[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phagocytosis plays a critical role in both innate and adaptive immunity. Phagosomal fusion with late endosomes and lysosomes
enhances proteolysis, causing degradation of the phagocytic content. Increased degradation participates in both innate protection
against pathogens and the production of antigenic peptides for presentation to T lymphocytes during adaptive immune responses.
Specific ligands present in the phagosomal cargo influence the rate of phagosome fusion with lysosomes, thereby modulating
both antigen degradation and presentation. Using a combination of cell sorting techniques and single phagosome flow cytometry-based
analysis, we found that opsonization with IgG accelerates antigen degradation within individual IgG-containing phagosomes,
but not in other phagosomes present in the same cell and devoid of IgG. Likewise, IgG opsonization enhances antigen presentation
to CD4+ T lymphocytes only when antigen and IgG are present within the same phagosome, whereas cells containing phagosomes with either
antigen or IgG alone failed to present antigen efficiently. Therefore, individual phagosomes behave autonomously, in terms
of both cargo degradation and antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells. Phagosomal autonomy could serve as a basis for the intracellular discrimination between self and nonself antigens,
resulting in the preferential presentation of peptides derived from opsonized, nonself antigens.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2012; 109(36):14556-14561. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Significance: The NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) is known to play a major role in innate immunity for several decades. Phagocytic cells provide host defense by ingesting microbes and destroy them by different mechanisms, including the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NOX2, a process known as oxidative burst. The phagocytic pathway of dendritic cells (DCs), highly adapted to antigen processing, has been shown to display remarkable differences compared to other phagocytes. Contrary to macrophages and neutrophils, the main function of DC phagosomes is antigen presentation rather than pathogen killing or clearance of cell debris. Recent Advances: In the last few years, it became clear that NOX2 is also involved in the establishment of adaptive immunity. Several studies support the idea of a relationship between antigen presentation and the level of antigen degradation, the latter one being regulated by the pH and ROS within phagosomes. Critical Issues: The regulation of phagosomal pH exerted by NOX2, and thereby of the efficacy of antigen cross-presentation in DCs, represents a clear illustration of how NOX2 can influence CD8(+) T lymphocyte responses. In this review, we want to put emphasis on the relationship between ROS generation and antigen processing and presentation, since there is growing evidence that the low levels of ROS generated by DCs play an important role in these processes. Future Directions: In the next years, it will be interesting to unravel possible mechanisms involved and to find other possible connections between NOX family members and adaptive immune responses. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presentation of exogenous antigens on MHC class I molecules, known as cross-presentation, is essential for the initiation of CD8(+) T cell responses. In vivo, cross-presentation is mainly carried out by specific dendritic cell (DC) subsets through an adaptation of their endocytic and phagocytic pathways. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the intracellular mechanisms of cross-presentation and discuss its role in immunity and tolerance in the context of specialization between DC subsets. Finally, we review current strategies to use cross-presentation for immunotherapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antigen (Ag) crosspresentation by dendritic cells (DCs) involves the presentation of internalized Ags on MHC class I molecules to initiate CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity in response to certain pathogens and tumor cells. Here, we identify the SNARE Sec22b as a specific regulator of Ag crosspresentation. Sec22b localizes to the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and pairs to the plasma membrane SNARE syntaxin 4, which is present in phagosomes (Phgs). Depletion of Sec22b inhibits the recruitment of ER-resident proteins to Phgs and to the vacuole containing the Toxoplasma gondii parasite. In Sec22b-deficient DCs, crosspresentation is compromised after Ag phagocytosis or endocytosis and after invasion by T. gondii. Sec22b silencing inhibited Ag export to the cytosol and increased phagosomal degradation by accelerating lysosomal recruitment. Our findings provide insight into an intracellular traffic pathway required for crosspresentation and show that Sec22b-dependent recruitment of ER proteins to Phgs critically influences phagosomal functions in DCs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mouse lymphoid organ-resident CD8alpha(+) dendritic cell (DC) subset is specialized in Ag presentation to CD8(+) T cells. Recent evidence shows that mouse nonlymphoid tissue CD103(+) DCs and human blood DC Ag 3(+) DCs share similarities with CD8alpha(+) DCs. We address here whether the organization of DC subsets is conserved across mammals in terms of gene expression signatures, phenotypic characteristics, and functional specialization, independently of the tissue of origin. We study the DC subsets that migrate from the skin in the ovine species that, like all domestic animals, belongs to the Laurasiatheria, a distinct phylogenetic clade from the supraprimates (human/mouse). We demonstrate that the minor sheep CD26(+) skin lymph DC subset shares significant transcriptomic similarities with mouse CD8alpha(+) and human blood DC Ag 3(+) DCs. This allowed the identification of a common set of phenotypic characteristics for CD8alpha-like DCs in the three mammalian species (i.e., SIRP(lo), CADM1(hi), CLEC9A(hi), CD205(hi), XCR1(hi)). Compared to CD26(-) DCs, the sheep CD26(+) DCs show 1) potent stimulation of allogeneic naive CD8(+) T cells with high selective induction of the Ifngamma and Il22 genes; 2) dominant efficacy in activating specific CD8(+) T cells against exogenous soluble Ag; and 3) selective expression of functional pathways associated with high capacity for Ag cross-presentation. Our results unravel a unifying definition of the CD8alpha(+)-like DCs across mammalian species and identify molecular candidates that could be used for the design of vaccines applying to mammals in general.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2010; 185(6):3313-25. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The induction of most CD8+ T cell responses by dendritic cells (DCs) requires the presentation of peptides from internalized antigen by class I MHC molecules. Increasing number of reports have shown that cross presentation is involved in transplant rejection, in immune responses to viral infections, in certain autoimmune diseases and cancer. The precise role of cross presentation in the initiation of immune responses in vivo, however, remains a matter of debate. This ongoing controversy is, at least in part, due to a lack of understanding of the molecular machinery that determine cross presentation pathways in terms of cell biology. The present review aims to summarize recent insights and advances that help enlighten the intracellular steps of antigen cross presentation in DCs.
Current opinion in immunology 02/2010; 22(1):109-17. · 10.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phagosomes are complex organelles that form after ingestion by phagocytic cells of pathogens, dying cells, or cell debris. Highly dynamic interactions of phagosomes first with endosomes and then with lysosomes lead to the maturation of phagosomes into phagolysosomes. Contrary to other phagocytes, which degrade ingested particles to amino acids, dendritic cells only partially degrade ingested proteins, preserving short peptides for the onset of adaptive immune responses. We have modified a series of latex bead-based techniques, previously reported, in order to analyze phagosome maturation using flow cytometry. The analysis of the phagosomal pH, degradation, or oxidation relies on techniques based on the fate of specific probes bound to particles to be phagocytosed. These techniques are very sensitive and quantitative.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2010; 595:383-402.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exosomes are secreted membrane vesicles that share structural and biochemical characteristics with intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes (MVEs). Exosomes could be involved in intercellular communication and in the pathogenesis of infectious and degenerative diseases. The molecular mechanisms of exosome biogenesis and secretion are, however, poorly understood. Using an RNA interference (RNAi) screen, we identified five Rab GTPases that promote exosome secretion in HeLa cells. Among these, Rab27a and Rab27b were found to function in MVE docking at the plasma membrane. The size of MVEs was strongly increased by Rab27a silencing, whereas MVEs were redistributed towards the perinuclear region upon Rab27b silencing. Thus, the two Rab27 isoforms have different roles in the exosomal pathway. In addition, silencing two known Rab27 effectors, Slp4 (also known as SYTL4, synaptotagmin-like 4) and Slac2b (also known as EXPH5, exophilin 5), inhibited exosome secretion and phenocopied silencing of Rab27a and Rab27b, respectively. Our results therefore strengthen the link between MVEs and exosomes, and introduce ways of manipulating exosome secretion in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A unique subpopulation of spleen dendritic cells (DCs) that express the CD8 surface marker efficiently present phagocytosed antigens to CD8(+) T lymphocytes in a process called "crosspresentation," which initiates cytotoxic immune responses. We now show that the small GTPase Rac2 plays a critical role in antigen crosspresentation selectively in this DC subpopulation. In CD8(+) DCs, Rac2 determines the subcellular assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex (NOX2) to phagosomes, whereas in CD8(-) DCs, Rac1 mediates the assembly of NOX2 at the plasma membrane. In the absence of Rac2, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in DC-phagosomes was abolished, the phagosomal pH dropped, and the efficiency of antigen crosspresentation was reduced. We conclude that the activity of Rac1 and 2 control crosspresentation in DC subpopulations through the regulation of phagosomal oxidation and pH.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phagocyte NADPH oxidase (NOX2) is critical for the bactericidal activity of phagocytic cells and plays a major role in innate immunity. We showed recently that NOX2 activity in mouse dendritic cells (DCs) prevents acidification of phagosomes, promoting antigen cross-presentation. In order to investigate the role of NOX2 in the regulation of the phagosomal pH in human DCs, we analyzed the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the phagosomal/endosomal pH in monocyte-derived DCs and macrophages (M(diameter)s) from healthy donors or patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). As expected, we found that human M(diameter)s acidify their phagosomes more efficiently than human DCs. Accordingly, the expression of the vacuolar proton ATPase (V-H(+)-ATPase) was higher in M(diameter)s than in DCs. Phagosomal ROS production, however, was also higher in M(diameter)s than in DCs, due to higher levels of gp91phox expression and recruitment to phagosomes. In contrast, in the absence of active NOX2, the phagosomal and endosomal pH decreased. Both in the presence of a NOX2 inhibitor and in DCs derived from patients with CGD, the cross-presentation of 2 model tumor antigens was impaired. We conclude that NOX2 activity participates in the regulation of the phagosomal and endosomal pH in human DCs, and is required for efficient antigen cross-presentation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Like macrophages and neutrophils, dendritic cells (DCs) are considered professional phagocytes. Even if the three cell types phagocytose parasites, bacteria, cell debris, or even intact cells very efficiently, the functional outcomes of the phagocytic event are quite different. Macrophages and neutrophils scavenge and destroy phagocytosed particles, a critical step in innate immunity. DCs, in contrast, have developed means to 'preserve' useful information from the ingested particles that serve to initiate adaptive immune responses. Thus, both phagosomal degradation and acidification are much lower in DCs than in macrophages or neutrophils. Reduced degradation results in the conservation of antigenic peptides and in their increased presentation on major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecules. In this article, we review the mechanisms that control this delicate equilibrium between phagosomal degradation/cytotoxicity and antigen presentation in the different families of phagocytes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To prevent excessive degradation of internalized antigens, which could destroy the peptides recognized by T lymphocytes, dendritic cells have developed several strategies that limit proteolytic activity in phagosomes. The recruitment of the NADPH oxidase NOX2 prevents acidification of phagosomes, limiting antigen degradation. Here, we show that dendritic cells derived from Rab27a-deficient ashen mice show increased phagosome acidification and antigen degradation, causing a defect in antigen cross-presentation. Enhanced acidification results from a delay in the recruitment to phagosomes of a subset of lysosome-related organelles containing the membrane subunits of NOX2. The Rab27a-dependent recruitment of these "inhibitory lysosome-related organelles" to phagosomes continuously limits acidification and degradation of ingested particles in dendritic cells, thus promoting antigen cross-presentation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To initiate adaptative cytotoxic immune responses, proteolytic peptides derived from phagocytosed antigens are presented by dendritic cells (DCs) to CD8+ T lymphocytes through a process called antigen "crosspresentation." The partial degradation of antigens mediated by lysosomal proteases in an acidic environment must be tightly controlled to prevent destruction of potential peptides for T cell recognition. We now describe a specialization of the phagocytic pathway of DCs that allows a fine control of antigen processing. The NADPH oxidase NOX2 is recruited to the DC's early phagosomes and mediates the sustained production of low levels of reactive oxygen species, causing active and maintained alkalinization of the phagosomal lumen. DCs lacking NOX2 show enhanced phagosomal acidification and increased antigen degradation, resulting in impaired crosspresentation. Therefore, NOX2 plays a critical role in conferring DCs the ability to function as specialized phagocytes adapted to process antigens rather than kill pathogens.