André J A M van der Ven

Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc), Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands

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Publications (64)324.09 Total impact

  • Haematologica 06/2014; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Candida albicans can cause candidemia in neutropenic and critically ill patients and oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with low CD4(+) counts. Because all patients at risk do not develop Candida infections, it is possible that a patient's genetic background might play a role in his or her susceptibility to infection. Autophagy mediates pathogen clearance and modulation of inflammation. Our aim was to assess the effect of genetic variations in the ATG16L1 and IRGM autophagy genes on the susceptibility of patients with candidemia and oropharyngeal candidiasis. We assessed genetic variations in the ATG16L1 and IRGM genes in a cohort of candidemia patients of both African and European origin. In addition, we evaluated the effect of these polymorphisms on the susceptibility to oropharyngeal candidiasis of an HIV-positive cohort from Tanzania. Functional studies have been performed to assess the effect of the ATG16L1 and IRGM genetic variants on both in vitro and in vivo cytokine production. The results indicate that ATG16L1 variants modulate production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, but not other cytokines, while no effects were seen in the presence of IRGM polymorphisms. In addition, no significant associations between the single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the ATG16L1 and IRGM genetic variants and the incidence of candidemia or oropharyngeal candidiasis were identified.Despite moderate effects on the modulation of proinflammatory cytokine production, genetic variation in the autophagy genes ATG16L1 and IRGM has a minor impact on the susceptibility to both mucosal and systemic Candida infections.
    Medical mycology: official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology 04/2014; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: It remains unclear whether the natural course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) differs in subjects infected through injecting drug use (IDU) and no data have been published from low- or middle-income countries. We addressed this question in an urban cohort in Indonesia, which is experiencing a rapidly growing HIV epidemic strongly driven by IDU. Methods: All antiretroviral treatment (ART) naïve HIV-positive patients who had at least two subsequent CD4 cell counts available before starting ART were included in this study. We examined the association between IDU and CD4 cell decline using a linear mixed model, with adjustment for possible confounders such as HIV viral load and hepatitis C antibodies. Results: Among 284 HIV-positive ART naïve patients, the majority were male (56%) with a history of IDU (79% among men). People with a history of IDU had a statistically significant faster decline in CD4 cells (p<0.001). Based on our data, patients with a history of IDU would have an average 33% decline in CD4 cells after one year without ART, compared with a 22% decline among non-users. At two years, the decline would average 66 and 40%, respectively. No other factor was significantly associated with CD4 cell decline. Conclusions: We show that a history of IDU is associated with a more rapid CD4 cell natural decline among HIV-positive individuals in Indonesia. These findings have implications for monitoring ART naïve patients with a history of IDU and for starting ART in this group.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 01/2014; 17(1):18844. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identification of dengue patients at risk for progressing to severe disease is difficult. Significant plasma leakage is a hallmark of severe dengue infection which can suddenly lead to hypovolemic shock around the time of defervescence. We hypothesized that the detection of subclinical plasma leakage may identify those at risk for severe dengue. The aim of the study was to determine the predictive diagnostic value of serial ultrasonography for severe dengue. Daily bedside ultrasounds were performed with a handheld ultrasound device in a prospective cohort of adult Indonesians with dengue. Timing, localization and relation to dengue severity of the ultrasonography findings were determined, as well as the relation with serial hematocrit and albumin values. The severity of dengue was retrospectively determined by WHO 2009 criteria. A total of 66 patients with proven dengue infection were included in the study of whom 11 developed severe dengue. Presence of subclinical plasma leakage at enrollment had a positive predictive value of 35% and a negative predictive value of 90% for severe dengue. At enrollment, 55% of severe dengue cases already had subclinical plasma leakage, which increased to 91% during the subsequent days. Gallbladder wall edema was more pronounced in severe than in non-severe dengue patients and often preceded ascites/pleural effusion. Serial hematocrit and albumin measurements failed to identify plasma leakage and patients at risk for severe dengue. Serial ultrasonography, in contrast to existing markers such as hematocrit, may better identify patients at risk for development of severe dengue. Patients with evidence of subclinical plasma leakage and/or an edematous gallbladder wall by ultrasonography merit intensive monitoring for development of complications.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 06/2013; 7(6):e2277. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Volunteers immunized under chloroquine chemoprophylaxis with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (CPS) develop complete, long-lasting protection against homologous sporozoite challenge. Chloroquine affects neither sporozoites nor liver-stages, but kills only asexual forms in erythrocytes once released from the liver into the circulation. Consequently, CPS immunization exposes the host to antigens from both preerythrocytic and blood stages, and induced immunity might target either of these stages. We therefore explored the life cycle stage specificity of CPS-induced protection. Twenty-five malaria-naïve volunteers were enrolled in a clinical trial, 15 of whom received CPS immunization. Five immunized subjects and five controls received a sporozoite challenge by mosquito bites, whereas nine immunized and five control subjects received an i.v. challenge with P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. The latter approach completely bypasses preerythrocytic stages, enabling a direct comparison of protection against either life cycle stage. CPS-immunized subjects (13 of 14) developed anticircumsporozoite antibodies, whereas only one volunteer generated minimal titers against typical blood-stage antigens. IgG from CPS-immunized volunteers did not inhibit asexual blood-stage growth in vitro. All CPS-immunized subjects (5 of 5) were protected against sporozoite challenge. In contrast, nine of nine CPS-immunized subjects developed parasitemia after blood-stage challenge, with identical prepatent periods and blood-stage multiplication rates compared with controls. Intravenously challenged CPS-immunized subjects showed earlier fever and increased plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers D-dimer, IFN-γ, and monokine induced by IFN-γ than i.v. challenged controls. The complete lack of protection against blood-stage challenge indicates that CPS-induced protection is mediated by immunity against preerythrocytic stages. However, evidence is presented for immune recognition of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes, suggesting memory responses unable to generate functional immunity.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between malaria and invasive non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) infections, especially in children. We explore the role of iron as a possible cofactor in this association. Malarial disease, among others, is associated with enhanced erythrophagocytosis and inflammation, which increases the iron content of macrophages and thereby also the survival of Salmonella spp. within macrophages. Whether iron supplementation programs augment the risk of invasive NTS infections in malaria-endemic regions is an important global health issue that still needs to be determined.
    Trends in Parasitology 04/2013; · 5.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Controlled human malaria infection with sporozoites is a standardized and powerful tool for evaluation of malaria vaccine and drug efficacy but so far only applied by exposure to bites of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-infected mosquitoes. We assessed in an open label phase 1 trial, infection after intradermal injection of respectively 2,500, 10,000, or 25,000 aseptic, purified, vialed, cryopreserved Pf sporozoites (PfSPZ) in three groups (N = 6/group) of healthy Dutch volunteers. Infection was safe and parasitemia developed in 15 of 18 volunteers (84%), 5 of 6 volunteers in each group. There were no differences between groups in time until parasitemia by microscopy or quantitative polymerase chain reaction, parasite kinetics, clinical symptoms, or laboratory values. This is the first successful infection by needle and syringe with PfSPZ manufactured in compliance with regulatory standards. After further optimization, the use of such PfSPZ may facilitate and accelerate clinical development of novel malaria drugs and vaccines.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 11/2012; · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has been associated with lipodystrophy (LD) in adults but data are more limited for children. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for LD in Tanzanian children receiving HAART by clinical assessment and to compare the results with anthropometric data. DESIGN AND METHODS:: A cross-sectional study was performed in a cohort of HIV-infected children 1-18 years of age receiving HAART in a single center in Moshi, Tanzania. Age, gender, past and current medication regimens and anthropometric measurements were recorded. A clinical scoring method was used to assess LD. Backward binary multivariate logistic regression was used to determine relationships between anthropometric measurements and the presence of clinical LD RESULTS:: Among 210 HIV-infected children, the prevalence of LD was 30% [95% CI: 23.8-36.2] overall, 19% [95% CI: 13.7-24.3] for lipoatrophy only, 3.8% [95% CI: 1.2-6.4] for lipohypertrophy only, and 7.1% [95% CI: 3.6-10.6] for the mixed type. Most cases were mild. Older age and use of stavudine increased the risk of LD. Overall the study population was stunted but not underweight. In children with relatively lower weight-for-height (WHZ<1), only the mid-upper arm circumference was found to be associated with lipoatrophy, while nearly all anthropometric measurements were associated with lipoatrophy in the well-nourished (WHZ≥1) children. CONCLUSION:: Our findings demonstrate that LD is a significant problem among Tanzanian HIV-infected children receiving HAART. Anthropometric measurements predicted LD in well nourished children but generally failed to do so in relatively wasted children. Our findings support current efforts to avoid stavudine use in children.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 10/2012; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of plasma leakage during dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) is largely unknown. Angiopoietins are key regulators of vascular integrity: Angiopoietin-1 is stored in platelets and maintains vascular integrity, and endothelium-derived angiopoietin-2 promotes vascular leakage. We determined Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2 levels in a cohort of children in Indonesia with DHF/DSS and related them to plasma leakage markers. Patients with DHF/DSS had reduced Angiopoietin-1 and increased Angiopoietin-2 plasma levels on the day of admission when compared with levels at discharge and in healthy controls. There was an inverse correlation between angiopoietin-1 and markers of plasma leakage and a positive correlation between angiopoietin-2 and markers of plasma leakage. Angiopoietin-1 levels followed the same trend as the soluble platelet activation marker P-selectin and correlated with platelet counts. Dengue-associated thrombocytopenia and endothelial activation are associated with an imbalance in angiopoietin-2: angiopoietin-1 plasma levels. This imbalance may contribute to the transient plasma leakage in DHF/DSS.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 09/2012; · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • Roos Visser, Quirijn de Mast, Romana T Netea-Maier, Andre J A M van der Ven
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    ABSTRACT: An immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) may complicate immune restoration following start of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The occurrence of Graves' disease in the setting of an IRIS is well recognized. We hereby report a case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, presenting as an acute painful thyroiditis, and as a complication of IRIS. A painful acute thyroiditis with thyrotoxicosis occurred in a 37-year-old HIV-infected woman 10 months after initiation of ART. This thyroiditis was associated with the appearance of a high titer of anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies and was followed by persistent hypothyroidism, requiring thyroxine replacement therapy. Hashimoto's thyroiditis may present as an acute thyroiditis with thyrotoxicosis in HIV-infected patients after initiation of ART. Clinicians caring for HIV-infected patients should be aware of this possible association.
    Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 07/2012; 22(8):853-5. · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Vitamin D(3) is known to have an effect on the immune function. We investigated the immunomodulatory capability of vitamin D(3) in HIV-infected patients and studied the expression of chemokine receptors on regulatory T cells (Treg). Vitamin D(3)-deficient HIV-1-seropositive subjects were treated with cholecalciferol (vitamin D(3)) at a dose of 800 IU daily for 3 months (n=9) or 25,000 IU weekly for 2 months (n=7). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and analyzed for skin-homing (CCR4 and CCR10) and gut-homing (CCR9 and integrin α(4)β(7)) marker expression on Treg, by flow cytometry, before and after supplementation. Serum 25(OH)D(3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were determined at baseline and after the treatment period. Weekly doses of 25,000 IU cholecalciferol effectively achieved the optimal target serum 25(OH)D(3) concentration of >75 nmol/liter (30 ng/ml) in HIV-infected patients. High-dose cholecalciferol supplementation differentially influenced skin-homing markers on Treg with an increased level of CCR10 expression and while a reduction in CCR4 expression level was observed together with a lower percentage of Treg expressing CCR4. For both dosing regimens, there were no significant differences in the expression of gut-homing markers, CCR9, and integrin α(4)β(7). High-dose vitamin D(3) supplementation is needed to reverse vitamin D(3) deficiency in HIV-infected individuals and this results in modulation of skin-homing markers but not gut-homing markers expression on Treg. At a standard dose of 800 IU/day, vitamin D(3) is not effective in achieving an optimal 25(OH)D(3) concentration in patients with an underlying T cell dysfunction and is unable to exert any immunomodulatory effects.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 06/2012; · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombocytopenia, bleeding and plasma leakage are cardinal features of severe dengue. Endothelial cell activation with exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) may play an etiological role in this condition. In a cohort of 73 Indonesian children with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), of which 30 with dengue shock syndrome (DSS), we measured plasma levels of the WPB constituents von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag), VWF propeptide and osteoprotegerin (OPG), together with activity levels of the VWF-cleaving enzyme ADAMTS-13 and the amount of VWF in a platelet binding conformation (VWF activation factor). Compared with healthy controls (n = 17), children with DHF/DSS had significantly higher levels of VWF:Ag, VWF propeptide and OPG and decreased ADAMTS-13 activity. The VWF activation factor was also significantly higher in DHF/DSS and highest in children who died. There were significant differences in the kinetics of the various WPB constituents: VWF propeptide and OPG levels decreased toward discharge, while VWF:Ag levels were lower than expected at enrollment with plasma levels increasing toward discharge. Moreover, VWF propeptide levels correlated better with markers of disease severity (platelet count, liver enzymes, serum albumin and pleural effusion index) than corresponding VWF levels. Together, these findings suggest that there is consumption of VWF in DHF/DSS. In 4 out of 15 selected children with low ADAMTS-13 levels on admission, we found a remarkable reduction in the large and intermediate VWF multimers in the discharge blood samples, consistent with an acquired von Willebrand disease. These findings suggest that severe dengue is associated with exocytosis of WPBs with increased circulating levels of VWF:Ag, VWF propeptide and OPG. High circulating levels of VWF in its active conformation, together with low ADAMTS-13 activity levels, are likely to contribute to the thrombocytopenia and complications of dengue. During the convalescence phase, qualitative defects in VWF with loss of larger VWF multimers may develop.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 05/2012; 6(5):e1628. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well-recognized that vitamin D₃ has immune-modulatory properties and that the variation in ultraviolet (UV) exposure affects vitamin D₃ status. Here, we investigated if and to what extent seasonality of vitamin D₃ levels are associated with changes in T cell numbers and phenotypes. Every three months during the course of the entire year, human PBMC and whole blood from 15 healthy subjects were sampled and analyzed using flow cytometry. We observed that elevated serum 25(OH)D₃ and 1,25(OH)(2)D₃ levels in summer were associated with a higher number of peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In addition, an increase in naïve CD4+CD45RA+ T cells with a reciprocal drop in memory CD4+CD45RO+ T cells was observed. The increase in CD4+CD45RA+ T cell count was a result of heightened proliferative capacity rather than recent thymic emigration of T cells. The percentage of Treg dropped in summer, but not the absolute Treg numbers. Notably, in the Treg population, the levels of forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) expression were increased in summer. Skin, gut and lymphoid tissue homing potential was increased during summer as well, exemplified by increased CCR4, CCR6, CLA, CCR9 and CCR7 levels. Also, in summer, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells revealed a reduced capacity to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, seasonal variation in vitamin D₃ status in vivo throughout the year is associated with changes in the human peripheral T cell compartment and may as such explain some of the seasonal variation in immune status which has been observed previously. Given that the current observations are limited to healthy adult males, larger population-based studies would be useful to validate these findings.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e29250. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposing healthy human volunteers to Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes is an accepted tool to evaluate preliminary efficacy of malaria vaccines. To accommodate the demand of the malaria vaccine pipeline, controlled infections are carried out in an increasing number of centers worldwide. We assessed their safety and reproducibility. We reviewed safety and parasitological data from 128 malaria-naïve subjects participating in controlled malaria infection trials conducted at the University of Oxford, UK, and the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, The Netherlands. Results were compared to a report from the US Military Malaria Vaccine Program. We show that controlled human malaria infection trials are safe and demonstrate a consistent safety profile with minor differences in the frequencies of arthralgia, fatigue, chills and fever between institutions. But prepatent periods show significant variation. Detailed analysis of Q-PCR data reveals highly synchronous blood stage parasite growth and multiplication rates. Procedural differences can lead to some variation in safety profile and parasite kinetics between institutions. Further harmonization and standardization of protocols will be useful for wider adoption of these cost-effective small-scale efficacy trials. Nevertheless, parasite growth rates are highly reproducible, illustrating the robustness of controlled infections as a valid tool for malaria vaccine development.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38434. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular responses to Plasmodium falciparum parasites, in particular interferon-gamma (IFNγ) production, play an important role in anti-malarial immunity. However, clinical immunity to malaria develops slowly amongst naturally exposed populations, the dynamics of cellular responses in relation to exposure are difficult to study and data about the persistence of such responses are controversial. Here we assess the longevity and composition of cellular immune responses following experimental malaria infection in human volunteers. We conducted a longitudinal study of cellular immunological responses to sporozoites (PfSpz) and asexual blood-stage (PfRBC) malaria parasites in naïve human volunteers undergoing single (n = 5) or multiple (n = 10) experimental P. falciparum infections under highly controlled conditions. IFNγ and interleukin-2 (IL-2) responses following in vitro re-stimulation were measured by flow-cytometry prior to, during and more than one year post infection. We show that cellular responses to both PfSpz and PfRBC are induced and remain almost undiminished up to 14 months after even a single malaria episode. Remarkably, not only 'adaptive' but also 'innate' lymphocyte subsets contribute to the increased IFNγ response, including αβT cells, γδT cells and NK cells. Furthermore, results from depletion and autologous recombination experiments of lymphocyte subsets suggest that immunological memory for PfRBC is carried within both the αβT cells and γδT compartments. Indeed, the majority of cytokine producing T lymphocytes express an CD45RO(+) CD62L(-) effector memory (EM) phenotype both early and late post infection. Finally, we demonstrate that malaria infection induces and maintains polyfunctional (IFNγ(+)IL-2(+)) EM responses against both PfRBC and PfSpz, previously found to be associated with protection. These data demonstrate that cellular responses can be readily induced and are long-lived following infection with P. falciparum, with a persisting contribution by not only adaptive but also (semi-)innate lymphocyte subsets. The implications hereof are positive for malaria vaccine development, but focus attention on those factors potentially inhibiting such responses in the field.
    PLoS Pathogens 12/2011; 7(12):e1002389. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: World Health Organization guidelines recommend zidovudine + lamivudine for 7 days from labor onset in HIV-infected women receiving single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) to cover prolonged subtherapeutic nevirapine concentrations. Although effective, this is complicated and does not eliminate resistance; alternative strategies could add benefit. Antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected pregnant women aged 18-40 years, with CD4 >200 cells per cubic millimeter, able to regularly attend the antenatal clinics in Moshi, Tanzania, were enrolled 1:1 by alternate allocation to receive 200 mg sdNVP alone or in combination with open-label 400-mg single-dose carbamazepine (sdNVP/CBZ) at delivery (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00294892). The coprimary outcomes were nevirapine plasma concentrations 1 week and nevirapine resistance mutations 6 weeks postpartum. Analyses were based on those still eligible at delivery. Ninety-seven women were assigned to sdNVP and 95 to sdNVP/CBZ during pregnancy, of whom 75 sdNVP and 83 sdNVP/CBZ were still eligible at delivery at study sites. The median (interquartile range) nevirapine plasma concentration was 1.55 (0.88-1.84) mg/L in sdNVP (n = 61) and 1.40 (0.93-1.97) mg/L in sdNVP/CBZ (n = 72) at delivery (P = 0.91), but 1 week later was significantly lower in sdNVP/CBZ [n = 63; 0.09 (0.05-0.20) mg/L] than in sdNVP [n = 52; 0.20 (0.09-0.31) mg/L; rank-sum: P = 0.004] (geometric mean ratio: 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.43 to 0.96; P = 0.03). Six weeks postpartum, nevirapine mutations were observed in 11 of 52 (21%) in sdNVP and 6 of 55 (11%) in sdNVP/CBZ (odds ratio = 0.46, 95% confidence interval: 0.16 to 1.34; P = 0.15). Addition of single-dose carbamazepine to sdNVP at labor onset in HIV-infected, pregnant women did not affect nevirapine plasma concentration at delivery, but significantly reduced it 1 week postpartum, with a trend toward fewer nevirapine resistance mutations.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 11/2011; 59(3):266-73. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D3 is known to induce regulatory T (Treg) cells by rendering antigen-presenting cells tolerogenic, its direct effect on human naturally occurring Treg cells is unclear. Here, we investigated if and how 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)2D3] can directly affect the proliferation and function of human naturally occurring Treg cells in vitro. First, we demonstrated that these Treg cells express vitamin D receptors that were up-regulated following anti-CD3/CD28-bead stimulation. 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited proliferation of Treg cells even when exogenous interleukin-2 was provided. Treg cells were more susceptible to the inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 than conventional T cells(.) 1,25(OH)2D3 neither affected the anergic state nor the suppressive function of Treg cells but induced a subtle increase in interleukin-10-secreting cells. The cell-division-inhibiting effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on Treg cells was also demonstrated in vivo by supplementing vitamin D-deficient HIV-1-infected patients with 2000 IU cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). Increased serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels were associated with a drop in the number and percentage of Treg cells, which may be attributed to a decrease in the proliferating Foxp3+ Treg cell population. In conclusion, 1,25(OH)2D3 directly affects Treg cell growth and promotes interleukin-10 production without apparent effects on activation status and suppressive phenotype whereas in vivo, high serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels are associated with reduced Treg cell proliferation and a reduced number of Treg cells.
    Immunology 09/2011; 134(4):459-68. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Total lymphocyte counts (TLC) may be used as an alternative for CD4 cell counts to monitor HIV infection in resource-limited settings, where CD4 cell counts are too expensive or not available. We used prospectively collected patient data from an urban HIV clinic in Indonesia. Predictors of mortality were identified via Cox regression, and the relation between TLC and CD4 cell counts was calculated by linear regression. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were used to choose the cut-off values of TLC corresponding with CD4 cell counts <200 and ≤350 cells/μl. Based on these analyses, we designed TLC-based treatment algorithms. Of 889 antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve subjects included, 66% had CD4 cell counts <200 and 81% had 350 ≤ cells/μl at baseline. TLC and CD4 cell count were equally strong predictors of mortality in our population, where ART was started based on CD4 cell count criteria. The correlation coefficient (R) between TLC and √CD4 was 0.70. Optimal cut-off values for TLC to identify patients with CD4 cell counts <200 and ≤350 cells/μl were 1500 and 1700 cells/μl, respectively. Treatment algorithms based on a combination of TLC, gender, oral thrush, anaemia and body mass index performed better in terms of predictive value than WHO staging or TLC alone. In our cohort, such an algorithm would on average have saved $14.05 per patient. Total lymphocyte counts is a good marker for HIV-associated mortality. Simple algorithms including TLC can prioritize patients for HIV treatment in a resource-limited setting, until affordable CD4 cell counts will be universally available.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 09/2011; 16(11):1372-9. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Differential viral recognition by cells bearing Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) polymorphisms Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile may influence susceptibility and severity of dengue virus infection. In central Java, Indonesia, we investigated 201 children with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and 179 healthy controls. Patients and controls were mostly ethnic Javanese. A nearly complete cosegregation of the two mutations was observed. The TLR4 299/399 genotype was found in five patients and four controls. Prevalence of the TLR4 299/399 genotype did not differ significantly between controls and DHF patients or between patients with different severities of DHF. Also, vascular leakage in patients with different TLR4 genotypes did not differ. Thus, the 299/399 TLR4 haplotype has only minor influence on susceptibility and severity of complicated dengue virus infection.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 08/2011; 85(2):352-4. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have shown that immunity to infection with Plasmodium falciparum can be induced experimentally in malaria-naive volunteers through immunisation by bites of infected mosquitoes while simultaneously preventing disease with chloroquine prophylaxis. This immunity was associated with parasite-specific production of interferon γ and interleukin 2 by pluripotent effector memory cells in vitro. We aim to explore the persistence of protection and immune responses in the same volunteers. In an open-label study at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (Nijmegen, Netherlands), from November to December, 2009, we rechallenged previously immune volunteers (28 months after immunisation) with the bites of five mosquitoes infected with P falciparum. Newly recruited malaria-naive volunteers served as infection controls. Our primary outcome was the detection of blood-stage parasitaemia by microscopy. We assessed the kinetics of parasitaemia with real-time quantitative PCR (rtPCR) and recorded clinical signs and symptoms. In-vitro production of interferon γ and interleukin 2 by effector memory T cells was studied after stimulation with sporozoites and red blood cells infected with P falciparum. Differences in cellular immune responses between the study groups were assessed with the Mann-Whitney test. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00757887. Four of six immune volunteers were microscopically negative after rechallenge. rtPCR-based detection of blood-stage parasites in these individuals was negative throughout follow-up. Patent parasitaemia was delayed in the remaining two immunised volunteers. In-vitro assays showed the long-term persistence of parasite-specific pluripotent effector memory T-cell responses in protected volunteers. The four protected volunteers reported several mild to moderate adverse events, of which the most commonly reported symptom was headache (one to three episodes per volunteer). The two patients with delayed patency had adverse events similar to those in the control group. Artificially induced immunity lasts longer than generally recorded after natural exposure; providing a new avenue of research into the mechanisms of malaria immunity. Dioraphte Foundation.
    The Lancet 05/2011; 377(9779):1770-6. · 39.21 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
324.09 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2013
    • Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc)
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College
      Moschi, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania
    • Universitas Diponegoro
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia
  • 2006–2011
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      • • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      • • Department of Medical Microbiology
      • • Department of General Internal Medicine
      • • Pharmacology and Toxicology
      Nijmegen, Provincie Gelderland, Netherlands
    • Eijkman Institute
      Batavia, Jakarta Raya, Indonesia
    • Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences
      • Department of Oral Surgery and Oral Pathology
      Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania
  • 2010
    • Universitas Padjadjaran
      • Faculty of Medicine (FK)
      Bandung, East Java, Indonesia
  • 2007
    • Tumaini University (TU)
      Aruscha, Arusha, Tanzania
    • Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre
      Moschi, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania