Anke Rissmann

Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany

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Publications (47)112.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Evidence of an association between early pregnancy exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and congenital heart defects (CHD) has contributed to recommendations to weigh benefits and risks carefully. The objective of this study was to determine the specificity of association between first trimester exposure to SSRIs and specific CHD and other congenital anomalies (CA) associated with SSRI exposure in the literature (signals). A population-based case-malformed control study was conducted in 12 EUROCAT CA registries covering 2.1 million births 1995-2009 including livebirths, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. Babies/fetuses with specific CHD (n = 12,876) and non-CHD signal CA (n = 13,024), were compared with malformed controls whose diagnosed CA have not been associated with SSRI in the literature (n = 17,083). SSRI exposure in first trimester pregnancy was associated with CHD overall (OR adjusted for registry 1.41, 95 % CI 1.07-1.86, fluoxetine adjOR 1.43 95 % CI 0.85-2.40, paroxetine adjOR 1.53, 95 % CI 0.91-2.58) and with severe CHD (adjOR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.02-2.39), particularly Tetralogy of Fallot (adjOR 3.16, 95 % CI 1.52-6.58) and Ebstein's anomaly (adjOR 8.23, 95 % CI 2.92-23.16). Significant associations with SSRI exposure were also found for ano-rectal atresia/stenosis (adjOR 2.46, 95 % CI 1.06-5.68), gastroschisis (adjOR 2.42, 95 % CI 1.10-5.29), renal dysplasia (adjOR 3.01, 95 % CI 1.61-5.61), and clubfoot (adjOR 2.41, 95 % CI 1.59-3.65). These data support a teratogenic effect of SSRIs specific to certain anomalies, but cannot exclude confounding by indication or associated factors.
    European Journal of Epidemiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10654-015-0065-y · 5.15 Impact Factor
  • J Müller · H Fechner · A Köhn · A Rißmann
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In recent years quality assurance has become an essential part of today's health-care system in the wake of the modern patient-oriented quality management. With the statutory introduction of newborn hearing screening (NHS) in 2009, a quality assurance of these early detection methods has become necessary. The aim of the study was to determine patient satisfaction in relation to the NHS in Saxony-Anhalt. Patients/Methods: During the period from November 2013 to April 2014, 394 parents were retrospectively interviewed about their experiences and expectations in relation to the NHS, using a standardised questionnaire. In total, 21 child care centres and 6 paediatric primary care centres from all over Saxony-Anhalt were involved. Results: It turns out that the majority of parents are satisfied with the NHS and 97.7% are in favour of the offer of an NHS. Of the surveyed parents, 69.3% felt the information as sufficient. However, only 66.2% of parents took a closer look at the leaflet issued by the G-BA. In addition, 17.7% of respondents are dissatisfied with the professional competence of the examining staff. Conclusion: The study shows that the general attitude among parents towards newborn hearing screening was very positive. They felt reassured by it although there are some aspects still open to criticism. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Das Gesundheitswesen 06/2015; DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1549969 · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Each year approximately 2400 pregnancies develop folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly in Europe. Currently, 70% of all affected pregnancies are terminated after prenatal diagnosis. The prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) has been significantly lowered in more than 70 countries worldwide by applying fortification with folic acid. Periconceptional supplementation of folic acid also reduces the risk of congenital heart diseases, preterm birth, low birth weight, and health problems associated with child mortality and morbidity. All European governments failed to issue folic acid fortification of centrally processed and widely eaten foods in order to prevent NTDs and other unwanted birth outcomes. The estimated average dietary intake of folate in Germany is 200 μg dietary folate equivalents (DFE)/day. More than half of German women of reproductive age do not consume sufficient dietary folate to achieve optimal serum or red blood cell folate concentrations (>18 or 1000 nmol/L, respectively) necessary to prevent spina bifida and anencephaly. To date, targeted supplementation is recommended in Europe, but this approach failed to reduce the rate of NTDs during the last 10 years. Public health centers for prenatal care and fortification with folic acid in Europe are urgently needed. Only such an action will sufficiently improve folate status, prevent at least 50% of the NTD cases, reduce child mortality and morbidity, and alleviate other health problems associated with low folate such as anemia.
    Journal of Perinatal Medicine 03/2015; DOI:10.1515/jpm-2014-0346 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation. The prevalence of hypospadias has a large geographical variation, and recent studies have reported both increasing and decreasing temporal trends. It is unclear whether hypospadias prevalence is associated with maternal age. To analyze the prevalence and trends of total hypospadias, isolated hypospadias, hypospadias with multiple congenital anomalies, hypospadias with a known cause, and hypospadias severity subtypes in Europe over a 10-year period and to investigate whether maternal age is associated with hypospadias. We included all children with hypospadias born from 2001 to 2010 who were registered in 23 EUROCAT registries. Information on the total number of births and maternal age distribution for the registry population was also provided. We analyzed the total prevalence of hypospadias and relative risks by maternal age. From 2001 to 2010, 10,929 hypospadias cases were registered in 5,871,855 births, yielding a total prevalence of 18.61 per 10,000 births. Prevalence varied considerably between different registries, probably due to differences in ascertainment of hypospadias cases. No significant temporal trends were observed with the exceptions of an increasing trend for anterior and posterior hypospadias and a decreasing trend for unspecified hypospadias. After adjusting for registry effects, maternal age was not significantly associated with hypospadias. Total hypospadias prevalence was stable in 23 EUROCAT registries from 2001 to 2010 and was not significantly influenced by maternal age.
    World Journal of Urology 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00345-015-1507-6 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that over 40% of babies with Down syndrome have a major cardiac anomaly and are more likely to have other major congenital anomalies. Since 2000, many countries in Europe have introduced national antenatal screening programs for Down syndrome. This study aimed to determine if the introduction of these screening programs and the subsequent termination of prenatally detected pregnancies were associated with any decline in the prevalence of additional anomalies in babies born with Down syndrome. The study sample consisted of 7,044 live births and fetal deaths with Down syndrome registered in 28 European population-based congenital anomaly registries covering seven million births during 2000–2010. Overall, 43.6% (95% CI: 42.4–44.7%) of births with Down syndrome had a cardiac anomaly and 15.0% (14.2–15.8%) had a non-cardiac anomaly. Female babies with Down syndrome were significantly more likely to have a cardiac anomaly compared to male babies (47.6% compared with 40.4%, P < 0.001) and significantly less likely to have a non-cardiac anomaly (12.9% compared with 16.7%, P < 0.001). The prevalence of cardiac and non-cardiac congenital anomalies in babies with Down syndrome has remained constant, suggesting that population screening for Down syndrome and subsequent terminations has not influenced the prevalence of specific congenital anomalies in these babies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 12/2014; 164(12). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.36780 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Published prevalence rates of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) vary. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of CDH using data from high-quality, population-based registers belonging to the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT). Cases of CDH delivered between 1980 and 2009 notified to 31 EUROCAT registers formed the population-based case series. Prevalence over time was estimated using multilevel Poisson regression, and heterogeneity between registers was evaluated from the random component of the intercept. There were 3373 CDH cases reported among 12 155 491 registered births. Of 3131 singleton cases, 353 (10.4%) were associated with a chromosomal anomaly, genetic syndrome or microdeletion, 784 (28.2%) were associated with other major structural anomalies. The male to female ratio of CDH cases overall was 1:0.69. Total prevalence was 2.3 (95% CI 2.2 to 2.4) per 10 000 births and 1.6 (95% CI 1.6 to 1.7) for isolated CDH cases. There was a small but significant increase (relative risk (per year)=1.01, 95% credible interval 1.00-1.01; p=0.030) in the prevalence of total CDH over time but there was no significant increase for isolated cases (ie, CDH cases that did not occur with any other congenital anomaly). There was significant variation in total and isolated CDH prevalence between registers. The proportion of cases that survived to 1 week was 69.3% (1392 cases) for total CDH cases and 72.7% (1107) for isolated cases. This large population-based study found an increase in total CDH prevalence over time. CDH prevalence also varied significantly according to geographical location. No significant association was found with maternal age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition 11/2014; 100(2). DOI:10.1136/archdischild-2014-306174 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by upper limb anomalies and congenital heart defects. We present epidemiological and clinical aspects of HOS patients using data from EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) registries.Methods The study was based on data collected during 1990¿2011 by 34 registries. The registries are population-based and use multiple sources of information to collect data on all types of birth using standardized definitions, methodology and coding. Diagnostic criteria for inclusion in the study were the presence of radial ray abnormalities and congenital heart disease (CHD), or the presence of either radial ray anomaly or CHD, with family history of HOS.ResultsA total of 73 cases of HOS were identified, including 11 (15.1%) TOPFA and 62 (84.9%) LB. Out of 73 HOS cases, 30.8% (20/65) were suspected prenatally, 55.4% (36/65) at birth, 10.7% (7/65) in the first week of life, and 3.1% (2/65) in the first year of life. The prenatal detection rate was 39.2% (20/51), with no significant change over the study period. In 55% (11/20) of prenatally detected cases, parents decided to terminate pregnancy. Thumb anomalies were reported in all cases. Agenesis/hypoplasia of radius was present in 49.2% (30/61), ulnar aplasia/hypoplasia in 24.6% (15/61) and humerus hypoplasia/phocomelia in 42.6% (26/61) of patients. Congenital heart defects (CHD) were recorded in 78.7% (48/61) of patients. Isolated septal defects were present in 54.2 (26/48), while 25% (12/48) of patients had complex/severe CHD. The mean prevalence of HOS diagnosed prenatally or in the early years of life in European registries was 0.7 per 100,000 births or 1:135,615 births.ConclusionsHOS is a rare genetic condition showing regional variation in its prevalence. It is often missed prenatally, in spite of the existence of major structural anomalies. When discovered, parents in 45% (9/20) of cases opt for the continuation of pregnancy. Although a quarter of patients have severe CHD, the overall first week survival is very good, which is important information for counselling purposes.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 10/2014; 9(1):156. DOI:10.1186/s13023-014-0156-y · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The acronym VATER/VACTERL association describes the combination of at least three of the following cardinal features: vertebral defects, anorectal malformations, cardiac defects, tracheoesophageal fistula with or without esophageal atresia, renal malformations, and limb defects. Although fibroblast growth factor-8 (FGF8) mutations have mainly found in patients with Kallmann syndrome, mice with a hypomorphic Fgf8 allele or complete gene invalidation display, aside from gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency, parts or even the entire spectrum of human VATER/VACTERL association.Methods We performed FGF8 gene analysis in 49 patients with VATER/VACTERL association and 27 patients presenting with a VATER/VACTERL-like phenotype (two cardinal features).ResultsWe identified two heterozygous FGF8 mutations in patients displaying either VATER/VACTERL association (p.Gly29_Arg34dup) or a VATER/VACTERL-like phenotype (p.Pro26Leu) without limb anomalies. Whereas the duplication mutation has not been reported before, p.Pro26Leu was once observed in a Kallmann syndrome patient. Both our patients had additional bilateral cryptorchidism, a key phenotypic feature in males with FGF8 associated Kallmann syndrome. Each mutation was paternally inherited. Besides delayed puberty in both and additional unilateral cryptorchidism in one of the fathers, they were otherwise healthy. Serum hormone levels downstream the gonadotropin-releasing hormone in both patients and their fathers were within normal range.Conclusion Our results suggest FGF8 mutations to contribute to the formation of the VATER/VACTERL association. Further studies are needed to support this observation. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology 10/2014; 100(10). DOI:10.1002/bdra.23278 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Meckel-Gruber Syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive lethal ciliopathy characterized by the triad of cystic renal dysplasia, occipital encephalocele and postaxial polydactyly. We present the largest population-based epidemiological study to date using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network. The study population consisted of 191 cases of MKS identified between January 1990 and December 2011 in 34 European registries. The mean prevalence was 2.6 per 100 000 births in a subset of registries with good ascertainment. The prevalence was stable over time, but regional differences were observed. There were 145 (75.9%) terminations of pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis, 13 (6.8%) fetal deaths, 33 (17.3%) live births. In addition to cystic kidneys (97.7%), encephalocele (83.8%) and polydactyly (87.3%), frequent features include other central nervous system anomalies (51.4%), fibrotic/cystic changes of the liver (65.5% of cases with post mortem examination) and orofacial clefts (31.8%). Various other anomalies were present in 64 (37%) patients. As nowadays most patients are detected very early in pregnancy when liver or kidney changes may not yet be developed or may be difficult to assess, none of the anomalies should be considered obligatory for the diagnosis. Most cases (90.2%) are diagnosed prenatally at 14.3±2.6 (range 11-36) gestational weeks and pregnancies are mainly terminated, reducing the number of LB to one-fifth of the total prevalence rate. Early diagnosis is important for timely counseling of affected couples regarding the option of pregnancy termination and prenatal genetic testing in future pregnancies.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 3 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.174.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 09/2014; 23(6). DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2014.174 · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • Reproductive Toxicology 09/2014; 48:13–14. DOI:10.1016/j.reprotox.2014.07.005 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Hirschsprung's disease is a congenital gut motility disorder, characterised by the absence of the enteric ganglion cells along the distal gut. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of Hirschsprung's disease, including additional congenital anomalies, total prevalence, trends, and association with maternal age. Methods: Cases of Hirschsprung's disease delivered during 1980 to 2009 notified to 31 European Surveillance of Congenital Anomaly registers formed the population-based case-series. Prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated as the number of cases per 10,000 births. Multilevel Poisson regression was performed to investigate trends in prevalence, geographical variation and the association with maternal age. Results: There were 1,322 cases of Hirschsprung's disease among 12,146,210 births. The total prevalence was 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.15) per 10,000 births and there was a small but significant increase in prevalence over time (relative risk = 1.01; 95% credible interval, 1.00-1.02; p = 0.004). There was evidence of geographical heterogeneity in prevalence (p < 0.001). Excluding 146 (11.0%) cases with chromosomal anomalies or genetic syndromes, there were 1,176 cases (prevalence = 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-1.03 per 10,000 births), of which 137 (11.6%) had major structural anomalies. There was no evidence of a significant increased risk of Hirschsprung's disease in cases born to women aged ≥35 years compared with those aged 25 to 29 (relative risk = 1.09; 95% credible interval, 0.91-1.31; p = 0.355). Conclusion: This large population-based study found evidence of a small increasing trend in Hirschsprung's disease and differences in prevalence by geographic location. There was also no evidence of an association with maternal age. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology 07/2014; 100(9). DOI:10.1002/bdra.23269 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital anomalies (CA) are the paradigm example of rare diseases liable to primary prevention actions due to the multifactorial etiology of many of them, involving a number of environmental factors together with genetic predispositions. Yet despite the preventive potential, lack of attention to an integrated preventive strategy has led to the prevalence of CA remaining relatively stable in recent decades. The 2 European projects, EUROCAT and EUROPLAN, have joined efforts to provide the first science-based and comprehensive set of recommendations for the primary prevention of CA in the European Union. The resulting EUROCAT-EUROPLAN 'Recommendations on Policies to Be Considered for the Primary Prevention of Congenital Anomalies in National Plans and Strategies on Rare Diseases' were issued in 2012 and endorsed by EUCERD (European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases) in 2013. The recommendations exploit interdisciplinary expertise encompassing drugs, diet, lifestyles, maternal health status, and the environment. The recommendations include evidence-based actions aimed at reducing risk factors and at increasing protective factors and behaviors at both individual and population level. Moreover, consideration is given to topics specifically related to CA (e.g. folate status, teratogens) as well as of broad public health impact (e.g. obesity, smoking) which call for specific attention to their relevance in the pre- and periconceptional period. The recommendations, reported entirely in this paper, are a comprehensive tool to implement primary prevention into national policies on rare diseases in Europe. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Public Health Genomics 04/2014; 17(2):115-123. DOI:10.1159/000360602 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes the prevalence, associated anomalies, and demographic characteristics of cases of multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) in 19 population-based European registries (EUROCAT) covering 959,446 births in 2004 and 2010. EUROCAT implemented a computer algorithm for classification of congenital anomaly cases followed by manual review of potential MCA cases by geneticists. MCA cases are defined as cases with two or more major anomalies of different organ systems, excluding sequences, chromosomal and monogenic syndromes. The combination of an epidemiological and clinical approach for classification of cases has improved the quality and accuracy of the MCA data. Total prevalence of MCA cases was 15.8 per 10,000 births. Fetal deaths and termination of pregnancy were significantly more frequent in MCA cases compared with isolated cases (p < 0.001) and MCA cases were more frequently prenatally diagnosed (p < 0.001). Live born infants with MCA were more often born preterm (p < 0.01) and with birth weight < 2500 grams (p < 0.01). Respiratory and ear, face, and neck anomalies were the most likely to occur with other anomalies (34% and 32%) and congenital heart defects and limb anomalies were the least likely to occur with other anomalies (13%) (p < 0.01). However, due to their high prevalence, congenital heart defects were present in half of all MCA cases. Among males with MCA, the frequency of genital anomalies was significantly greater than the frequency of genital anomalies among females with MCA (p < 0.001). Although rare, MCA cases are an important public health issue, because of their severity. The EUROCAT database of MCA cases will allow future investigation on the epidemiology of these conditions and related clinical and diagnostic problems. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology 04/2014; 100(4). DOI:10.1002/bdra.23240 · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Die Hebamme 03/2014; 27(01):44-47. DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1361491
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    ABSTRACT: Bearing in mind the impending evaluation of newborn hearing screening in Germany, this study investigated whether multicenter analysis of the screening results from four German states is possible and to what extent the results meet national quality and outcome criteria. The screening data from 170 hospitals and a total of 533,150 newborns (21 % of all German newborns) from 2009 to 2012 were evaluated according to definite rules and analyzed in terms of averages, as well as over time. During the investigated period and averaged over the hospitals, the quality criteria "percentage of screened newborns" (91.4 %) and "percentage requiring further follow-up" (5.0 %), the "day of screening" (day 4), as well as the target parameter "age at diagnosis" (4.8 months) were not met. Steady improvements were observed over time: in the last year of the evaluation, 95.3 % of children were examined; only 4.8 % required follow-up and the age at diagnosis decreased to 4.2 months. On average, 83 % of the babies were screened before day 4. The steady reduction in variance of most of the variables from the participating hospitals indicates continual improvement. A multicenter analysis of screening data is possible and valid in the case of good quality data.
    HNO 02/2014; 62(3). DOI:10.1007/s00106-013-2817-x · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum is a complex developmental disorder characterised mainly by anomalies of the ear, hemifacial microsomia, epibulbar dermoids and vertebral anomalies. The aetiology is largely unknown, and the epidemiological data are limited and inconsistent. We present the largest population-based epidemiological study to date, using data provided by the large network of congenital anomalies registries in Europe. The study population included infants diagnosed with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum during the 1990-2009 period from 34 registries active in 16 European countries. Of the 355 infants diagnosed with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, there were 95.8% (340/355) live born, 0.8% (3/355) fetal deaths, 3.4% (12/355) terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly and 1.5% (5/340) neonatal deaths. In 18.9%, there was prenatal detection of anomaly/anomalies associated with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, 69.7% were diagnosed at birth, 3.9% in the first week of life and 6.1% within 1 year of life. Microtia (88.8%), hemifacial microsomia (49.0%) and ear tags (44.4%) were the most frequent anomalies, followed by atresia/stenosis of external auditory canal (25.1%), diverse vertebral (24.3%) and eye (24.3%) anomalies. There was a high rate (69.5%) of associated anomalies of other organs/systems. The most common were congenital heart defects present in 27.8% of patients. The prevalence of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, defined as microtia/ear anomalies and at least one major characteristic anomaly, was 3.8 per 100 000 births. Twinning, assisted reproductive techniques and maternal pre-pregnancy diabetes were confirmed as risk factors. The high rate of different associated anomalies points to the need of performing an early ultrasound screening in all infants born with this disorder.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 8 January 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.287.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 01/2014; 22(8). DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2013.287 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A combination of ethinylestradiol and 10mg norethisterone under the brand names of Duogynon (Germany) or Primodos (UK) was used as a pregnancy test until the 1970s. Until very recently there was continuing public concern about the safety of these drugs and legal proceedings were instituted against the medicinal authorization holder. Given the lack of epidemiological studies focusing on Duogynon/Primodos, the present study evaluates 296 consumer reports of the German Duogynon database and compares the reported birth defects with data from a population based birth registry. The most striking result is an increase of bladder exstrophy (OR=37.27; 95%-CI 14.56-95.28). Neural tube defects (OR=2.99; 95%-CI 1.85-4.84) and renal agenesis (OR=2.53; 95%-CI 1.17-5.45) were also significantly increased. Bladder exstrophy may be a yet undetected teratogenic effect of Duogynon, but may also represent a reporting bias. The present study highlights the difficulties of evaluating consumer reports which may be influenced by public media.
    Reproductive Toxicology 01/2014; 45. DOI:10.1016/j.reprotox.2013.12.007 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anorectal malformations (ARMs) comprise a broad spectrum of conditions ranging from mild anal anomalies to complex cloacal malformations. In 40-50% of cases, ARM occurs within the context of defined genetic syndromes or complex multiple congenital anomalies, such as VATER/VACTERL (vertebral defects [V], ARMs [A], cardiac defects [C], tracheoesophageal fistula with or without esophageal atresia [TE], renal malformations [R], and limb defects [L]) association. Here, we report the identification of deletions at chromosome 13q using single nucleotide polymorphism-based array analysis in two patients with mild ARM as part of VATER/VACTERL and VATER/VACTERL-like associations. Both deletions overlap the previously defined critical region for ARM. Heterozygous Efnb2 murine knockout models presenting with mild ARM suggest EFNB2 as an excellent candidate gene in this region. Our patients showed a mild ARM phenotype, closely resembling that of the mouse. We performed a comprehensive mutation analysis of the EFNB2 gene in 331 patients with isolated ARM, or ARM as part of VATER/VACTERL or VATER/VACTERL-like associations. However, we did not identify any disease-causing mutations. Given the convincing argument for EFNB2 as a candidate gene for ARM, analyses of larger samples and screening of functionally relevant non-coding regions of EFNB2 are warranted. In conclusion, our report underlines the association of chromosome 13q deletions with ARM, suggesting that routine molecular diagnostic workup should include the search for these deletions. Despite the negative results of our mutation screening, we still consider EFNB2 an excellent candidate gene for contributing to the development of ARM in humans. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 12/2013; 161(12). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.36153 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Zeitschrift für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie 11/2013; 217(S 01). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1361409 · 0.46 Impact Factor
  • C Spillner · B Brett · A Köhn · A Rißmann
    Zeitschrift für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie 11/2013; 217(S 01). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1361408 · 0.46 Impact Factor