A Ferlazzo

Università degli Studi di Messina, Messina, Sicily, Italy

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Publications (24)35.24 Total impact

  • E Fazio, A Ferlazzo, C Cravana, P Medica
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Weaning is a crucial period in the management of lambs, resulting in physiological and mental challenges, that may have prolonged effects on lamb's health and welfare. Hypothesis/Objectives: To evaluate the effect of weaning on total and free triiodothyronine (T3, fT3) and thyroxine (T4, fT4) concentrations in serum of lambs by enzyme immunoassay. Animal and methods: The study was performed on two groups of 17 clinically healthy Comisana cross-bred lambs (7 males and 10 females) with or without weaning at 10 weeks of age. Serum samples were collected at the age of 8 weeks, 24 h and 2 weeks after weaning in the experimental group and at similar times in the non-weaned control group. Enzyme immunoassay was performed. Statistical analysis was done by one-way analysis of variance. Results: Compared to control animals, weaned animals showed significantly decreased T3 and elevated T4 concentrations two weeks after weaning with higher concentrations in both males and females in contrast to 24 h after weaning. Body weight (BW) was significantly restored in both females (11% increase) and males (6%) two weeks after weaning as compared to 24 h after weaning. No gender effects were shown for total and free iodothyronine changes. Significant positive correlations were observed between BW and T4 concentrations in both females (r = 0.692) and males (r = 0.856), fT3 concentrations in males (r = 0.968) and fT4 concentrations in females (r = 0.862). Conclusion and clinical importance: Total iodothyronines could represent an indicator of their different metabolic activity with their magnitude altered two weeks following weaning.
    The Veterinary quarterly 12/2014; 35(1):1-5. DOI:10.1080/01652176.2014.989624 · 0.65 Impact Factor
  • C. Cravana, P. Medica, E. Fazio, A. Ferlazzo
    Journal of Veterinary Behavior Clinical Applications and Research 03/2013; 8(2):e4–e5. DOI:10.1016/j.jveb.2012.12.011 · 1.22 Impact Factor
  • E. Fazio, C. Cravana, P. Medica, A. Ferlazzo
    Journal of Veterinary Behavior Clinical Applications and Research 03/2013; 8(2):e5–e6. DOI:10.1016/j.jveb.2012.12.013 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged transportation on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, total and free triiodothyronine (T(3), fT(3)) and thyroxine (T(4), fT(4)) concentrations, and functional variables (heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT)) in calm and temperamental Limousin young beef bulls. Exit velocity measurement was used to classify bulls' temperament as calm (group I: consisted of eight slowest bulls) and temperamental (group II: consisted of five fastest bulls). Calm subjects showed an increase of ACTH (P<0.05) and T(4) (P<0.01) concentrations after transportation compared with before transportation values. Temperamental subjects showed higher ACTH (P<0.01) concentrations before transportation, and lower T(4) (P<0.05) and fT(4) (P<0.001) concentrations after transportation than calm subjects. Related to functional variables, temperamental young beef bulls showed a decrease of RT (P<0.05) after transportation compared with before values, higher RT (P<0.001) before transportation, and higher HR (P<0.001) and RR (P<0.01) after transportation than calm subjects. Data obtained suggest that longer periods of transportation could minimise the magnitude and duration of the endocrine and functional responses to stress of young beef bulls; such responses probably decrease or disappear during transport, in accordance with animal temperament.
    11/2012; 171(25). DOI:10.1136/vr.100480
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    ABSTRACT: The acidic oxidation with HNO3/H2SO4 mixtures is widely reported as an effective method to functionalize multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Although effective, a bad control of the oxidation conditions frequently cause serious modifications of carbon nanotube network, limiting further potential applications. Investigations about the effect of functionalization operating conditions on the morphological, chemical and chemical-physical properties of MWCNT can be useful for a proper setting of oxidation reactions of MWCNT according to their specific applications. In this work the effect of HNO3/H2SO4 ratio on the morphological and chemical-physical properties and on the degree of functionalization of MWCNT was investigated. Electron microscopy, thermogravimetric, X-ray diffraction, titration and water dispersion analyses clearly revealed that the increase of the amount of concentrated sulphuric acid in the HNO3/H2SO4 mixture lead to an increase of the amount of functional groups on the MWCNT surface but also to an increase of structural damage in terms of tube cutting and generation of additional defects in the graphitic network of pristine
    Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 06/2012; 12(6):5054-60. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The acidic oxidation with HNO3/H2SO4 mixtures is widely reported as an effective method to functionalize multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Although effective, a bad control of the oxidation conditions frequently cause serious modifications of carbon nanotube network, limiting further potential applications. Investigations about the effect of functionalization operating conditions on the morphological, chemical and chemical-physical properties of MWCNT can be useful for a proper setting of oxidation reactions of MWCNT according to their specific applications. In this work the effect of HNO3/H2SO4 ratio on the morphological and chemical-physical properties and on the degree of functionalization of MWCNT was investigated. Electron microscopy, thermogravimetric, X-ray diffraction, titration and water dispersion analyses clearly revealed that the increase of the amount of concentrated sulphuric acid in the HNO3/H2SO4 mixture lead to an increase of the amount of functional groups on the MWCNT surface but also to an increase of structural damage in terms of tube cutting and generation of additional defects in the graphitic network of pristine MWCNT.
    Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 06/2012; 12(6):5054-5060. DOI:10.1166/jnn.2012.4928 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This work presents a novel cascade of chemical functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes which allows the conjugation with differently substituted coumarins. Aim of the present work is to synthesize new materials able to rescue cells from the adverse effect of CNT particles since pristine CNTs are practically insoluble and tend to accumulate inside cells, organs and tissues. Moreover, it was reported that single walled CNTs particles show an adverse effect on keratinocytes through an oxidative mechanism, leading to NF-kB activation. The conjugation with coumarins, known superoxide anion scavengers, could switch the cytotoxicity of the new materials. The cascade functionalization of MWCNTs by sequential steps of carboxylation, acylation, amine modification and finally, coumarin conjugation have been performed and the synthesis and the chemical properties of several f-MWCNTs-coumarins have been exploited.
    Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 06/2012; 12(6):5030-8. DOI:10.1166/jnn.2012.4929 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the synthesis and the characterization of different multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) linked to natural molecules, 5,7-coumarins and/or oleic acid, obtained from purified pristine MWCNTs by a cascade of chemical functionalization. The activities of these modified MWCNTs were investigated in vitro on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by evaluating their ability to influence cell viability and to induce cell apoptosis. Our data showed that pristine MWCNTs are markedly cytotoxic; conversely, the carboxylated carbon nanotubes, much more readily dispersed in aqueous solutions and CNT-Link, the key intermediate designed by us for the drug anchorage, are biocompatible at the tested concentrations (1 and 10 μg ml(-1)).
    Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 12/2011; 10(5):1025-31. DOI:10.1039/c1ob06598j · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • P. Medica, C. Cravana, E. Fazio, A. Ferlazzo
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the research was to evaluate whether a 6-week conventional training programme for Western riding and each exercise training session can induce any different effect on changes of cortisol, total and free iodothyronine and oestradiol-17 beta levels of mature Quarter Horses. Eighteen Quarter Horses aged 16-20 years (six stallions, six geldings and six mares; mean body weight: 510 +/- 70 kg) were recruited according to the level of competition experience, age and pre-training status and were divided into two groups paired by gender: group A, control horses (n = 9), and group B, trained horses (n = 9). For 6 weeks, group B horses performed a 5 days per week conventional training programme for Western riding, including 1 day of specific exercise session to simulate the different competitive events. Over the 6-week training period, blood samples from horses were collected once a week immediately before, under resting conditions and 24 h post exercise session. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) showed a significant interaction between training and time for changes in triiodothyronine (T(3)) (P < 0.008) and cortisol (P < 0.002), as well as for changes in thyroxine (T(4)) and free T(4) (fT(4)) (P < 0.0001). The effect of training was significant exclusively for changes in fT(4) (P < 0.04) changes. A significant interaction between exercise session and time for T(4) (P < 0.0027) and a significant exercise effect on fT(4) (P < 0.0001) were also recorded. The results of this study might suggest the benefits of taking into account cortisol and iodothyronine changes to effectively monitor training in Quarter Horses.
    Livestock Science 09/2011; 140(1):262-267. DOI:10.1016/j.livsci.2011.04.008 · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • E. Fazio, P. Medica, C. Cravana, A. Ferlazzo
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    ABSTRACT: This is an observational study on the adaptive responses of circulating cortisol levels to milking stress evaluated in 34 mature lactating jennies (No=16 non-milked; No=18 milked), aged 4–18years, in the 5th–6th month of pregnancy. The subjects not submitted to milking were divided in two groups on the basis of different times of basal blood sampling (group I: 08:00 a.m. and group II: 04:00 p.m.). These subjects were designated as control groups. The subjects submitted to milking were divided in two other groups on the basis of different times of blood sampling and the method of milking carried out, either at 08:00 a.m. (group III: hand milking) or at 04:00 p.m. (group IV: machine milking). These subjects were designated as observational groups.The median age of jennies ranged between 5years for groups I and III and 11years for groups II and IV.Blood samples were collected once a day from the jugular vein, in basal conditions, at 08:00 a.m. for groups I and III, and at 04:00 p.m. for groups II and IV; blood samples were also collected 5 and 15min after milking in groups III and IV.RM-ANOVA showed a significant effect on the cortisol changes of hand milking only (P
    Livestock Science 05/2011; 137(1):278-281. DOI:10.1016/j.livsci.2010.11.001 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of an extract from Citrus bergamia (BSext) and those of two products purified from the same extract, that is, nomilin and limonin, and reference compounds, towards HTLV-1 have been reported. Moreover, they were also compared with those obtained towards HIV-1. Results showed that the efficacy of both BSext and limonin in inhibiting HTLV-1 as well as HIV-1 expression in infected cells, as evaluated by comparable quantitative assays, was close to that of the effective, reference compounds, respectively. The protective effect of BSext and of the purified products was associated with the inhibition of both HTLV-1 and HIV-1 RT activities in conceptually similar, cell-free assays. The cytotoxicity of the assayed compounds of natural origin was substantially less pronounced than that of the reference compounds, thus showing a favourable selectivity index for the novel BSext product.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 03/2011; 19(6):2084-9. DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2011.01.024 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    P Medica, E Fazio, C Cravana, A Ferlazzo
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid hormone levels in horses stabled in two different locations on the island of Sicily. The study was carried out on a total of 72 clinically healthy Sanfratellano horses ranging in age from 5 to 9 years and weighing 585 ± 40 kg. The results showed higher thyroxine values (P < 0.02) in horses stabled in an endemic goitre area (group II) than those observed in horses in a non-endemic area (group I). Unexpectedly, the T(4)/T(3) and the fT(4)/fT(3) rations were both lower in group I than in group II. The percentages of fT(4) to T(4) and of fT(3) to T(3) were both higher in group I than the percentages for group II. On the basis of gender, comparison between the two groups showed higher T(4) (P < 0.01) and fT(4) levels (P < 0.001) in males, and lower fT(3) (P < 0.001) and fT(4) levels (P < 0.005) in females stabled in the goitre endemic area. On the basis of age, younger horses (<7 years old) showed the highest thyroid hormone levels in both groups. Results suggest a physiological adaptive response of the equine species to an endemic goitre environment. The possibility that hypothyroidism is present in these horses is thus excluded and is supported not only by the lack of clinical signs, but also by the rarity of cases previously reported.
    animal 01/2011; 5(1):82-7. DOI:10.1017/S175173111000145X · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • P. Medica, C. Cravana, E. Fazio, A. Ferlazzo
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this research was to evaluate the changes in β-endorphin, cortisol, total and free iodothyronines, and estradiol-17β levels of 10 unfit Quarter horses undergoing training under resting conditions during a 24-hour period. All animals that were sedentary since 3 months were divided into two groups comprising five animals each: group I, pre-trained for western riding (age: 8.8 ± 6.7 years; two stallions, one gelding, and two mares) and group II, not pre-trained for western riding (age: 9.4 ± 6.8 years; one stallion, three geldings, and one mare). Blood samples were collected from horses under resting conditions every 4 hours, from 5.30 am to 5.30 am of the next day. A two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures showed that the interaction between pre-training status and sampling time was not significant for hormone changes, but tended to be significant for fT3 changes (P < .06). The effects of pre-training status were considered significant for fT3 (P < .02). Time had significant effects on β-endorphin (P < .01), cortisol (P < .02), fT3 (P < .0001), and estradiol-17β (P < .0001) changes. Therefore, it seems to be extremely useful to take into account hormone circadian changes to ensure correct performance assessment and to monitor training in Quarter horses.
    Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 01/2011; 31(1):35-40. DOI:10.1016/j.jevs.2010.11.015 · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Limited knowledge exists about the differentiated effects of competitive and noncompetitive showjumping on thyroid function and relationships with hypothalamic-hypophysis-corticoadrenal hormones. To obtain preliminary data about differentiated effects of competitive and noncompetitive showjumping on total and free iodothyronines, β-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol of horses. Five trained healthy jumper horses were studied during competitive and noncompetitive showjumping, performed in the same circuit design over 10 fences of 1.10 m. Hormone levels before, 5 and 30 min post exercise were recorded. Serum iodothyronines and cortisol concentrations were measured in duplicate utilising EIA kits. Serum ACTH and plasma β-endorphin concentrations were analysed in duplicate utilising RIA kits. Two-way RM ANOVA was applied to test for effects of interaction between different type of session and time. Significant differences between post exercise and basal values were established using Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. A linear correlation analysis (Pearson's method) was performed to analyse the relationships between total and free iodothyronines and between iodothyronines and β-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol. In sampling times adopted no statistical different effects of type of session were recorded on hormone variables. Sampling time affected ACTH (F = 4.25; P < 0.02) and T(4) (F = 4.43; P < 0.02) post exercise changes. During the noncompetitive session, significant correlations existed between T(4) and β-endorphin (r = -0.56), ACTH (r = -0.65), between β-endorphin and ACTH (r = 0.52) and between T(3) and fT(3) (r = 0.72); during competition between β-endorphin and T(3) (r = -0.67), fT(3) (r = -0.59). These preliminary results could demonstrate correlations between thyroid hormones and β-endorphin response to showjumping, although no definitive conclusion can be produced concerning the relationships between HPA and thyroid function during exercise.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2010; 42(38):179-84. DOI:10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00264.x · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    A Ferlazzo, P Medica, C Cravana, E Fazio
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    ABSTRACT: Involvement of thyroid function on performance warrants further investigation as limited data exists on the effects of showjumping on the dynamics of total and free iodothyronines. To investigate the response of circulating total and free iodothyronines in horses to experimental showjumping sessions and compare with the effects normally induced by competition and determine if fence height has any effect. Using a randomised crossover study design 6 trained horses were studied during experimental showjumping sessions over 10 fences of different height: 1.00 m (Session 1), 1.10 m (Session 2), 1.20 m (Session 3). Hormone levels were recorded before, after warm-up, 5 and 30 min post exercise. T(3), T(4), fT(3), fT(4) concentrations were analysed by ELISA/competition using streptavidin technology. RM-ANOVA was applied to test for any differences in basal and warm-up values of different sessions. Two way RM-ANOVA was applied to test for any effects of interaction between fence height and time. The differences between individual means over time were assessed using a post hoc multiple comparison test (Bonferroni). Basal T(4) changes over the sessions (P < 0.05) were recorded. After warm-up, T(4) concentration results were lower than basal in Session 1 (P < 0.05). Higher than basal values were recorded 30 min post exercise for T(3) (P < 0.001), T(4) and fT(4) (P < 0.01) in Session 2 and for T(4) (P < 0.05) and fT(4) (P < 0.01) in Session 3. The interaction fence height/time results were significant on T(3) (P < 0.03) and fT(4) (P < 0.03); sampling time on T(3) (P < 0.0007), T(4) (P < 0.001) and fT(4) (P < 0.002) post exercise changes. Showjumping over the highest fences induced a release of T(3) from skeletal muscle, probably due to 5'-desiodase activity and increase of fT(4), due to thyroid stimulation and/or changes in capacity to bind iodothyronines.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2010; 42(38):110-5. DOI:10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00252.x · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trekking is a noncompetitive sport, involving maximal skeletal muscle effort. Exercise and transport may involve significant energy expenditure and give rise to substantial stress. Few studies have examined the combined effect of exercise and additional preliminary transport on adrenocortical and haematochemical responses in horses during trekking. To ascertain whether exercise and additional preliminary transport before trekking would affect the circulating cortisol levels and haematochemical variables of horses during a 2 day trekking event. Twenty-nine healthy horses were used. Twenty-four horses were transported over distances of 70 km the day before trekking and 5 horses were stabled at the starting place. Blood samples were taken from horses at 16.00 h the day before trekking; and at 08.30 h and 17.30 h before and after the first day of trekking; at 08.30 h and at 13.30 h before and after the second day of trekking. Serum cortisol and haematochemical variables were determined in duplicate by using commercial test kits. One-way analysis of variance for repeated measures (RM-ANOVA) was applied to determine whether trekking and transport had any effects. Trekking significantly (P < 0.01) affected total protein, albumin, urea, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), PCV and cortisol changes in transported horses and only urea and PCV (P < 0.01) changes in untransported horses. Untransported horses showed lower basal total protein (P < 0.05) and albumin (P < 0.01) concentrations, higher urea concentrations (P < 0.001) at the second day and lower cortisol levels after the first and the second (P < 0.05) day of trekking than transported horses. These data show that the preliminary transport stress induced additional significant changes of cortisol and haematochemical patterns in horses after trekking.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2010; 42(38):167-70. DOI:10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00197.x · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of growing and weaning on circulating levels of β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and cortisol in foals during their first 13 months of life. We also investigated circulating concentrations of these hormones changed during the first three days of weaning. Blood samples were collected from 13 clinically healthy Thoroughbred foals monthly. All foals were weaned at 4 months and additional blood samples were taken 1, 2 and 3 days after weaning. The results obtained showed that growth affected β-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol values (P
    Livestock Science 10/2009; 125(1):31-36. DOI:10.1016/j.livsci.2009.02.021 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the effects of short road transport stress on total and free iodothyronines, body weight (BW), rectal temperature and heart rate (HR) changes, 126 healthy stallions were studied in basal conditions, before and after transport. A total of 60 Thoroughbred and 66 crossbred stallions aged 4 to 15 years with previous travelling experience were transported by road in a commercial trailer for a period of about 3 to 4 h (distance under 300 km). Blood samples and functional variables were collected in each horse box, one week before loading and transport in basal conditions (control samples), one week later immediately before loading (pre-samples) and again after transport and unloading (about 3 to 4 h) in each new horse box, within 30 min of their arrival at the breeding stations (post-samples). Compared to the before-transport values, increases in circulating T3, T4 and fT4 levels (P < 0.01) were observed after transport, irrespective of breed, but not for fT3 levels. Lower T4 and fT4 levels were observed in basal II (at 1100 h) (P < 0.01) than in basal I (at 0800 h) conditions and before transport. Thoroughbreds showed higher fT3 (P < 0.05) and fT4 (P < 0.01) levels after transport than crossbred stallions. No significant differences were observed for T3 and T4. Compared to the before-transport values, significant increases in rectal temperature (P < 0.01) and HR (P < 0.05) were observed after transport. No differences were observed between basal I, II and before values for functional variables. Significant correlations between T3 and rectal temperature, BW and HR were found. The results indicate that short road transport induces a preferential release of T3, T4 and fT4 hormones from the thyroid gland in relation to different breed, and an increase in rectal temperature and HR. No significant changes in BW were observed. No differences were observed in relation to different ages. The data obtained suggest that the stallion's thyroid hormones and functional variables may play an important role in assessing the effects of transport stress and a horse's coping strategy.
    animal 09/2009; 3(9):1313-8. DOI:10.1017/S1751731109004777 · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • E Fazio, P Medica, C Cravana, A Ferlazzo
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether the amount of experience of sport horses and the stress of transport affected their adrenocortical and thyroid responses, the plasma concentrations of total cortisol and total and free iodothyronine of 63 horses were studied before and after show jumping competitions. There were 14 trained inexperienced jumpers (group 1), 20 trained experienced jumpers (group 2), 10 trained inexperienced jumpers that had been transported just before the competition (group 3) and 19 trained experienced jumpers that had been transported just before the competition (group 4). The concentrations were measured under basal conditions and five and 30 minutes after the competition. There were significant increases relative to the basal values in the total cortisol concentrations of all four groups of horses at five and 30 minutes (P<0.001), but there were no significant differences between the groups. In contrast, there were no significant changes in the concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine and free thyroxine after the competition and there were no significant differences between the groups. However, the horses in group 2 had significantly lower basal concentrations of free triiodothyronine than the horses in groups 1, 3 and 4 and the difference was maintained at five and 30 minutes after the competition.
    The Veterinary record 12/2008; 163(24):713-6. DOI:10.1136/vr.163.24.713 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was investigate the effect of growing associated with different gender on circulating total and free iodothyronine concentrations during the first 13 mo of age in foals. In addition, we investigated the evolution of circulating concentrations of thyroid hormones during the first 3 d of weaning. Blood was collected from 13 clinically healthy Thoroughbred foals every month. All foals were weaned at the 4 mo and blood samples were taken also at 24, 48 and 72 h after weaning. The results obtained showed growing effects for tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), free tri-iodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) values (P
    Livestock Science 07/2007; 110(3):207-213. DOI:10.1016/j.livsci.2007.02.006 · 1.10 Impact Factor