[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmodium falciparum takes advantage of two broadly defined alternate invasion pathways when infecting human erythrocytes: one that depends on and the other that is independent of host sialic acid residues on the erythrocyte surface. Within the sialic acid-dependent (SAD) and sialic acid-independent (SAID) invasion pathways, several alternate host receptors are used by Plasmodium falciparum based on its particular invasion phenotype. Earlier, we reported that two putative extracellular regions of human erythrocyte band 3 termed 5C and 6A function as host invasion receptor segments binding parasite proteins MSP1 and MSP9 via a SAID mechanism. In this study, we developed two mono-specific anti-peptide chicken IgY antibodies to demonstrate that the 5C and 6A regions of band 3 are exposed on the surface of human erythrocytes. These antibodies inhibited erythrocyte invasion by the Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and 7G8 strains (SAID invasion phenotype), and the blocking effect was enhanced in sialic acid-depleted erythrocytes. In contrast, the IgY antibodies had only a marginal inhibitory effect on FCR3 and Dd2 strains (SAD invasion phenotype). A direct biochemical interaction between erythrocyte band 3 epitopes and parasite RhopH3, identified by the yeast two-hybrid screen, was established. RhopH3 formed a complex with MSP119 and 5ABC region of band 3, and a recombinant segment of RhopH3 inhibited parasite invasion in human erythrocytes. Together, these findings provide evidence that erythrocyte band 3 functions as a major host invasion receptor in the SAID invasion pathway by assembling a multi-protein complex composed of parasite ligands RhopH3 and MSP1.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 08/2014; 1843(12). DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2014.08.008 · 5.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously we described the identification of a Plasmodium falciparum signal peptide peptidase (PfSPP) functioning at the blood stage of malaria infection. Our studies also demonstrated that mammalian SPP inhibitors prevent malaria parasite growth at the late-ring/early trophozoite stage of intra-erythrocytic development. Consistent with its role in development, we tested the hypothesis that PfSPP functions at the endoplasmic reticulum of Plasmodium falciparum where it cleaves membrane-bound signal peptides generated following the enzyme activity of signal peptidase. The localization of PfSPP to the endoplasmic reticulum was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. Biochemical analysis indicated the existence of monomer and dimer forms of PfSPP in the parasite lysate. A comprehensive bioinformatics screen identified several candidate PfSPP substrates in the parasite genome. Using an established transfection based in vivo luminescence assay, malaria heat shock protein 101 (HSP101) was identified as a substrate of PfSPP, and partial inhibition of PfSPP correlated with the emergence of gametocytes. This finding unveils the first known substrate of PfSPP, and provides new perspectives for the function of intra-membrane proteolysis at the erythrocyte stage of malaria parasite life cycle.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2014; 450(4). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.07.013 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells play a central role in allergy through secretion of both preformed and newly synthesized mediators. Mast cell mediator secretion is controlled by a complex network of signaling events. Despite intensive studies, signaling pathways in the regulation of mast cell mediator secretion remain incompletely defined. In this study, we examined the role of calpain in IgE-dependent mast cell activation. IgE-mediated activation of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells enhanced calpain activity. Inhibition of calpain activity by a number of calpain inhibitors reduced IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation both in vitro and in vivo. Calpain inhibitors blocked IgE-mediated TNF and IL-6 production in vitro and reduced late-phase allergic response in vivo. Importantly, mouse calpain-1 null bone marrow-derived mast cells showed reduced IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation in vitro and in vivo, diminished cytokine and chemokine production in vitro, and impaired late-phase allergic response in vivo. Further studies revealed that calpain-1 deficiency led to specific attenuation of IκB-NF-κB pathway and IKK-SNAP23 pathway, whereas calcium flux, MAPK, Akt, and NFAT pathway proceed normally in IgE-activated calpain-1 null mast cells. Thus, calpain-1 is identified as a novel regulator in IgE-mediated mast cell activation and could serve as a potential therapeutic target for the management of allergic inflammation.
The Journal of Immunology 04/2014; 192(11). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1301677 · 5.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prolonged calpain activation is widely recognized as a key component of neurodegeneration in a variety of pathological conditions. Numerous reports have also indicated that synaptic activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) provides neuroprotection against a variety of insults. Here, we report the paradoxical finding that such neuroprotection involves calpain activation. NMDAR activation in cultured rat cortical neurons was neuroprotective against starvation and oxidative stress-induced damage. It also resulted in the degradation of two splice variants of PH domain and Leucine-rich repeat Protein Phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1), PHLPP1α and PHLPP1β, which inhibit the Akt and ERK1/2 pathways. Synaptic NMDAR-induced neuroprotection and PHLPP1 degradation were blocked by calpain inhibition. Lentiviral knockdown of PHLPP1 mimicked the neuroprotective effects of synaptic NMDAR activation and occluded the effects of calpain inhibition on neuroprotection. In contrast to synaptic NMDAR activation, extrasynaptic NMDAR activation had no effect on PHLPP1 and the Akt and ERK1/2 pathways, but resulted in calpain-mediated degradation of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) and neuronal death. Using μ-calpain- and m-calpain-selective inhibitors and μ-calpain and m-calpain siRNAs, we found that μ-calpain-dependent PHLPP1 cleavage was involved in synaptic NMDAR-mediated neuroprotection, while m-calpain-mediated STEP degradation was associated with extrasynaptic NMDAR-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore, m-calpain inhibition reduced while μ-calpain knockout exacerbated NMDA-induced neurotoxicity in acute mouse hippocampal slices. Thus, synaptic NMDAR-coupled μ-calpain activation is neuroprotective, while extrasynaptic NMDAR-coupled m-calpain activation is neurodegenerative. These results help to reconcile a number of contradictory results in the literature and have critical implications for the understanding and potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 11/2013; 33(48):18880-18892. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3293-13.2013 · 6.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we demonstrated that angiotensin II (AngII)-infusion profoundly increased both aortic protein and activity of calpains, calcium-activated cysteine proteases, in mice. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of calpain attenuated AngII-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AA) in mice. Recent studies have shown that AngII infusion into mice leads to aneurysmal formation localized to the ascending aorta. However, the precise functional contribution of calpain isoforms (-1 or -2) in AngII-induced abdominal AA formation is not known. Similarly, a functional role of calpain in AngII-induced ascending AA remains to be defined. Using BDA-410, an inhibitor of calpains, and calpain-1 genetic deficient mice, we examined the relative contribution of calpain isoforms in AngII-induced ascending and abdominal AA development.
To investigate the relative contribution of calpain-1 and -2 in development of AngII-induced AAs, male LDLr -/- mice that were either calpain-1 +/+ or -/- were fed a saturated fat-enriched diet and infused with AngII (1,000 ng/kg/min) for 4 weeks. Calpain-1 deficiency had no significant effect on body weight or blood pressure during AngII infusion. Moreover, calpain-1 deficiency showed no discernible effects on AngII-induced ascending and abdominal AAs. Interestingly, AngII infusion induced increased expression of calpain-2 protein, thus compensating for total calpain activity in aortas of calpain-1 deficient mice. Oral administration of BDA-410, a calpain inhibitor, along with AngII-infusion significantly attenuated AngII-induced ascending and abdominal AA formation in both calpain-1 +/+ and -/- mice as compared to vehicle administered mice. Furthermore, BDA-410 administration attenuated AngII-induced aortic medial hypertrophy and macrophage accumulation. Western blot and immunostaining analyses revealed BDA-410 administration attenuated AngII-induced C-terminal fragmentation of filamin A, an actin binding cytoskeletal protein in aorta.
Calpain-2 compensates for loss of calpain-1, and both calpain isoforms are involved in AngII-induced aortic aneurysm formation in mice.
PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e72214. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072214 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myofibrillar protein turnover is a key component of muscle growth and degeneration, requiring proteolytic enzymes to degrade the skeletal muscle proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the calpain proteolytic system in muscle growth development using μ-calpain knockout (KO) mice in comparison with control wild-type (WT) mice, and evaluate the subsequent effects of silencing this gene on other proteolytic systems. No differences in muscle development between genotypes were observed during the early stages of growth due to the up regulation of other proteolytic systems. The KO mice showed significantly greater m-calpain protein abundance (P < 0.01) and activity (P < 0.001), and greater caspase 3/7 activity (P < 0.05). At 30 wk of age, KO mice showed increased protein:DNA (P < 0.05) and RNA:DNA ratios (P < 0.01), greater protein content (P < 0.01) at the expense of lipid deposition (P < 0.05), and an increase in size and number of fast-twitch glycolytic muscle fibers (P < 0.05), suggesting that KO mice exhibit an increased capacity to accumulate and maintain protein in their skeletal muscle. Also, expression of proteins associated with muscle regeneration (neural cell adhesion molecule and myoD) were both reduced in the mature KO mice (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), indicating less muscle regeneration and, therefore, less muscle damage. These findings indicate the concerted action of proteolytic systems to ensure muscle protein homeostasis in vivo. Furthermore, these data contribute to the existing evidence of the importance of the calpain system's involvement in muscle growth, development, and atrophy. Collectively, these data suggest that there are opportunities to target the calpain system to promote the growth and/or restoration of skeletal muscle mass.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aggregation of platelets through activated αIIbβ3 integrins is a prerequisite for thrombus formation. Phosphatidylserine-exposing platelets with a key role in coagulation tend to disconnect from a thrombus due to integrin inactivation by an unknown mechanism. We find that integrin inactivation in procoagulant platelets relies on sustained high intracellular calcium, causing intracellular cleavage of the β3 chain, talin and Src kinase. Calpain inhibition fully abolished protein cleavage, but only partly suppressed αIIbβ3 inactivation. Surprisingly, platelets from Capn1(-/-) mice were not impaired in αIIbβ3 inactivation, indicating a role of calpein-2. Scott syndrome platelets, lacking the transmembrane protein TMEM16F and impaired in phosphatidylserine exposure, were suppressed in αIIbβ3 inactivation with the remaining activity depending on calpain. Platelets from Ppif(-/-) mice, lacking mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) formation, were both deficient in agonist-induced phosphatidylserine exposure and αIIbβ3 inactivation. Treatment of human platelets with cyclosporin A resulted in a same phenotype. In conclusion, these data point to a dual mechanism of αIIbβ3 inactivation via calpain(-2) cleavage of integrin-associated proteins and via TMEM16F-dependent phospholipid scrambling, with an assistant role of mPTP formation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2013; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M112.428359 · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a globally distributed hereditary red blood cell (RBC) disorder. One of the hallmarks of SCD is the presence of circulating dense RBCs, which are important in SCD-related clinical manifestations. In human dense sickle cells, we found reduced calpastatin activity and protein expression compared to either healthy RBCs or unfractionated sickle cells, suggesting an imbalance between activator and inhibitor of calpain-1 in favor of activator in dense sickle cells. Calpain-1 is a nonlysosomal cysteine proteinase that modulates multiple cell functions through the selective cleavage of proteins. To investigate the relevance of this observation in vivo, we evaluated the effects of the orally active inhibitor of calpain-1, BDA-410 (30 mg/kg/d), on RBCs from SAD mice, a mouse model for SCD. In SAD mice, BDA-410 improved RBC morphology, reduced RBC density (D(20); from 1106±0.001 to 1100±0.001 g/ml; P<0.05) and increased RBC-K(+) content (from 364±10 to 429±12.3 mmol/kg Hb; P<0.05), markedly reduced the activity of the Ca(2+)-activated K(+)channel (Gardos channel), and decreased membrane association of peroxiredoxin-2. The inhibitory effect of calphostin C, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), on the Gardos channel was eliminated after BDA-410 treatment, which suggests that calpain-1 inhibition affects the PKC-dependent fraction of the Gardos channel. BDA-410 prevented hypoxia-induced RBC dehydration and K(+) loss in SAD mice. These data suggest a potential role of BDA-410 as a novel therapeutic agent for treatment of SCD.-De Franceschi, L., Franco, R. S., Bertoldi, M., Brugnara, C., Matté, A., Siciliano, A., Wieschhaus, A. J., Chishti, A. H., Joiner, C. H. Pharmacological inhibition of calpain-1 prevents red cell dehydration and reduces Gardos channel activity in a mouse model of sickle cell disease.
The FASEB Journal 10/2012; 27(2). DOI:10.1096/fj.12-217836 · 5.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dematin is a broadly expressed membrane-cytoskeletal protein that has been well characterized in erythrocytes and to a lesser extent in non-erythroid cells. However, dematins function in platelets is not known. Here, we show that dematin is abundantly expressed in both human and mouse platelets. Platelets harvested from the dematin headpiece knockout (HPKO) mouse model exhibit a striking defect in the mobilization of calcium in response to multiple agonists of platelet activation. The reduced calcium mobilization in HPKO platelets is associated with concomitant inhibition of platelet aggregation and granule secretion. Integrin αIIbβ3 activation in response to agonists is attenuated in the HPKO platelets. The mutant platelets show nearly normal spreading on fibrinogen and an unaltered basal cAMP level; however, the clot retraction was compromised in the mutant mice. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that dematin is present both at the dense tubular system (DTS) and plasma membrane fractions of platelets. Proteomic analysis of dematin-associated proteins in human platelets identified inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase isoform B (IP3KB) as a binding partner, which was confirmed by immunoprecipitation analysis. IP3KB, a DTS protein, is a major regulator of calcium homeostasis. Loss of the dematin headpiece resulted in a decrease of IP3KB at the membrane and increased levels of IP3KB in the cytosol. Collectively, these findings unveil dematin as a novel regulator of internal calcium mobilization in platelets affecting multiple signaling and cytoskeletal functions. Implications of a conserved role of dematin in the regulation of calcium homeostasis in other cell types will be discussed.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2012; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M112.364679 · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmacological inhibitors of cysteine proteases have provided useful insights into the regulation of calpain activity in erythrocytes. However, the precise biological function of calpain activity in erythrocytes remains poorly understood. Erythrocytes express calpain-1, an isoform regulated by calpastatin, the endogenous inhibitor of calpains. In the present study, we investigated the function of calpain-1 in mature erythrocytes using our calpain-1-null [KO (knockout)] mouse model. The calpain-1 gene deletion results in improved erythrocyte deformability without any measurable effect on erythrocyte lifespan in vivo. The calcium-induced sphero-echinocyte shape transition is compromised in the KO erythrocytes. Erythrocyte membrane proteins ankyrin, band 3, protein 4.1R, adducin and dematin are degraded in the calcium-loaded normal erythrocytes but not in the KO erythrocytes. In contrast, the integrity of spectrin and its state of phosphorylation are not affected in the calcium-loaded erythrocytes of either genotype. To assess the functional consequences of attenuated cytoskeletal remodelling in the KO erythrocytes, the activity of major membrane transporters was measured. The activity of the K+-Cl- co-transporter and the Gardos channel was significantly reduced in the KO erythrocytes. Similarly, the basal activity of the calcium pump was reduced in the absence of calmodulin in the KO erythrocyte membrane. Interestingly, the calmodulin-stimulated calcium pump activity was significantly elevated in the KO erythrocytes, implying a wider range of pump regulation by calcium and calmodulin. Taken together, and with the atomic force microscopy of the skeletal network, the results of the present study provide the first evidence for the physiological function of calpain-1 in erythrocytes with therapeutic implications for calcium imbalance pathologies such as sickle cell disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calpains are implicated in a wide range of cellular functions including the maintenance of hemostasis via the regulation of cytoskeletal modifications in platelets.
Determine the functional role of calpain isoforms in platelet spreading.
Platelets from calpain-1(-/-) mice show enhanced spreading on collagen- and fibrinogen-coated surfaces as revealed by immunofluorescence, differential interference contrast (DIC) and scanning electron microscopy. The treatment of mouse platelets with MDL, a cell permeable inhibitor of calpains 1/2, resulted in increased spreading. The PTP1B-mediated enhanced tyrosine dephosphorylation in calpain-1(-/-) platelets did not fully account for the enhanced spreading as platelets from the double knockout mice lacking calpain-1 and PTP1B showed only a partial rescue of the spreading phenotype. In non-adherent platelets, proteolysis and GTPase activity of RhoA and Rac1 were indistinguishable between the wild-type (WT) and calpain-1(-/-) platelets. In contrast, the ECM-adherent calpain-1(-/-) platelets showed higher Rac1 activity at the beginning of spreading, whereas RhoA was more active at later time points. The ECM-adherent calpain-1(-/-) platelets showed an elevated level of RhoA protein but not Rac1 and Cdc42. Proteolysis of recombinant RhoA, but not Rac1 and Cdc42, indicates that RhoA is a calpain-1 substrate in vitro.
Potentiation of the platelet spreading phenotype in calpain-1(-/-) mice suggests a novel role of calpain-1 in hemostasis, and may explain the normal bleeding time observed in the calpain-1(-/-) mice.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 03/2012; 10(6):1120-32. DOI:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2012.04715.x · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calpains are calcium-regulated cysteine proteases that have been implicated in the regulation of cell death pathways. Here, we used our calpain-1 null mouse model to evaluate the function of calpain-1 in neural degeneration following a rodent model of traumatic brain injury. In vivo, calpain-1 null mice show significantly less neural degeneration and apoptosis and a smaller contusion 3 days post-injury than wild type littermates. Protection from traumatic brain injury corroborated with the resistance of calpain-1 neurons to apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. Biochemical analysis revealed that caspase-3 activation, extracellular calcium entry, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and release of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria are partially blocked in the calpain-1 null neurons. These findings suggest that the calpain-1 knock-out mice may serve as a useful model system for neuronal protection and apoptosis in traumatic brain injury and other neurodegenerative disorders in which oxidative stress plays a role.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum invades human erythrocytes through multiple pathways utilizing several ligand-receptor interactions. These interactions are broadly classified in two groups according to their dependency on sialic acid residues. Here, we focus on the sialic acid-dependent pathway by using purified glycophorins and red blood cells (RBCs) to screen a cDNA phage display library derived from P. falciparum FCR3 strain, a sialic acid-dependent strain. This screen identified several parasite proteins including the erythrocyte-binding ligand-1, EBL-1. The phage cDNA insert encoded the 69-amino acid peptide, termed F2i, which is located within the F2 region of the DBL domain, designated here as D2, of EBL-1. Recombinant D2 and F2i polypeptides bound to purified glycophorins and RBCs, and the F2i peptide was found to interfere with binding of D2 domain to its receptor. Both D2 and F2i polypeptides bound to trypsin-treated but not neuraminidase or chymotrypsin-treated erythrocytes, consistent with known glycophorin B resistance to trypsin, and neither the D2 nor F2i polypeptide bound to glycophorin B-deficient erythrocytes. Importantly, purified D2 and F2i polypeptides partially inhibited merozoite reinvasion in human erythrocytes. Our results show that the host erythrocyte receptor glycophorin B directly interacts with the DBL domain of parasite EBL-1, and the core binding site is contained within the 69 amino acid F2i region (residues 601-669) of the DBL domain. Together, these findings suggest that a recombinant F2i peptide with stabilized structure could provide a protective function at blood stage infection and represents a valuable addition to a multi-subunit vaccine against malaria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pattern of disassembly of the cytoskeletal network of murine erythrocytes with deficiency of either dematin-headpiece or β-adducin or both proteins were investigated using atomic force microscopy. A heterogeneous complex structure with fine filament features and coarse features was observed in the cytoskeleton of wild type mouse erythrocytes, whereas a significant amount of rearrangement and aggregation occurred in the mutants, particularly in the cells carrying double gene mutations. These results are consistent with the cellular and biochemical phenotype of the mutant cell membranes as being more fragile due to weakened vertical connections with the plasma membrane.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the calpain-calpastatin system has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, its normal physiological role remains largely unknown. To investigate the functions of this system, we generated conventional and conditional calpain-2 knockout mice. The conventional calpain-2 knockout embryos died around embryonic day 15, preceded by cell death associated with caspase activation and DNA fragmentation in placental trophoblasts. In contrast, conditional knockout mice in which calpain-2 is expressed in the placenta but not in the fetus were spared. These results suggest that calpain-2 contributes to trophoblast survival via suppression of caspase activation. Double-knockout mice also deficient in calpain-1 and calpastatin resulted in accelerated and rescued embryonic lethality, respectively, suggesting that calpain-1 and -2 at least in part share similar in vivo functions under the control of calpastatin. Triple-knockout mice exhibited early embryonic lethality, a finding consistent with the notion that this protease system is vital for embryonic survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emerging data implicate microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of synaptic structure and function, but we know little about their role in the regulation of neurotransmission in presynaptic neurons. Here, we demonstrate that the miR-310-313 cluster is required for normal synaptic transmission at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction. Loss of miR-310-313 cluster leads to a significant enhancement of neurotransmitter release, which can be rescued with temporally restricted expression of mir-310-313 in larval presynaptic neurons. Kinesin family member, Khc-73 is a functional target for miR-310-313 as its expression is increased in mir-310-313 mutants and reducing it restores normal synaptic function. Cluster mutants show an increase in the active zone protein Bruchpilot accompanied by an increase in electron dense T bars. Finally, we show that repression of Khc-73 by miR-310-313 cluster influences the establishment of normal synaptic homeostasis. Our findings establish a role for miRNAs in the regulation of neurotransmitter release.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drosophila Kinesin-73 (Khc-73), which plays a role in mitotic spindle polarity in neuroblasts, is a metazoan-specific member of the Kinesin-3 family of motors, which includes mammalian KIF1A and Caenorhabditis elegans Unc-104. The mechanism of Kinesin-3 motors has been controversial because some studies have reported that they transport cargo as monomers whereas other studies have suggested a dimer mechanism. Here, we have performed single-molecule motility and cell biological studies of Khc-73. We find that constructs containing the motor and the conserved short stretches of putative coiled-coil-forming regions are predominantly monomeric in vitro, but that dimerization allows for fast, processive movement and high force production (7 piconewtons). In Drosophila cell lines, we present evidence that Khc-73 can dimerize in vivo. We also show that Khc-73 is recruited specifically to Rab5-containing endosomes through its "tail" domain. Our results suggest that the N-terminal half of Khc-73 can undergo a monomer-dimer transition to produce a fast processive motor and that its C-terminal half possesses a specific Rab5-vesicle binding domain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) plays a key role in neuronal polarization and axon formation. PIP3-containing vesicles are transported to axon tips by the kinesin KIF13B via an adaptor protein, centaurin α1 (CENTA1). KIF13B interacts with CENTA1 through its forkhead-associated (FHA) domain. We solved the crystal structures of CENTA1 in ligand-free, KIF13B-FHA domain-bound, and PIP3 head group (IP4)-bound conformations, and the CENTA1/KIF13B-FHA/IP4 ternary complex. The first pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of CENTA1 specifically binds to PIP3, while the second binds to both PIP3 and phosphatidylinositol 3,4-biphosphate (PI(3,4)P(2)). The FHA domain of KIF13B interacts with the PH1 domain of one CENTA1 molecule and the ArfGAP domain of a second CENTA1 molecule in a threonine phosphorylation-independent fashion. We propose that full-length KIF13B and CENTA1 form heterotetramers that can bind four phosphoinositide molecules in the vesicle and transport it along the microtubule.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2010; 107(47):20346-51. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1009008107 · 9.81 Impact Factor