[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Donor mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) expansion and fibrotic differentiation is associated with development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in human lung allografts. However, the regulators of fibrotic differentiation of these resident mesenchymal cells are not well understood.
This study examines the role of endogenous and exogenous prostaglandin (PG)E2 as a modulator of fibrotic differentiation of human lung allograft-derived MSCs.
Effect of PGE2 on proliferation, collagen secretion, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression was assessed in lung-resident MSCs (LR-MSCs) derived from patients with and without BOS. The response pathway involved was elucidated by use of specific agonists and antagonists.
PGE2 treatment of LR-MSCs derived from normal lung allografts significantly inhibited their proliferation, collagen secretion, and α-SMA expression. On the basis of pharmacologic and small-interfering RNA approaches, a PGE2/E prostanoid (EP)2/adenylate cyclase pathway was implicated in these suppressive effects. Stimulation of endogenous PGE2 secretion by IL-1β was associated with amelioration of their myofibroblast differentiation in vitro, whereas its inhibition by indomethacin augmented α-SMA expression. LR-MSCs from patients with BOS secreted significantly less PGE2 than non-BOS LR-MSCs. Furthermore, BOS LR-MSCs were found to be defective in their ability to induce cyclooxygenase-2, and therefore unable to up-regulate PGE2 synthesis in response to IL-1β. BOS LR-MSCs also demonstrated resistance to the inhibitory actions of PGE2 in association with a reduction in the EP2/EP1 ratio.
These data identify the PGE2 axis as an important autocrine-paracrine brake on fibrotic differentiation of LR-MSCs, a failure of which is associated with BOS.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 09/2011; 185(1):77-84. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) from human lung allografts demonstrates the presence of a multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell population. However, the clinical relevance of this novel cellular component of BAL and its association with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), a disease marked by progressive airflow limitation secondary to fibrotic obliteration of the small airways, remains to be determined.
In this study we investigate the association of number of mesenchymal stromal cells in BAL with development of BOS in human lung transplant recipients.
Mesenchymal colony-forming units (CFUs) were quantitated in a cohort of 405 BAL samples obtained from 162 lung transplant recipients. Poisson generalized estimating equations were used to determine the predictors of BAL mesenchymal CFU count.
Higher CFU counts were noted early post-transplantation; time from transplant to BAL of greater than 3 months predicted 0.4-fold lower CFU counts (P = 0.0001). BOS diagnosis less than or equal to 365 days before BAL was associated with a 2.11-fold higher CFU count (P = 0.02). There were 2.62- and 2.70-fold higher CFU counts noted in the presence of histologic diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans (P = 0.05) and organizing pneumonia (0.0003), respectively. In BAL samples obtained from BOS-free patients greater than 6 months post-transplantation (n = 173), higher mesenchymal CFU counts (≥10) significantly predicted BOS onset in both univariate (hazard ratio, 5.61; 95% CI, 3.03-10.38; P < 0.0001) and multivariate (hazard ratio, 5.02; 95% CI, 2.40-10.51; P < 0.0001) Cox regression analysis.
Measurement of mesenchymal CFUs in the BAL provides predictive information regarding future BOS onset.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 12/2010; 183(8):1062-70. · 11.04 Impact Factor