I.I. Inculet

The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (88)79.79 Total impact

  • Ben D. Hazlett, Ion I. Inculet, Diana R. Inculet
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    ABSTRACT: A novel method of generating electrical power from water waves utilizing a ‘Surfing’ motion was studied. Several system configurations were tested to evaluate the key aspects on which the power capture was dependent; it was found that the system power capture efficiency was primarily dependent on the wave steepness. It was found that the current system embodiment was able to absorb a maximum of approximately 14% of the available wave power.
    Renewable Energy. 01/2009; 34(11):2510-2514.
  • Ion I. Inculet, M. A. Bergougnou
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    ABSTRACT: The measurements of the temperature distribution were taken inside a charged, 1mm thick nylon uncured powder layer coating to be cured over a metallic surface with a filtered IR radiation. An optical filter used in the test allowed the transmission of only the IR wavelength below 2.9μm. The experiments showed that the tested nylon powder layer close to the metallic surface would be initially exposed to a curing temperature lower than the temperature at the surface of the coating. Hence, the cured surface layer and some of the powder may fall off during the curing.Further work to study the temperature distribution which develops on various powder materials and particle size may help the technology when thick cured powder coatings are necessary.
    Journal of Electrostatics - J ELECTROSTAT. 01/2008; 66(11):564-566.
  • Source
    Ion. I. Inculet, G.S. Peter Castle, Gerrit Aartsen
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the results of some field tests that were carried out to determine the electric fields generated due to bipolar charging that occurs during the filling of a container with conveyed powders in an industrial setting. Approximately 1000 kg of pneumatically conveyed powder was allowed to fall into a cubically shaped container made out of woven fibreglass cloth that was placed on a metallic base electrically connected to ground. During the filling operation, the electric fields at three points close to the outside surface of the container were measured with a calibrated electrostatic probe. The results show that as the container is being filled, the mass of powder that accumulates in the lower part generates outward directed positive electric fields. In contrast, the shrinking, unfilled, upper space in the container generates considerably stronger outward directed negative electric field at the surface. At the level of the powder filling the container, the outward directed electric field was approximately zero. As the container fills, the zero electric field level moves upwards and the negative electric field disappears leaving the entire surface with a positive electric field. The net charge to mass ratio of the conveyed powder was measured in the order of 1.5 E–10 C/g, while falling into the container. Some of the generated negative electric fields at the surface were as high as 30 kV/cm. These results confirm previous measurements with other powders that showed that in a poly-disperse mixture, fine particles tend to charge negatively whereas coarser particles charge positively.
    Chemical Engineering Science. 01/2006;
  • Yishui Wu, G.S.P. Castle, I.I. Inculet
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that particles can be freely levitated in an electric field due to the charge induced on the particles by the external field. The charge depends upon the electric field strength and particle properties. This paper studies some of these factors to investigate the fundamentals of induction charging for granular materials. An experimental apparatus was set up to collect the levitated particles in a filter contained in a Faraday pail and the charge-to-mass (Q/M) ratio was obtained based on the charge and mass measurements for the samples in the filter. Furthermore, the particle size distribution was measured and analyzed by laser diffraction and microscopy and the surface mean diameter (D<sub>s</sub>) and volume mean diameter (D<sub>v</sub>) were obtained. In these experiments irregular shaped Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> particles and spherical glass beads with a size range of 42-390 μm were used and tested at different electric field strengths. By combining the results of Q/M, D<sub>s</sub> and D<sub>v</sub>, the charge per particle was calculated and the results compared with theoretical values. It was confirmed that the particle charge is dependent upon the electric field strength and the particle properties of size, shape, density, resistivity, and adhesive force.
    IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 10/2005; · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • Ion I. Inculet
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    ABSTRACT: Considering the vast field of Electrostatic Industries, this paper describes only some chosen special measuring techniques that have been used for powders, solids, liquids, and gases in the chosen industrial activities listed below: Electrostatic; Precipitation; Corona and Tribocoating; Beneficiation and separation of minerals; Aerial spraying of vegetations; Filters and Microphones with dielectret materials.
    Journal of Electrostatics - J ELECTROSTAT. 01/2005; 63(6):523-531.
  • Y. Wu, G. S. P. Castle, I. I. Inculet
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    ABSTRACT: Much effort in electrostatic research involves study of the charge, motion and placement of particles. The charge and forces on a particle strongly depend on the particle size and shape. Thus an accurate measurement and analysis of particle size is vital in electrostatics research. In many cases these particles are of irregular shape. In research studying induction charging of granular material, both the surface mean diameter (Ds) and the volume mean diameter (Dv) are needed to determine the average charge per particle based on measured values of average charge-to-mass ratios (Q/M). This is because the charge depends on the surface area and the mass depends on the volume. Although there are different techniques to measure particle size, each technique has its own limitations, such as the amount of sample required, the particle density, etc. There is no single sizing technique that is superior in all applications. The purpose of this paper is to describe a suitable way to measure the particle size including both Ds and Dv of a sample of irregularly shaped induction charged particles that normally have a mass of approximately 10mg. It is known that the relationship between surface diameter and volume diameter is dependant upon the particle shape. In this work, sieving was used to prepare a size range of particles and results from laser diffraction and microscopy were combined to find the Dv of samples. Ds was determined using a shape factor that described the relationship between surface diameter and volume diameter. With these two calculations for Dv and Ds the induction charge on levitated charged particles was analyzed under different experimental conditions. Both spherical and elongated particles were used in the analysis and the results of charge per particle were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.
    Journal of Electrostatics - J ELECTROSTAT. 01/2005; 63(3):189-202.
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    ABSTRACT: Many industrial processes such as electrostatic separation, fluidization, and coating rely upon induction charging of fine particles. This paper considers the effects of electric field strength on the magnitude of the induction charge on freely levitating particles. The charging time and charge on a freely levitating particle depend on a number of properties, mainly the electric field strength, particle size, density, and resistivity. A charging model showing the dependence upon the electric field strength is presented and analyzed, along with a model of the levitation process. A high-speed digital imaging system was used to measure individual particle motion during levitation. Using these data along with the developed models, it was possible to determine the charge on the particle. Semiconductive particles with a mass mean diameter (MMD) of 156 μm were used in these experiments and tested at electric fields of 6.8, 8.5, 15, and 21 kV/cm, respectively. In addition, some experiments using particles 97-μm and 412-μm MMD at an electric field of 15 kV/cm were carried out to confirm the results obtained for the 156-μm particles. It was found that the particle charge was dependent upon both the charging time and electric field strength. In particular, for high electric fields the particle did not achieve its saturation charge before liftoff occurred. This shows that higher electric field strength is not necessarily the optimum condition for levitation of semiconductive particles.
    IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 12/2004; · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • Y. Wu, G.S.P. Castle, I.I. Inculet
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that particles can be freely levitated in an electric field due to the charge induced on the particles by the external field. The charge depends upon the electric field strength and particle properties. This paper studies some of these factors to investigate the fundamentals of induction charging for granular materials. An experimental apparatus was set up to collect the levitated particles in a filter contained in a Faraday pail and the charge-to-mass (Q/M) ratio was obtained based on the charge and mass measurements for the samples in the filter. Furthermore, the particle size distribution was measured and analyzed by laser diffraction and microscopy and the surface mean diameter (D<sub>s</sub>) and volume mean diameter (D<sub>v</sub>) were obtained. In these experiments irregular shaped Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> particles and spherical glass beads with a size range of 30 - 400 μm were used and tested at different electric field strengths. By combining the results of Q/M, D<sub>s</sub>, and D<sub>v</sub>, the charge per particle was calculated and the results compared with theoretical calculated values. It was confirmed that the particle charge is dependent upon the electric field strength and the particle properties of particle size, shape, density, resistivity and adhesive force.
    Industry Applications Conference, 2004. 39th IAS Annual Meeting. Conference Record of the 2004 IEEE; 11/2004
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    ABSTRACT: The theory of contact charging between metals was established in 1951 by Harper and confirmed experimentally in 1975 by Lowell who measured the net charge after separation of pure metals in contact and related it to the contact potential difference and capacitance of the surfaces using a specialized measurement technique. It is generally assumed that these contact charges can be ignored for metals used in common industrial processes because of charge backflow on separation. A series of experiments carried out on commonly used industrial materials shows that net charge does exist on spherical metal balls rolling out of a metal tube into a Faraday pail. The experiments were carried out using three different tube materials (copper, brass, aluminum), five different ball materials (copper, brass, aluminum, steel, and stainless steel), for ball diameters ranging from 0.24 to 1.27 cm. The surfaces of the materials were only rinsed with water and dried. Analysis of the results shows general agreement with the Harper theory and confirms the presence of net charge on metals separated in this simulated industrial operation, i.e., moving metal parts off a conducting conveyor. This process is analyzed from the point of view of possible discharge hazards and the reasons why this phenomenon is not more widely observed in industrial processes are discussed.
    IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 10/2004; · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that many common industrial powder handling operations such as pneumatic transport, mixing, and fluidization may produce a net charge on the powder particles. However, it is less well known that the net charge is often the result of a bipolar charge distribution in which the smaller particles acquire charges of a polarity opposite to those on the larger. This suggests contact charging between particles having the same chemical makeup. Very little quantitative data exist in the literature concerning this observation and no acceptable explanation currently exists. The purpose of this paper is to review the previous published work and to describe some results showing bipolar charging using polymer powders in fluidized beds. A new measurement system is described for measuring the bipolar charge distribution. This consists of a vertical array of seven Faraday pail sensors, which can selectively detect different charge components based upon particle size (gravity segregation) and charge (space-charge repulsion). For the experiments reported here the charge and mass values were measured for each sensor allowing the calculation of charge-to-mass ratio (Q/M). In addition, size distribution and surface analyses were carried out for representative samples of the powder components. Data are presented for several types of polymer powders (surface area mean diameter <100 μm). The results show that, for a given powder, even though the net charge may be positive or negative, the smaller particles show a negative charge and the coarser particles positive. These results are compared under several possible hypotheses. Each of these possibilities is examined using the measurements of the Q/M for different size fractions and the results of surface analysis and particle size distributions of these fractions.
    IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 06/2003; · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many industrial processes such as electrostatic separation, fluidization and coating rely upon induction charging of fine particles. This paper considers the magnitude of the induction charge on particles levitated in an electric field. The electric force on a particle depends on the electric field strength and the charge on the particle. Three different models to calculate the induced charge based on the particle sizes are presented as well as a model of the levitation process. A high-speed digital imaging system was used to visually measure the particle motion during the experiments to analyze the characteristic particle motion and thus determine the charge on the particle. Three different sizes of semiconductive particles having mass mean diameters (MMD) of 97, 156 and 412 μm were used in the experiments. It is shown that the charging time and charge on a freely levitating particle depends on a number of properties mainly the electric field strength, particle size, and resistivity. It has been found that the charging model, which assumes that the charge is distributed on the whole particle, is most suitable for all particles.
    Powder Technology - POWDER TECHNOL. 01/2003; 135:59-64.
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    ABSTRACT: So-called parametric excitations occur as a result of a time-dependent change in a parameter (e.g., rigidity, gravitational acceleration, etc.) of a system. A parametric excitation, manifested as a wave, can be formed on the surface of a conductive liquid, e.g., water, by application of an alternating electric (AC) field perpendicular to the surface. It has been shown previously, using a linearized analysis, that the time dependence of this electrohydrodynamic phenomenon can be described mathematically by the Mathieu equation. This result is useful for predicting the wave length and frequency of the parametric wave, but it predicts unlimited growth and therefore cannot determine the resulting amplitude or phase. This paper presents a nonlinear extension of the linear model, resulting in the Mathieu equation with a nonlinear (cubic) term added. The nonlinear equation enables a prediction of the phase of the finite wave with respect to the exciting AC field. A method to calculate the nonlinear coefficient is introduced, based on the nonlinear increase in the capillary force as the wave amplitude grows. Viscous dissipation in the liquid is considered, and a practical value of the damping coefficient is derived. A spatially sinusoidal wave shape is assumed, but an asymmetric variation of the model can accommodate different curvatures of the upward and a downward phases of the wave. The model explains why electric discharging above a water surface often occurs after the applied electric field has started to decline from its peak. Experimental measurements (obtained using a channel of water) of wave amplitude and phase are compared with predictions from the model
    IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 04/2002; · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • I.I. Inculet, G.S.P. Castle, M. Slanina, M. Duca
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    ABSTRACT: The pseudoelectret fibers developed at the Applied Electrostatics Research Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada, have been used to build an unlimited-life high-efficiency filter for micron-sized particles entrained in up to 300°C hot exhaust gas. This pseudoelectret filter has considerable advantages when compared to mechanical or conventional electret-type filters. In a comparable unblinded mechanical filter, the pressure drop is substantially higher, and in a conventional electret filter, the life of the electrical activity of the fibers is limited to hours or days, depending upon environmental conditions. A pseudoelectret fiber consists of a close assembly of two conductors electrically insulated from each other. By applying a low DC potential between the conductors, it is possible to generate a high nonuniform electric field in the air adjacent to their surfaces. This field attracts and retains passing micron-sized particles by the resulting dielectrophoretic force. By reversing the dc polarity periodically every few minutes, the electric field between the two conductors is restored at almost double the initial value due to the combination of the applied dc potential and the charges accumulated during the previous cycle. A prototype cylindrical cartridge air filter has been constructed. The filter media consists of 23 layers of pseudoelectret fibers. These fibers are constructed from seven strands of 100-μm-diameter copper wire overlaid with Teflon insulation and wrapped with a spiral of uninsulated copper wire 150 μm in diameter. The filter is able to operate at temperatures up to 300°C while maintaining insulation values between the electrodes of over 500 MΩ with applied potentials up to 500 V. This paper presents the results of the efficiency and pressure drop tests at several values of gas flow, dust loading, and air temperature
    IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 02/2002; · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ozone accumulation in water was compared with aqueous methylene blue (MB) degradation in a stirred semi-batch reactor. Comparable concentrations of gas-phase ozone, generated by parallel-plate dielectric-barrier AC discharge in high-purity oxygen, were allowed to contact the tested liquid using one of three regimens of ozone generation: (1) dry ex-situ; (2) humid ex-situ; and (3) humid in-situ ( “electroozonation” ). Results from (1) and (2) were similar, whereas in case (3) a slower ozone accumulation rate was contrasted by a three times faster MB degradation. A faster decomposition of aqueous ozone due to an assumed prevalence of free-radical induced MB degradation over direct ozonation in case (3) are indicative of a process similar to glow-discharge electrolysis.
    Ozone-science & Engineering - OZONE-SCI ENG. 01/2002; 24(3):159-170.
  • H. Zhao, G.S.P. Castle, I.I. Inculet
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    ABSTRACT: A vertical array of Faraday pail sensors was developed to partially separate bipolar charged polydisperse powder and measure the charge-to-mass ratio of the powder deposited in each Faraday pail. In our experiments, the system consisted of seven Faraday pails, six special Faraday pails, which were mounted vertically in cascade, and a normal Faraday pail located at the bottom. The inner and outer pails of the special Faraday pails had open holes on the upper and lower covers. The bipolar charged polydisperse powder was sampled from an earthed metallic fluidized bed with an earthed metallic vertical tube at the axis of the bed. As the powder falls, individual particles experience separation forces due to the gravity segregation and space charge repulsion. The particles thus deposit into different inner Faraday pails according to their charge, size and mass. Each powder sample was collected and the charge-to-mass ratio was measured. The size distribution of the particles sampled from each Faraday pail was analyzed to clarify the effect of this factor on contact charging between particles.
    Journal of Electrostatics 01/2002; · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oscillating projections can develop on the surface of a conductive liquid stressed by a perpendicular, alternating electric field. In this work, a water surface was confined in a narrow channel, resulting in a single row of projections, allowing good observations of the projection shapes. This paper discusses the experimentally observed development of the projections, and the resulting electric field at their tips. The row of projections behaves as a standing wave at the frequency of the applied AC voltage. It was seen that the formation of the projections, and hence the maximum electric field, lags the applied voltage. The normally rounded projections can become conical if the voltage is high enough for sparking to occur. Sparking was observed to occur as the applied voltage declined from its peak, corresponding to the time of the calculated maximum electric field
    IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 06/2001; · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • I.I. Inculet, G.S.P. Castle
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    ABSTRACT: Space charges play a key role in many industrial and agricultural applications such as electrostatic painting or application of insecticides in orchards and row crops. For generation of large sized space charge clouds, induction charging is the preferred method. Whereas corona charging often involves voltage in the order of 100 kV, induction charging may be achieved with voltages of less than a few thousand volts. The paper presents a novel construction of a spray unit with induction charging suitable for injecting large volumes of ionic space charge into a region. The experimental unit comprises: a flat spray liquid atomizing nozzle with high pressure air; two large size induction electrodes, and, an air curtain surrounding the electrodes to prevent the fine droplets from landing on the electrodes. The two large, flat induction electrodes sandwiching the flat spray have shown to generate excellent induction charging on the spray droplets achieving charge to mass ratios in the order of 4 mC/kg and ionic charge densities of 2 mC/m/sup 3/. The studied variables were: pressure and flow of water supply at the nozzle and the pressure and flow of the curtain The atomized charged spray cloud of droplets with a mean volume diameter of several micrometers, evaporates at certain distances from the nozzle forming a mixed charged cloud of both water ions and finer water droplets.
    Industry Applications Conference, 2001. Thirty-Sixth IAS Annual Meeting. Conference Record of the 2001 IEEE; 01/2001
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    ABSTRACT: In situ ozonation by a parallel-plate dielectric barrier AC discharge through oxygen onto water surfaces (”electroozonation—) has been used to generate ozone in the gas phase and transport it across the gas-liquid interface in a single step, with simultaneous generation of hydrogen peroxide in the liquid phase. The latter may contribute to efficiency in terms of oxidative power production vs. electrical power consumption in that hydroxyl radicals are generated independently from ozone decomposition. The process is akin to glow-discharge electrolysis, in which OH radicals are produced from ionized or activated water molecules, rattier than by H2O2-induced ozone decomposition as in other advanced oxidations based upon O3/H2O2.
    Ozone-science & Engineering - OZONE-SCI ENG. 01/2001; 23(6):467-478.
  • F.S. Ali, I.I. Inculet
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    ABSTRACT: Electrostatic powder coating in fluidized beds is a technique that has been known for more than 30 years. These systems are predominantly used for coating of wire-shaped objects and rely on corona charging of the powder. Experimental studies carried out in a tribocharged system have shown that the intersection points of a wire geometry rack are susceptible to insufficient coating. This paper attempts to explain why the intersection points may present coating difficulties. An analysis of the electric fields produced around a wire object immersed in a fluidized bed of charged powder is carried out using commercially available finite-element software. The finite-element results show that the intersection points suffer from Faraday-cage effects. However, if the powder is sufficiently charged, then, as powder deposits on the substrate in areas where the electric field is strong, the electric field is enhanced in the original weaker areas, thus promoting powder deposition toward the intersections. If a powder is insufficiently charged, no enhancement of the electric field occurs
    IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 10/2000; · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • F. Sharmene Ali, T.E. Base, I.I. Inculet
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    ABSTRACT: The trajectories of charged powder particles in an electrostatic powder coating system were modeled considering electrical and fluid forces. The mathematical model employed an iterative technique wherein the charge simulation method was used to compute the electric field strength and the method of characteristics was used to compute the charge density in the gun-to-target region. The fluid flow between the electrostatic gun and the target was modeled using interpolated experimental data assuming stagnation point flow. Particle trajectories were simulated for size range 10-40 μm and charge-to-mass ratios of -0.1 to -1 μC/g. The simulation results showed good agreement with experimental data (charge and mass measurements) at several collection points on the painting target and provided valuable information concerning particle deposition
    IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 08/2000; · 1.67 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

350 Citations
79.79 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1972–2009
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      • • Applied Electrostatics Research Centre (AERC)
      • • Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2002
    • Trojan Technologies
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 1998
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1979
    • Modine Manufacturing Company
      Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin, United States