[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain tumor targeting efficiency and biodistribution of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles conjugated with heat shock protein Hsp70 (SPION–Hsp70) were evaluated in experimental glioma model. Synthesized conjugates were characterized using the method of longitudinal nonlinear response of magnetic nanoparticles to a weak ac magnetic field with measurements of second harmonic of magnetization (NLR-M2). Cellular interaction of magnetic conjugates was analyzed in 9L glioma cell culture. The biodistribution of the nanoparticles and their accumulation in tumors was assessed by the latter approach as well. The efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates for contrast enhancement in the orthotopic model of 9L glioma was assessed by MR imaging (11 T). Magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with Hsp70 had the relaxivity properties of the MR-negative contrast agents. Morphological observation and cell viability test demonstrated good biocompatibility of Hsp70-conjugates. Analysis of the T2-weighted MR scans in tumor-bearing rats demonstrated the high efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates in contrast enhancement of the glioma in comparison to non-conjugated nanoparticles. High contrast enhancement of the glioma was provided by the accumulation of the SPION–Hsp70 particles in the glioma tissue (as shown by the histological assay). Biodistribution analysis by NLR-M2 measurements evidenced the many-fold increase (~40) in the tumor-to-normal brain uptake ratio in the Hsp70-conjugates treated animals. Biodistribution pattern of Hsp70-decorated nanoparticles differed from that of non-conjugated SPIONs. Coating of the magnetic nanoparticles with Hsp70 protein enhances the tumor-targeting ability of the conjugates that could be applied in the MR imaging of the malignant brain tumors.
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 08/2015; 388. DOI:10.1016/j.jmmm.2015.04.030 · 1.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chaperone Hsp70 can cross the plasma membrane of living cells using mechanisms that so far have not received much research attention. Searching the part of the molecule that is responsible for transport ability of Hsp70, we found a cationic sequence composed of 20 amino acid residues on its surface, KST peptide, which was used in further experiments. We showed that KST peptide enters living cells of various origins with the same efficiency as the full-length chaperone. KST peptide is capable of carrying cargo with a molecular weight 30 times greater than its own into cells. When we compared the membrane-crossing activity of KST peptide in complex with Avidin (KST-Av complex) with that of similarly linked canonical TAT peptide, we found that TAT peptide penetrated SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells at a similar rate and efficiency as the KST peptide. Furthermore, KST peptide can carry protein complexes consisting of a specific antibody coupled to the peptide through the Avidin bridge. An antibody to Hsp70 delivered to SK-N-SH cells with high expression level of Hsp70 reduced the protective power of the chaperone and sensitized the cells to the pro-apoptotic effect of staurosporine. We studied the mechanisms of penetration of KST-Av and full-length Hsp70 inside human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH and human erythroleukemia K-562 cells and found that both used an active intracellular transport mechanism that included vesicular structures and negatively charged lipid membrane domains. Competition analysis of intracellular transport showed that the chaperone reduced intracellular penetration of KST peptide and conversely KST peptide prevented Hsp70 transport in a dose-dependent manner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intratumoral injections of recombinant heat shock protein (Hsp)70 were explored for feasibility in patients with brain tumors. Patients aged 4.5-14 years with untreated newly diagnosed tumors (n=12) were enrolled. After tumor resection, five injections of recombinant Hsp70 (total 2.5 mg) were administered into the resection cavity through a catheter. Before administration of Hsp70 and after the last injection, specific immune responses to the autologous tumor lysate were evaluated using the delayed-type hypersensitivity test. Further, peripheral blood was monitored to identify possible changes in lymphocyte subpopulations, cytokine levels, and the cytolytic activity of natural killer cells. The follow-up period in this trial was 12 months. Intratumoral injections of Hsp70 were well tolerated by patients. One patient had a complete clinical response documented by radiologic findings and one patient had a partial response. A positive delayed-type hypersensitivity test was observed in three patients. In peripheral blood, there was a shift from cytokines provided by Th2 cells toward cytokines of a Th1-cell-mediated response. These data corresponded to changes in lymphocyte subpopulations. Immunosuppressive T-regulatory cell levels were also reduced after injection of Hsp70, as well as production of interleukin-10. The cytolytic activity of natural killer cells was unchanged. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of intratumoral delivery of recombinant Hsp70 in patients with cancer. Further randomized clinical trials are recommended to assess the optimum dose of the chaperone, the treatment schedule, and clinical efficacy.
OncoTargets and Therapy 06/2014; 7:1071-81. DOI:10.2147/OTT.S62764 · 2.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombinant 70 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) is an antiapoptotic protein that has a cell protective activity in stress stimuli and thus could be a useful therapeutic agent in the management of patients with acute ischemic stroke. The neuroprotective and neurotherapeutic activity of recombinant Hsp70 was explored in a model of experimental stroke in rats. Ischemia was produced by the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 45 minutes. To assess its neuroprotective capacity, Hsp70, at various concentrations, was intravenously injected 20 minutes prior to ischemia. Forty-eight hours after ischemia, rats were sacrificed and brain tissue sections were stained with 2% triphenyl tetrazolium chloride. Preliminary treatment with Hsp70 significantly reduced the ischemic zone (optimal response at 2.5 mg/kg). To assess Hsp70's neurotherapeutic activity, we intravenously administered Hsp70 via the tail vein 2 hours after reperfusion (2 hours and 45 minutes after ischemia). Rats were then kept alive for 72 hours. The ischemic region was analyzed using a high-field 11 T MRI scanner. Administration of the Hsp70 decreased the infarction zone in a dose-dependent manner with an optimal (threefold) therapeutic response at 5 mg/kg. Long-term treatment of the ischemic rats with Hsp70 formulated in alginate granules with retarded release of protein further reduced the infarct volume in the brain as well as apoptotic area (annexin V staining). Due to its high neurotherapeutic potential, prolonged delivery of Hsp70 could be useful in the management of acute ischemic stroke.
Drug Design, Development and Therapy 05/2014; 8:639-50. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S62024 · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hsp70 chaperone is known to stimulate anti-tumour immunity in a variety of cancer models. Here we demonstrated that the addition of purified recombinant Hsp70 to the culture medium facilitated cancer cell cytolysis by lymphocytes. Importantly, exogenous Hsp70 triggered secretion of the intracellular Hsp70 to a cell surface and extracellular milieu, which played a role in cytolysis because down-regulation of the endogenous Hsp70 reduced both its presence at the cell surface and the lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis. Inhibitors that target both the ATPase and the peptide-binding domains of Hsp70 molecule potently decreased its anti-tumor effect. Using a variety of cell transport markers and inhibitors, we showed that the exchange of exogenous and intracellular Hsp70 is supported by classical and non-classical transport pathways, with a particular role of lipid rafts in the chaperone's intracellular transport. In conclusion, exogenous Hsp70 can eject endogenous Hsp70, thus exerting anticancer activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), due to their unique magnetic properties, have the ability to function both as magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents, and can be used for thermotherapy. SPIONs conjugated to the heat shock protein Hsp70 that selectively binds to the CD40 receptor present on glioma cells, could be used for MR contrast enhancement of experimental C6 glioma.Methods
The magnetic properties of the Hsp70-SPIONs were measured by NMR relaxometry method. The uptake of nanoparticles was assessed on the C6 glioma cells by confocal and electron microscopes. The tumor selectivity of Hsp70-SPIONs being intravenously administered was analyzed in the experimental model of C6 glioma in the MRI scanner.ResultsHsp70-SPIONs relaxivity corresponded to the properties of negative contrast agents with a hypointensive change of resonance signal in MR imaging. A significant accumulation of the Hsp70-SPIONs but not the non-conjugated nanoparticles was observed by confocal microscopy within C6 cells. Negative contrast tumor enhancement in the T2-weighted MR images was higher in the case of Hsp70-SPIONs in comparison to non-modified SPIONs. Histological analysis of the brain sections confirmed the retention of the Hsp70-SPIONs in the glioma tumor but not in the adjacent normal brain tissues.Conclusion
The study demonstrated that Hsp70-SPION conjugate intravenously administered in C6 glioma model accumulated in the tumors and enhanced the contrast of their MR images.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Heat shock protein 70 (HSPA family) is a multi-functional protein which protects individual cells from proteotoxic shock and the whole organism from microbial, viral and oncogenic pathogens. These diverse functions may depend upon 'chaperone' activity that allows Hsp70 to regulate the mechanism of damaged protein recovery or utilisation inside a cell and to be a potent adjuvant, stimulating immune activity against a variety of viral or tumour antigens. The aim of this review is to present recent data on specific roles of intracellular and extracellular Hsp70 in cancerous tissue. Conclusion: The data presented in this paper show that endogenous Hsp70 protects cancer cells of different origins from a variety of cytotoxic threats including cancer cell therapeutics. In contrast, however, Hsp70 released from stressed cancer cells can serve as a danger signal or may recruit cells responsible for the generation of innate and adaptive immune responses against tumour cells.
International Journal of Hyperthermia 07/2013; 29(5). DOI:10.3109/02656736.2013.807439 · 2.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyglutamine diseases are a group of pathologies affecting different parts of the brain and causing dysfunction and atrophy of certain neural cell populations. These diseases stem from mutations in various cellular genes that result in the synthesis of proteins with extended polyglutamine tracts. In particular, this concerns huntingtin, ataxins, and androgen receptor. These mutant proteins can form oligomers, aggregates, and, finally, aggresomes with distinct functions and different degrees of cytotoxicity. In this review, we analyze the effects of different forms of polyQ proteins on other proteins and their functions, which are considered as targets for therapeutic intervention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most neurodegenerative pathologies stem from the formation of aggregates of mutant proteins, causing dysfunction and ultimately neuronal death. This study was aimed at elucidating the role of the protein factors that promote aggregate formation or prevent the process, respectively, glyceraldehyde-3-dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and Hsp70 molecular chaperone. The siRNA technology was used to show that the inhibition of GAPDH expression leads to a 45-50% reduction in the aggregation of mutant huntingtin, with a repeat of 103 glutamine residues in a model of Huntington's disease (HD). Similarly, the blockage of GAPDH synthesis was found for the first time to reduce the degree of aggregation of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (G93A) in a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The treatment of cells that imitate HD and ALS with a pharmacological GAPDH inhibitor, hydroxynonenal, was also shown to reduce the amount of the aggregating material in both disease models. Tissue transglutaminase is another factor that promotes the aggregation of mutant proteins; the inhibition of its activity with cystamine was found to prevent aggregate formation of mutant huntingtin and SOD1. In order to explore the protective function of Hsp70 in the control of the aggregation of mutant huntingtin, a cell model with inducible expression of the chaperone was used. The amount and size of polyglutamine aggregates were reduced by increasing the intracellular content of Hsp70. Thus, pharmacological regulation of the function of three proteins, GAPDH, tTG, and Hsp70, can affect the pathogenesis of two significant neurodegenerative diseases.
Acta Naturae 04/2013; 5(2):81-9. · 1.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent advances in designing Hsp70-based anti-cancer vaccines and the ability of the chaperone to penetrate inside a living cell prompted us to develop a non-invasive method for the treatment of surface tumors. We designed hydrogel-containing gel-forming substances and human recombinant Hsp70 and applied them on the surface of a 7-day-old B16F10 melanoma tumor. According to the results of histochemistry, Hsp70 diffused through skin layer inside the B16 tumor, and this transport was proved by biochemical data. The application of Hsp70 gel reduced the rate of tumor growth by 64 % and prolonged the life of animals by 46 %. Increased survival was correlated with the enhancement of B16-specific cytotoxicity and up-regulation of gamma-interferon production. Taken together, the data confirm the anti-tumor effect of pure recombinant Hsp70 delivered intratumorally and demonstrate the relevance of a novel non-invasive technology of Hsp70-based therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The key feature of polyglutamine aggregates accumulating in the course of Huntington disease (HD) is their resistance to protein denaturants, and to date only chaperones are proved to prevent mutant protein aggregation. It was suggested that expanded polyglutamine chains (polyQ) of mutant huntingtin are cross-linked to other proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Here we clarify the roles of GAPDH and molecular chaperone Hsp70 in the formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-insoluble polyQ aggregates. First, the addition of pure GAPDH was found to enhance the aggregation of polyQ in a cell-free model of HD. Secondly, the immunodepletion of GAPDH dose-dependently decreased polyQ aggregation. Finally, siRNA-mediated inhibition of GAPDH protein in SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells has also reduced the aggregation of cellular polyQ. Regulated over-expression of Hsp70 decreased the amount of GAPDH associated with SDS-insoluble polyQ aggregates. Physical association of Hsp70 and GAPDH in SK-N-SH cells was shown by reciprocal immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy. Pure Hsp70 dose-dependently inhibited the formation of polyQ aggregates in cell-free model of HD by sequestering both GAPDH and polyQ. We demonstrated that Hsp70 binds to polyQ in adenosine triphosphate-dependent manner, which suggests that Hsp70 exerts a chaperoning activity in the course of this interaction. Binding of Hsp70 to GAPDH was nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent suggesting another type of association. Based on our findings, we conclude that Hsp70 protects cells in HD by removing/sequestering two intrinsic components of protein aggregates: the polyQ itself and GAPDH. We propose that GAPDH might be an important target for pharmacological treatment of HD and other polyglutamine expansion-related diseases.
Human Molecular Genetics 08/2011; 20(20):3953-63. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddr314 · 6.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kinetics of the chaperone activity of proteins Hsp70 and Hdj1 were analyzed in human U-937 promonocytes during their response to heat shock or to treatment with the echinochrome triacetyl glucoside derivative U-133. To measure the chaperone activity of both proteins, a special test was developed for their recognition and binding of a denatured protein. Using this test, the chaperone activity could be concurrently estimated in large numbers of cellular or tissue extracts. We also estimated the contents of both chaperones in cells by immunoblotting. The values for contents of Hsp70 and Hdj1 obtained by two independent test systems coincided, and this suggested that the substrate-binding activity could change proportionally to the chaperone content in the protein mixture. Therefore, the test developed by us can be employed for high throughput screening of drugs activating cellular chaperones. The analysis of quantity and activity of two cellular chaperones during the cell response to heat stress or to the drug-like substance U-133 showed that both factors caused the accumulation of chaperones with similar kinetics. We conclude that the efficiency of drug preconditioning could be close to the efficiency of hyperthermia and that the high activity of chaperones could be retained in human cells for no less than 1.5 days.