and primary bladder tumors. Hence, our data provide for the first time evidence that the transcription factor CREB3L1 may have an important role as a putative tumor suppressor in bladder cancer.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 12/2014; 9(12):1626-40. DOI:10.4161/15592294.2014.988052 · 5.11 Impact Factor
  • Axel Heidenreich, David Pfister, Daniel Porres
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    ABSTRACT: Androgen deprivation (ADT) represents the standard treatment for PCA with osseous metastases. We explored the role of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy in PCA with low volume skeletal metastases in terms of a feasibility study.
    The Journal of Urology 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2014.09.089 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gold standard for diagnosis and immediate therapy of bladder cancer is a transurethral resection (TURB) followed by histopathologic evaluation. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of visual diagnosis by the operating urologist concerning dignity (malignant/benign) and staging compared to histopathologic evaluation. This is especially crucial since early mitomycin C instillation is based on the urologist's first impression. This prospective study included 311 cases of TURB from five German institutions. Surgeons were asked to estimate dignity of the neoplasm, tumor stage, and grade according to a standardized questionnaire. The subjective estimation/visual diagnosis of the operating urologist achieved a sensitivity with respect to identifying malignant tumors as such of 97%, while specificity was only 41%. Accordingly, the positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 76% and 88%, respectively. In general, muscle invasive cancer was predicted more often than confirmed by pathology (PPV 52%). However, whenever muscle invasive cancer was excluded by the urologist, this was confirmed by the pathologist in most the cases (NPV 95%). The educational degree did not influence the reliability and predictive value of visual diagnosis. This study shows that urologists cannot reliably distinguish benign from malignant lesions of bladder mucosa-regardless of their educational degree. A reliable diagnosis of a pathologist is definitely needed to plan final therapeutic steps.
    Der Urologe 08/2014; 53(11). DOI:10.1007/s00120-014-3585-2 · 0.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2010, the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) developed treatment guidelines for men with prostate cancer who are older than 70 years old. In 2013, a new multidisciplinary SIOG working group was formed to update these recommendations. The consensus of the task force is that older men with prostate cancer should be managed according to their individual health status, not according to age. On the basis of a validated rapid health status screening instrument and simple assessment, the task force recommends that patients are classed into three groups for treatment: healthy or fit patients who should have the same treatment options as younger patients; vulnerable patients with reversible impairment who should receive standard treatment after medical intervention; and frail patients with non-reversible impairment who should receive adapted treatment.
    The Lancet Oncology 08/2014; 15(9):e404–e414. DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70018-X · 24.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Androgen deprivation therapy with luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analogues or antagonists represents the treatment of choice in men metastatic prostate cancer (PCA). Depending on the serum concentration of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir, the survival might vary between 11 and 78 months. About one-third of all patients without local treatment of the primary will develop significant complications of the lower and upper urinary tract because of local progression of PCA. It is the purpose of the review to inform the treating physician about palliative surgical options in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
    Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care 07/2014; 8(3). DOI:10.1097/SPC.0000000000000078
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    ABSTRACT: AimsActivating point mutations and protein overexpression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), especially FGFR3, are frequent events in bladder cancer. Little is known about gene amplifications, therefore we characterized amplification of FGFR1-3 by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH).Methods and resultsTumours of 153 patients (n = 65 pTa low-grade, n = 15 pTa high-grade, n = 37 pT1, n = 20 pT2, n = 10 pT3, n = 6 pT4) were analysed by FISH for FGFR1-3 copy numbers and screened for FGFR3 mutations and immunohistochemical protein expression. Amplifications of FGFR1 were found in 1.6% (two of 122), FGFR2 in 0.8% (one of 121) and FGFR3 in 3.4% (five of 145). All amplifications were high-level amplifications, not overlapping with polysomy. Amplifications were found in papillary/papillary-invasive tumour parts, and predominantly in tumours with enhanced Ki67 index (>10%), aberrant CK20 expression, and low p53 expression. All FGFR3-amplified samples showed concomitant FGFR3 mutations and FGFR3 protein overexpression. FGFR amplifications were not associated significantly with gender, age, grade or stage in statistical analyses.ConclusionsFGFR amplifications are rare events in bladder cancer, with FGFR3 amplification being the most prevalent (3.4% of cases). Concomitant FGFR3 mutations and protein overexpression indicate that FGFR3-mediated signalling in these tumours would probably be highly active. This patient subgroup may be particularly suited to FGFR-targeted pharmacotherapy.
    Histopathology 06/2014; 66(5). DOI:10.1111/his.12473 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To analyse the functional and oncological outcome of consecutive renal-transplant recipients (RTRs) with clinically localised prostate cancer who underwent radical retropubic (RRP) or perineal (RPP) prostatectomy. Patients and methods Between January 2000 and July 2011 16 patients underwent RRP (group 1) and seven RPP (group 2). In all, 200 consecutive non-RTRs served as the control group, of whom 100 each underwent RRP and RPP, respectively. The mean (range) interval between renal transplantation and RP was 95 (24–206) months, the PSA at the time of diagnosis was 4.5 (3.0–17.5) ng/mL, and the mean patient age was 64 (59–67) years. Results The mean follow-up was 39 (RRP) and 48 months (RPP). There was no deterioration in graft function. In group 1, 13 and three patients had pT2a-cpN0 and pT3a-bpN0 prostate cancer, respectively, with a Gleason score of 6, 7 and 8 in 11, three and one patients, respectively. In group 2, three and four patients had pT2a-c and pT3a-b disease, respectively, with a Gleason score of 6 and 7 in two and five, respectively. In both groups one patient had a positive surgical margin and was followed expectantly, and all patients have no evidence of disease. Wound infections developed more often in the RPP group (29% vs. 7%), but there were no Clavien grade III–V complications. All patients achieved good continence, and two need one pad/day. Conclusions RRP and RPP are suitable surgical treatments for prostate cancer in RTRs. RRP might be preferable, as it has the advantage of simultaneous pelvic lymphadenectomy and a lower risk of infectious complications.
    06/2014; 12(2). DOI:10.1016/j.aju.2014.01.004
  • A Heidenreich, D Pfister, D Porres
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    ABSTRACT: The therapeutic role of cytoreductive surgery for urogenital malignancies is controversially discussed in the literature. The current article critically reflects the potential impact of cytoreductive surgery in patients with renal cell cancer and prostate cancer with locoregional lymph node or systemic metastases based on a review of the literature and personal experience.Even in the era of molecular targeted therapies in metastatic renal cell cancer, cytoreductive radical nephrectomy seems to exert survival benefit when compared to systemic therapy alone if (1) patients demonstrate a good ECOG performance status, (2) exhibit good or intermediate prognosis according to the Heng criteria, (3) cerebral metastases have been excluded, and (4) >90% of the total cancer volume can be eliminated. Preliminary clinical studies suggest that neoadjuvant systemic treatment might be associated with a significantly reduced 1-year mortality rate.For prostate cancer cytoreductive radical prostatectomy is one of the guideline-recommended treatment options for men with intrapelvic lymph node metastases resulting in survival benefit when compared to androgen deprivation as monotherapy. Cytoreductive radical prostatectomy should be performed (1) in the presence of limited intrapelvic lymph node metastasis without bulky disease, (2) if complete resectability of the primary cancer and its metastasis can be achieved by extended radical prostatectomy and extended pelvic lymphadenectomy, (3) if the patient is included in a multimodality approach, and (4) if the life expectancy is > 10 years.The role of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy in men with osseous metastases remains unclear due to the lack of large clinical trials. Despite the presence of the first promising studies, it is not justified to perform cytoreductive radical prostatectomy outside clinical trials. Preliminary results from small studies indicate that patients with minimal metastatic burden, PSA decrease < 1.0 ng/ml following neoadjuvant ADT for 6 months and complete resectability of the tumor exhibit the best prognosis to benefit from this new surgical approach.
    Der Urologe 05/2014; 53(6). DOI:10.1007/s00120-014-3519-z · 0.44 Impact Factor
  • A Heidenreich, R Knüchel-Clarke, D Pfister
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    ABSTRACT: Testicular tumors can be divided into germ cell tumors and sex cord stromal tumors. Malignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) represent about 90-95 % of all testicular tumors and are the most common solid neoplasms in young men aged 20-40 years with an increasing incidence in industrialized countries. Treatment of TGCT is performed by an individual and risk-adapted approach taking primary tumor histology, histopathlogical and molecular prognostic risk factors, tumor stage and for metastasized tumors the response to systemic chemotherapy into consideration. Knowledge of the specific histopathology of the primary tumor and the prognostic factors is of utmost importance for the treating urologist and oncologist in order to avoid undertreatment or overtreatment. Established risk factors which have been validated in retrospective and prospective studies for clinical stage I non-seminomatous TGCT are the presence of vascular invasion and the percentage of embryonal carcinoma. In clinical stage I seminomas tumor size (> 4 cm) and presence of rete testis infiltration have been identified as risk factors in retrospective but not in prospective studies. Quantitative histopathology of the primary tumor is also important for the management of small residual masses following chemotherapy: if the masses are ≤ 1 cm, postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection is only indicated if the primary tumor contains ≥ 50 % teratoma. Quantitative pathohistology of the resected residual masses is of importance for the decision-making process of a consolidating chemotherapy which is only of benefit if the amount of vital cancer tissue is > 10 %. Resection of residual hepatic and thoracic masses is indispensable. For gonadal stromal tumors knowledge of atypical nuclear forms, increased rate of mitosis and increased growth fractions are important for therapy planning.
    Der Pathologe 04/2014; 35(3). DOI:10.1007/s00292-014-1903-5 · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2006, the German Testicular Cancer Study Group initiated an extensive evidence-based national second-opinion network to improve the care of testicular cancer patients. The primary aims were to reflect the current state of testicular cancer treatment in Germany and to analyze the project's effect on the quality of care delivered to testicular cancer patients. A freely available internet-based platform was developed for the exchange of data between the urologists seeking advice and the 31 second-opinion givers. After providing all data relevant to the primary treatment decision, urologists received a second opinion on their therapy plan within <48 h. Endpoints were congruence between the first and second opinion, conformity of applied therapy with the corresponding recommendation and progression-free survival rate of the introduced patients. Significance was determined by two-sided Pearson's χ2 test. A total of 1,284 second-opinion requests were submitted from November 2006 to October 2011, and 926 of these cases were eligible for further analysis. A discrepancy was found between first and second opinion in 39.5% of the cases. Discrepant second opinions led to less extensive treatment in 28.1% and to more extensive treatment in 15.6%. Patients treated within the framework of the second-opinion project had an overall 2-year progression-free survival rate of 90.4%. Approximately every 6th second opinion led to a relevant change in therapy. Despite the lack of financial incentives, data from every 8th testicular cancer patient in Germany were submitted to second-opinion centers. Second-opinion centers can help to improve the implementation of evidence into clinical practice.
    Oncology Reports 04/2014; 31(6). DOI:10.3892/or.2014.3153 · 2.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
2,025.55 Total Impact Points


  • 2009–2015
    • RWTH Aachen University
      • Department of Urology
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • University Medical Center Hamburg - Eppendorf
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2009–2014
    • University Hospital RWTH Aachen
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2012
    • Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf
      • Urologische Klinik
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1994–2012
    • University of Cologne
      • Department of Urology
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2008–2011
    • Maria Hilf Hospital, Daun
      Daun, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
    • Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
      • Urologische Klinik
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes
      Homburg, Saarland, Germany
  • 2010
    • Technische Universität Dresden
      • Klinik und Poliklinik für Urologie
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 2007
    • Universitätsklinikum Dresden
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 1999–2007
    • Philipps-Universität Marburg
      • Klinik für Urologie und Kinderurologie (Marburg)
      Marburg an der Lahn, Hesse, Germany
  • 2006
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Medicine
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
    • Universitätsklinikum Gießen und Marburg
      • Klinik für Urologie und Kinderurologie
      Marburg, Hesse, Germany
  • 2004
    • Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
      Halle-on-the-Saale, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
  • 2001–2002
    • Universität Mannheim
      Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1996–1998
    • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
      • Department of Surgery
      Maryland, United States
  • 1995
    • University of Tuebingen
      • Department of Urology
      Tübingen, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 1993
    • Ruhr-Universität Bochum
      Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1992
    • Bundeswehrzentralkrankenhaus Koblenz
      Coblenz, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany