[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is in the ten leading cancer types, being difficult to detect as most of patients who develop this tumor have no symptoms other than those related to their longstanding liver disease. Liver is constantly exposed to bacterial products, viral infection, alcohol or other products, which may be cause of chronic liver damage, and thus an increasing risk for HCC. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have gained an extraordinary interest in cancer research due to their role in several biological processes such as innate immune responses, the induction of adaptive immune responses, regulation of inflammation, would healing and carcinogenesis. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical relevance of TLR3, 4 and 9 in HCC. METHODS: The expression levels of TLR3, TLR4 and TLR9 were analyzed in tumors from 30 patients with HCC. The analysis was performed by immunohistochemistry. Results were correlated with various clinicopathological findings and with overall survival. RESULTS: TLR3 was significantly high in large tumors (>4 cm of size in diameter) than in small tumors (p< 0.05). Our results demonstrated that patients whose tumors showed both TLR4 and TLR9 positive immunostaining had poor prognosis. In addition, TLR9 expression by fibroblast-like cells was significantly associated with a shortened overall survival (p= 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated an association between TLR3, TLR4 and TLR9 expression and tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in HCC.
Hepatology Research 06/2013; 44(7). DOI:10.1111/hepr.12180 · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have achieved an extraordinary amount of interest in inflammatory diseases due to their role in the inflammatory activation. By activating the production of several biological factors, TLRs induce type I interferons and other cytokines, which drive the inflammatory response and activate the adaptive immune system.
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the expression and clinical relevance of TLRs and interleukins in pediatric and adult celiac disease (CD), defined as intolerance to dietary proteins found in wheat, barley, and rye.
The expression levels of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7, interleukins, and different transcription factors were analyzed on duodenal biopsies from ten children and 31 adults with CD, and 21 duodenal controls biopsies without CD (ten children and 11 adults). The analyses were performed by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR.
There were no significant differences in the studied parameters between adults and children. TLR4 expression level was increased twofold in CD specimens compared to controls. CD patients with high levels of TLR4 also showed high levels of interleukins (IL1, IL6, IL8, and IL17) as well as transcription factors (IRAK4, MyD88, and NF-κB).
TLR4 expression is associated with CD independently of age at diagnosis. Pediatric patients and adult patients have a similar inflammatory profile, making it possible to treat both with the same immunological therapy in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of toll-like receptors (TLR) signaling can result in chronic inflammatory and over-exuberant repair responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical relevance of TLR in colorectal polyps.
The expression levels of six TLR were analyzed in 70 patients with different histological types of colorectal polyps, 38 of which developed colorectal carcinoma (CC). These analyses were performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry.
TLR9 expression was higher in hyperplastic or adenomatous polyps compared to other polyp types. Hyperplastic polyps also showed increased TLR7 levels compared to the other polyp types. TLR7 expression was lower in both hyperplastic and tubulovillous adenoma polyps from patients who developed CC. TLR9 expression was decreased in hyperplastic and villous polyps from patients who developed CC.
Our findings suggest a possible protective role of TLR expression against malignant transformation in the colorectal mucosa. TLR may represent a pathological marker of CC risk in colorectal polyps. The role of these factors in the pathology of colorectal polyps deserves further investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have suggested the significance of some metalloproteases in the malignant behaviour of hepatocellular carcinoma.
To evaluate the liver expression of MMPs and their tissular inhibitors in patients with HCC.
An immunohistochemical study using tissue microarrays on samples obtained from 30 HCC patients, with antibodies against MMPs (1, 2, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 14) and TIMPs (1, 2 and 3) was performed. Results were correlated with various clinico-pathological findings and with overall survival.
MMP-1 is mainly expressed by stromal cells, and MMP-13, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 by inflammatory cells. A positive correlation between MMP-1 expression and larger size tumours (p<0.01) was found. Increased TIMP-2 expression was associated with higher preoperative serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein (p<0.01). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering for total score values designated two groups, one of them characterised by high MMPs and TIMPs expressions, including 21 cases (70%) for tumour cell clustering, 5 cases for fibroblasts (16.6%) and 6 cases for inflammatory cells (20%). All patients showing elevated MMPs and TIMPs expression in stromal cells presented a poor prognosis (p<0.05).
High liver MMPs and TIMPs expressions in peritumour stromal cells are related to a poorer prognosis in HCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the tissular expression of Androgen (A), Estrogen (E) and Progesterone (Pg) receptors, and Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), in liver tumors from resected hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases in order to assess their possible relationship to prognosis.
We performed an immunohistochemical study using tissue microarrays (containing more than 260 cancer specimens, from 31 HCC patients and controls) to determine the presence of specific antibodies against AR, ER, PgR and ApoD, correlating their findings with several clinico-pathological and biological variables. The staining results were categorized using a semi-quantitative score based on their intensity, and the percentage of immunostained cells was measured.
A total of 21 liver tumors (67.7%) were positive for AR; 16 (51.6%) for ER; 26 (83.9%) for PgR and 12 (38.7%) stained for ApoD. We have found a wide variability in the immunostaining score values for each protein, with a median (range) of 11.5 (11.5-229.5) for AR; 11.1 (8.5-65) for ER; 14.2 (4-61) for PgR; and 37.7 (13.8-81.1) for ApoD. A history of heavy ethanol consumption, correlated positively with AR and PgR and negatively with ER status. HCV chronic infection also correlated positively with AR and PgR status. However, the presence of ApoD immunostaining did not correlate with any of these variables. Tumors with a positive immuno-staining for PgR showed a better prognosis.
Our results indicate a moderate clinical value of the steroid receptor status in HCC, emphasizing the need to perform further studies in order to evaluate the possible role of new hormonal-based therapies.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2007; 13(23):3221-7. · 2.43 Impact Factor