[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of attrition for candidate pharmaceuticals in development. New preclinical screening methods are crucial to predict drug toxicity prior to human studies. Of all in vitro hepatotoxicity models, primary human hepatocytes are considered as 'the gold standard.' However, their use is hindered by limited availability and inter-individual variation. These barriers may be overcome by using primary mouse hepatocytes. We used differential in gel electrophoresis (DIGE) to study large-scale protein expression of primary mouse hepatocytes. These hepatocytes were exposed to three well-defined hepatotoxicants: acetaminophen, amiodarone, and cyclosporin A. Each hepatotoxicant induces a different hepatotoxic phenotype. Based on the DIGE results, the mRNA expression levels of deregulated proteins from cyclosporin A-treated cells were also analyzed. We were able to distinguish cyclosporin A from controls, as well as acetaminophen and amiodarone-treated samples. Cyclosporin A induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and altered the ER-Golgi transport. Moreover, liver carboxylesterase and bile salt sulfotransferase were differentially expressed. These proteins were associated with a protective adaptive response against cyclosporin A-induced cholestasis. The results of this study are comparable with effects in HepG2 cells. Therefore, we suggest both models can be used to analyze the cholestatic properties of cyclosporin A. Furthermore, this study showed a conserved response between primary mouse hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. These findings collectively lend support for use of omics strategies in preclinical toxicology, and might inform future efforts to better link preclinical and clinical research in rational drug development.
Omics: a journal of integrative biology 01/2013; · 2.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The safety assessment for pharmaceuticals includes in vivo repeated dose toxicity tests in laboratory animals. These in vivo studies often generate false negative results and unexpected toxicity. The appearance of this unexpected toxicity is one of the major reasons for the drawback of a drug from the market. The liver is often a target organ in toxicology since it is responsible for the metabolism and elimination of chemical compounds. Therefore, there is need for new screening methods which classify hepatotoxic compounds earlier in development. This will lead to safer drugs and a more efficient drug discovery process. Furthermore, these new screening methods are preferably in vitro test systems, aiming at reducing the use of laboratory animals. In this review the possibilities of proteomics and its promising results for improving current predictive and mechanistic toxicological studies are described. Biomarkers or protein panels for hepatotoxic mechanisms, which reflect the in vivo situation, need to be identified to allow a better toxicity screening. Therefore, in vivo studies and in vitro cell models are discussed and evaluated with regard to the protein expression of their metabolic enzymes, their similarities with liver, their use for analyzing toxicological mechanisms and hepatotoxicity screening. Studies in which proteomics are combined with other omics-technologies are also presented. The results from these integrated data analyses can be used for the development of improved panels of biomarkers for toxicity screening.
Toxicology in Vitro 04/2012; 26(3):373-85. · 2.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unexpected hepatotoxicity is one of the major reasons of drugs failing in clinical trials. This emphasizes the need for new screening methods that address toxicological hazards early in the drug discovery process. Here, proteomics techniques were used to gain further insight into the mechanistic processes of the hepatotoxic compounds. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is mainly divided in hepatic steatosis, cholestasis, or necrosis. For each class, a compound was selected, respectively amiodarone, cyclosporin A, and acetaminophen. The changes in protein expressions in HepG2, after exposure to these test compounds, were studied using quantitative two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis. Identification of differentially expressed proteins was performed by Maldi-TOF/TOF MS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In this study, 254 differentially expressed protein spots were detected in a two-dimensional proteome map from which 86 were identified, showing that the proteome of HepG2 cells is responsive to hepatotoxic compounds. cyclosporin A treatment was responsible for most differentially expressed proteins and could be discriminated in the hierarchical clustering analysis. The identified differential proteins show that cyclosporin A may induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and disturbs the ER-Golgi transport, with an altered vesicle-mediated transport and protein secretion as result. Moreover, the differential protein pattern seen after cyclosporin A treatment can be related to cholestatic mechanisms. Therefore, our findings indicate that the HepG2 in vitro cell system has distinctive characteristics enabling the assessment of cholestatic properties of novel compounds at an early stage of drug discovery.