[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction leading to deficits in energy production, Ca(2+) uptake capacity, and free radical generation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by mutations in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Numerous studies link UCP2, a member of the uncoupling protein family, to protection of neurons from mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in various mouse models of acute stress and neurodegeneration, including Parkinson's disease. Here, we tested the potential neuroprotective effects of UCP2 and its ability to modulate mitochondrial function, in the G93A mutant SOD1 mouse model of familial ALS. Disease phenotype, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and Ca(2+) uptake capacity were investigated in the central nervous system of double transgenic mice, expressing both human mutant G93A SOD1 and human UCP2 (hUCP2). Unexpectedly, hUCP2 expression accelerated the disease course of SOD1 mutant mice. In addition, we did not observe a classical uncoupling effect of hUCP2 in G93A brain mitochondria, although we did detect a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from mitochondria challenged with the respiratory chain inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A. We also found that mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake capacity was decreased in the double transgenic mice, as compared to G93A mice. Taken together our results indicate that the neuroprotective role of UCP2 in neurodegeneration is disease-specific and that, while a mild uncoupling by UCP2 in brain mitochondria may protect against neurodegeneration in some injury paradigms, the mitochondrial damage and the disease caused by mutant SOD1 cannot be ameliorated by UCP2 overexpression.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 10/2013; · 3.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a neurometabolic disorder caused by inactivation of the peroxisomal ABCD1 transporter of very long-chain fatty acids. In mice, ABCD1 loss causes late onset axonal degeneration in the spinal cord in association with locomotor disability resembling the most common phenotype in patients, adrenomyeloneuropathy. Increasing evidence indicates that oxidative stress and bioenergetic failure play major roles in the pathogenesis of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether mitochondrial biogenesis is affected in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. We demonstrated that Abcd1 null mice show reduced mitochondrial DNA concomitant with downregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis pathway driven by PGC-1α/PPARγ and reduced expression of mitochondrial proteins cytochrome c, NDUFB8 and VDAC. Moreover, we show that the oral administration of pioglitazone, an agonist of PPARγ, restored mitochondrial content and expression of master regulators of biogenesis, neutralized oxidative damage to proteins and DNA, and reversed bioenergetic failure in terms of ATP levels, NAD(+)/NADH ratios, pyruvate kinase and glutathione reductase activities. Most importantly, the treatment halted locomotor disability and axonal damage in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy mice. These results lend support to the use of pioglitazone in clinical trials with patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy and reveal novel molecular mechanisms of action of pioglitazone in neurodegeneration. Future studies should address the effects of this anti-diabetic drug on other axonopathies in which oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are contributing factors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A decline in α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) activity has been associated with neurodegeneration. Provision of succinyl-CoA by KGDHC is essential for generation of matrix ATP (or GTP) by substrate-level phosphorylation catalyzed by succinyl-CoA ligase. Here, we demonstrate ATP consumption in respiration-impaired isolated and in situ neuronal somal mitochondria from transgenic mice with a deficiency of either dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (DLST) or dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD) that exhibit a 20-48% decrease in KGDHC activity. Import of ATP into the mitochondrial matrix of transgenic mice was attributed to a shift in the reversal potential of the adenine nucleotide translocase toward more negative values due to diminished matrix substrate-level phosphorylation, which causes the translocase to reverse prematurely. Immunoreactivity of all three subunits of succinyl-CoA ligase and maximal enzymatic activity were unaffected in transgenic mice as compared to wild-type littermates. Therefore, decreased matrix substrate-level phosphorylation was due to diminished provision of succinyl-CoA. These results were corroborated further by the finding that mitochondria from wild-type mice respiring on substrates supporting substrate-level phosphorylation exhibited ∼30% higher ADP-ATP exchange rates compared to those obtained from DLST+/- or DLD+/- littermates. We propose that KGDHC-associated pathologies are a consequence of the inability of respiration-impaired mitochondria to rely on "in-house" mitochondrial ATP reserves.-Kiss, G., Konrad, C., Doczi, J., Starkov, A. A., Kawamata, H., Manfredi, G., Zhang, S. F., Gibson, G. E., Beal, M. F., Adam-Vizi, V., Chinopoulos, C. The negative impact of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency on matrix substrate-level phosphorylation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that is more prevalent in males than in females. A similar gender difference has been reported in some strains of transgenic mouse models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis harbouring the G93A mutation in CuZn superoxide dismutase. Mitochondrial damage caused by pathological alterations in Ca(2+) accumulation is frequently involved in neurodegenerative diseases, including CuZn superoxide dismutase-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but its association with gender is not firmly established. In this study, we examined the effects of genetic ablation of cyclophilin D on gender differences in mice expressing G93A mutant CuZn superoxide dismutase. Cyclophilin D is a mitochondrial protein that promotes mitochondrial damage from accumulated Ca(2+). As anticipated, we found that cyclophilin D ablation markedly increased Ca(2+) retention in brain mitochondria of both males and females. Surprisingly, cyclophilin D ablation completely abolished the phenotypic advantage of G93A females, with no effect on disease in males. We also found that the 17β-oestradiol decreased Ca(2+) retention in brain mitochondria, and that cyclophilin D ablation abolished this effect. Furthermore, 17β-oestradiol protected G93A cortical neurons and spinal cord motor neurons against glutamate toxicity, but the protection was lost in neurons lacking cyclophilin D. Taken together, these results identify a novel mechanism of oestrogen-mediated neuroprotection in CuZn superoxide dismutase-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, whereby Ca(2+) overload and mitochondrial damage are prevented in a cyclophilin D-dependent manner. Such a protective mechanism may contribute to the lower incidence and later onset of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and perhaps other chronic neurodegenerative diseases, in females.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-mediated transcription factors, which control both lipid and energy metabolism and inflammation pathways. PPARγ agonists are effective in the treatment of metabolic diseases and, more recently, neurodegenerative diseases, in which they show promising neuroprotective effects. We studied the effects of the pan-PPAR agonist bezafibrate on tau pathology, inflammation, lipid metabolism and behavior in transgenic mice with the P301S human tau mutation, which causes familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Bezafibrate treatment significantly decreased tau hyperphosphorylation using AT8 staining and the number of MC1-positive neurons. Bezafibrate treatment also diminished microglial activation and expression of both inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2. Additionally, the drug differentially affected the brain and brown fat lipidome of control and P301S mice, preventing lipid vacuoles in brown fat. These effects were associated with behavioral improvement, as evidenced by reduced hyperactivity and disinhibition in the P301S mice. Bezafibrate therefore exerts neuroprotective effects in a mouse model of tauopathy, as shown by decreased tau pathology and behavioral improvement. Since bezafibrate was given to the mice before tau pathology had developed, our data suggest that bezafibrate exerts a preventive effect on both tau pathology and its behavioral consequences. Bezafibrate is therefore a promising agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases associated with tau pathology.
Human Molecular Genetics 08/2012; · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and Ca(2+) toxicity are mechanisms of hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. This work investigates if partial inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain protects HI brain by limiting a generation of oxidative radicals during reperfusion. HI insult was produced in p10 mice treated with complex I (C-I) inhibitor, pyridaben, or vehicle. Administration of P significantly decreased the extent of HI injury. Mitochondria isolated from the ischemic hemisphere in pyridaben-treated animals showed reduced H(2)O(2) emission, less oxidative damage to the mitochondrial matrix, and increased tolerance to the Ca(2+)-triggered opening of the permeability transition pore. A protective effect of pyridaben administration was also observed when the reperfusion-driven oxidative stress was augmented by the exposure to 100% O(2) which exacerbated brain injury only in vehicle-treated mice. In vitro, intact brain mitochondria dramatically increased H(2)O(2) emission in response to hyperoxia, resulting in substantial loss of Ca(2+) buffering capacity. However, in the presence of the C-I inhibitor, rotenone, or the antioxidant, catalase, these effects of hyperoxia were abolished. Our data suggest that the reperfusion-driven recovery of C-I-dependent mitochondrial respiration contributes not only to the cellular survival, but also causes oxidative damage to the mitochondria, potentiating a loss of Ca(2+) buffering capacity. This highlights a novel neuroprotective strategy against HI brain injury where the major therapeutic principle is a pharmacological attenuation, rather than an enhancement of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism during early reperfusion.
Journal of Neuroscience 02/2012; 32(9):3235-44. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction is the most fundamental mechanism of cell damage in cerebral hypoxia-ischemia and reperfusion. Mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) is increasingly recognized as a source for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the postischemic tissue. Potentially, ROS originating in MRC can contribute to the reperfusion-driven oxidative stress, promoting mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. The loss of mitochondrial membranes integrity during reperfusion is considered as the major mechanism of secondary energy failure. This paper focuses on current data that support a pathogenic role of ROS originating from mitochondrial respiratory chain in the promotion of secondary energy failure and proposes potential therapeutic strategy against reperfusion-driven oxidative stress following hypoxia-ischemia-reperfusion injury of the developing brain.
Neurology research international. 01/2012; 2012:542976.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coenzyme Q10 is a key component of the electron transport chain which plays an essential role in ATP production and also has antioxidant effects. Neuroprotective effects of coenzyme Q10 have been reported in both in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, its effects have not been studied in cells or in animals with tau induced pathology. In this report, we administered coenzyme Q10 to transgenic mice with the P301S tau mutation, which causes fronto-temporal dementia in man. These mice develop tau hyperphosphorylation and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Coenzyme Q10 improved survival and behavioral deficits in the P301S mice. There was a modest reduction in phosphorylated tau in the cortex of P301S mice. We also examined the effects of coenzyme Q10 treatment on the electron transport chain enzymes, the mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. There was a significant increase in complex I activity and protein levels, and a reduction in lipid peroxidation. Our data show that coenzyme Q10 significantly improved behavioral deficits and survival in transgenic mice with the P301S tau mutation, upregulated key enzymes of the electron transport chain, and reduced oxidative stress.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reperfusion triggers an oxidative stress. We hypothesized that mild hypoxemia in reperfusion attenuates oxidative brain injury following hypoxia-ischemia (HI). In neonatal HI-mice, the reperfusion was initiated by reoxygenation with room air (RA) followed by the exposure to 100%, 21%, 18%, 15% oxygen for 60 minutes. Systemic oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain mitochondrial respiration and permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, markers of oxidative injury, and cerebral infarcts were assessed. Compared with RA-littermates, HI-mice exposed to 18% oxygen exhibited significantly decreased infarct volume, oxidative injury in the brain mitochondria and tissue. This was coupled with improved mitochondrial tolerance to mPTP opening. Oxygen saturation maintained during reperfusion at 85% to 95% was associated (r=0.57) with the best neurologic outcome. Exposure to 100% or 15% oxygen significantly exacerbated brain injury and oxidative stress. Compared with RA-mice, hyperoxia dramatically increased reperfusion CBF, but exposure to 15% oxygen significantly reduced CBF to values observed during the HI-insult. Mild hypoxemia during initial reperfusion alleviates the severity of HI-brain injury by limiting the reperfusion-driven oxidative stress to the mitochondria and mPTP opening. This suggests that at the initial stage of reperfusion, a slightly decreased systemic oxygenation (SaO(2) 85% to 95%) may be beneficial for infants with birth asphyxia.
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 11/2011; 32(2):232-41. · 5.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutant SOD1 causes a complex array of pathological events, through toxic gain of function mechanisms, leading to selective motor neuron degeneration. Mitochondrial dysfunction is among the well established toxic effects of mutant SOD1, but its mechanisms are just starting to be elucidated. A portion of mutant SOD1 is localized in mitochondria, where it accumulates mostly on the outer membrane and inside the intermembrane space (IMS). Evidence in cultured cells suggests that mutant SOD1 in the IMS causes mitochondrial dysfunction and compromises cell viability. Therefore, to test its pathogenic role in vivo we generated transgenic mice expressing G93A mutant or wild-type (WT) human SOD1 targeted selectively to the mitochondrial IMS (mito-SOD1). We show that mito-SOD1 is correctly localized in the IMS, where it oligomerizes and acquires enzymatic activity. Mito-G93ASOD1 mice, but not mito-WTSOD1 mice, develop a progressive disease characterized by body weight loss, muscle weakness, brain atrophy, and motor impairment, which is more severe in females. These symptoms are associated with reduced spinal motor neuron counts and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics, characterized by decreased cytochrome oxidase activity and defective calcium handling. However, there is no evidence of muscle denervation, a cardinal pathological feature of ALS. Together, our findings indicate that mutant SOD1 in the mitochondrial IMS causes mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration, but per se it is not sufficient to cause a full-fledged ALS phenotype, which requires the participation of mutant SOD1 localized in other cellular compartments.
Journal of Neuroscience 11/2011; 31(44):15826-37. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal tau accumulation can lead to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. P301S mice overexpress the human tau mutated gene, resulting in tau hyperphosphorylation and tangle formation. Mice also develop synaptic deficits and microglial activation prior to any neurodegeneration and tangles. Oxidative stress can also affect tauopathy. We studied the role of oxidative stress in relationship to behavioral abnormalities and disease progression in P301S mice at 2, 7, and 10 mo of age. At 7 mo of age, P301S mice had behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperactivity and disinhibition. At the same age, we observed increased carbonyls in P301S mitochondria (∼215 and 55% increase, males/females), and deregulation in the activity and content of mitochondrial enzymes involved in reactive oxygen species formation and energy metabolism, such as citrate synthase (∼19 and ∼5% decrease, males/females), MnSOD (∼16% decrease, males only), cytochrome C (∼19% decrease, females only), and cytochrome C oxidase (∼20% increase, females only). These changes in mitochondria proteome appeared before tau hyperphosphorylation and tangle formation, which were observed at 10 mo and were associated with GSK3β activation. At that age, mitochondria proteome deregulation became more apparent in male P301S mitochondria. The data strongly suggest that oxidative stress and mitochondrial abnormalities appear prior to tau pathology.
The FASEB Journal 08/2011; 25(11):4063-72. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial damage due to Ca(2+) overload-induced opening of permeability transition pores (PTP) is believed to play a role in selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Genetic ablation of mitochondrial matrix protein cyclophilin D (CYPD) has been shown to increase Ca(2+) threshold of PTP in vitro and to prevent cell death in several in vivo disease models. We investigated the role of CYPD in a mouse model of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-induced PD.
We demonstrate that in vitro, brain mitochondria isolated from CYPD knockout mice were less sensitive to MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion)-induced membrane depolarization, and free radical generation compared to wild-type mice. CYPD knockout mitochondria isolated from ventral midbrain of mice treated with MPTP in vivo exhibited less damage as judged from respiratory chain Complex I activity, State 3 respiration rate, and respiratory control index than wild-type mice, whereas assessment of apoptotic markers showed no differences between the two genotypes. However, CYPD knockout mice were significantly resistant only to an acute regimen of MPTP neurotoxicity in contrast to the subacute and chronic MPTP paradigms.
Inactivation of CYPD is beneficial in preserving mitochondrial functions only in an acute insult model of MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.
Our results suggest that CYPD deficiency distinguishes the modes of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in various regimens of MPTP-neurotoxicity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic metabolic impairment and oxidative stress are associated with the pathogenesis of axonal dysfunction in a growing number of neurodegenerative conditions. To investigate the intertwining of both noxious factors, we have chosen the mouse model of adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), which exhibits axonal degeneration in spinal cords and motor disability. The disease is caused by loss of function of the ABCD1 transporter, involved in the import and degradation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in peroxisomes. Oxidative stress due to VLCFA excess appears early in the neurodegenerative cascade.
In this study, we demonstrate by redox proteomics that oxidative damage to proteins specifically affects five key enzymes of glycolysis and TCA (Tricarboxylic acid) cycle in spinal cords of Abcd1(-) mice and pyruvate kinase in human X-ALD fibroblasts. We also show that NADH and ATP levels are significantly diminished in these samples, together with decrease of pyruvate kinase activities and GSH levels, and increase of NADPH.
Treating Abcd1(-) mice with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and α-lipoic acid (LA) prevents protein oxidation; preserves NADH, NADPH, ATP, and GSH levels; and normalizes pyruvate kinase activity, which implies that oxidative stress provoked by VLCFA results in bioenergetic dysfunction, at a presymptomatic stage.
Our results provide mechanistic insight into the beneficial effects of antioxidants and enhance the rationale for translation into clinical trials for X-adrenoleukodystrophy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclophilin D was recently shown to bind to and decrease the activity of F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase in submitochondrial particles and permeabilized mitochondria [Giorgio V et al. (2009) J Biol Chem, 284, 33982-33988]. Cyclophilin D binding decreased both ATP synthesis and hydrolysis rates. In the present study, we reaffirm these findings by demonstrating that, in intact mouse liver mitochondria energized by ATP, the absence of cyclophilin D or the presence of cyclosporin A led to a decrease in the extent of uncoupler-induced depolarization. Accordingly, in substrate-energized mitochondria, an increase in F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase activity mediated by a relief of inhibition by cyclophilin D was evident in the form of slightly increased respiration rates during arsenolysis. However, the modulation of F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase by cyclophilin D did not increase the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT)-mediated ATP efflux rate in energized mitochondria or the ATP influx rate in de-energized mitochondria. The lack of an effect of cyclophilin D on the ANT-mediated adenine nucleotide exchange rate was attributed to the ∼ 2.2-fold lower flux control coefficient of the F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase than that of ANT, as deduced from measurements of adenine nucleotide flux rates in intact mitochondria. These findings were further supported by a recent kinetic model of the mitochondrial phosphorylation system, suggesting that an ∼ 30% change in F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase activity in fully energized or fully de-energized mitochondria affects the ADP-ATP exchange rate mediated by the ANT in the range 1.38-1.7%. We conclude that, in mitochondria exhibiting intact inner membranes, the absence of cyclophilin D or the inhibition of its binding to F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase by cyclosporin A will affect only matrix adenine nucleotides levels.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) gene expression has been observed in striatal cell lines, transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD), and brain tissue from HD patients. As this protein is a key transcription regulator of the expression of many mitochondrial proteins, these observations strongly support the role of aberrant mitochondrial function in the pathogenesis of HD. The PGC1α protein undergoes posttranslational modifications that affect its transcriptional activity. The N-truncated splice variant of PGC1α (NT-PGC1α) is produced in tissues, but the role of truncated splice variants of PGC1α in HD and in the regulation of mitochondrial gene expression has not been elucidated.
To examine the expression and modulation of expression of NT-PGC1α levels in HD.
We found that the NT-PGC1α protein, a splice variant of ∼38 kDa, but not full-length PGC1α is severely and consistently altered in human HD brain, human HD myoblasts, mouse HD models, and HD striatal cells. NT-PGC1α levels were significantly upregulated in HD cells and mouse brown fat by physiologically relevant stimuli that are known to upregulate PGC1α gene expression. This resulted in an increase in mitochondrial gene expression and cytochrome c content.
Our data suggest that NT-PGC1α is an important component of the PGC1α transcriptional network, which plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of HD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent discoveries have brought mitochondria functions in focus of the neuroscience research community and greatly stimulated the demand for approaches to study mitochondria dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases. Many mouse disease models have been generated, but studying mitochondria isolated from individual mouse brain regions is a challenge because of small amount of the available brain tissue. Conventional techniques for isolation and purification of mitochondria from mouse brain subregions, such as ventral midbrain, hippocampus, or striatum, require pooling brain tissue from six to nine animals for a single mitochondrial preparation. Working with pooled tissue significantly decreases the quality of data because of the time required to dissect several brains. It also greatly increases the labor intensity and the cost of experiments as several animals are required per single data point. We describe a method for isolation of brain mitochondria from mouse striata or other 7-12 mg brain samples. The method utilizes a refrigerated table-top microtube centrifuge, and produces research grade quality mitochondria in amounts sufficient for performing multiple enzymatic and functional assays, thereby eliminating the necessity for pooling mouse brain tissue. We also include a method of measuring ADP-ATP exchange rate as a function of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in small amounts of isolated mitochondria, adapted to a plate reader format.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2011; 793:311-24.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PKCδ has emerged as a novel regulatory molecule of oxidative phosphorylation by targeting the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC). We showed that activation of PKCδ leads to the dephosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2), thereby decreasing PDK2 activity and increasing PDH activity, accelerating oxygen consumption, and augmenting ATP synthesis. However, the molecular components that mediate PKCδ signaling in mitochondria have remained elusive so far. Here, we identify for the first time a functional complex, which includes cytochrome c as the upstream driver of PKCδ, and uses the adapter protein p66Shc as a platform with vitamin A (retinol) as a fourth partner. All four components are necessary for the activation of the PKCδ signal chain. Genetic ablation of any one of the three proteins, or retinol depletion, silences signaling. Furthermore, mutations that disrupt the interaction of cytochrome c with p66Shc, of p66Shc with PKCδ, or the deletion of the retinol-binding pocket on PKCδ, attenuate signaling. In cytochrome c-deficient cells, reintroduction of cytochrome c Fe(3+) protein restores PKCδ signaling. Taken together, these results indicate that oxidation of PKCδ is key to the activation of the pathway. The PKCδ/p66Shc/cytochrome c signalosome might have evolved to effect site-directed oxidation of zinc-finger structures of PKCδ, which harbor the activation centers and the vitamin A binding sites. Our findings define the molecular mechanisms underlying the signaling function of PKCδ in mitochondria.
The FASEB Journal 12/2010; 24(12):5033-42. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with impaired energy metabolism in the brain. Creatine kinase (CK) catalyzes ATP-dependent phosphorylation of creatine (Cr) into phosphocreatine (PCr), thereby serving as readily available high-capacity spatial and temporal ATP buffering.
Substantial evidence supports a specific role of the Cr/PCr system in neurodegenerative diseases. In the brain, the Cr/PCr ATP-buffering system is established by a concerted operation of the brain-specific cytosolic enzyme BB-CK and ubiquitous mitochondrial uMt-CK. It is not yet established whether the activity of these CK isoenzymes is impaired in HD. Methods: We measured PCr, Cr, ATP and ADP in brain extracts of 3 mouse models of HD - R6/2 mice, N171-82Q and HdhQ(111) mice - and the activity of CK in cytosolic and mitochondrial brain fractions from the same mice.
The PCr was significantly increased in mouse HD brain extracts as compared to nontransgenic littermates. We also found an approximately 27% decrease in CK activity in both cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions of R6/2 and N171-82Q mice, and an approximately 25% decrease in the mitochondria from HdhQ(111) mice. Moreover, uMt-CK and BB-CK activities were approximately 63% lower in HD human brain samples as compared to nondiseased controls.
Our findings lend strong support to the role of impaired energy metabolism in HD, and point out the potential importance of impairment of the CK-catalyzed ATP-buffering system in the etiology of HD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously described a method to measure ADP-ATP exchange rates in isolated mitochondria by recording the changes in free extramitochondrial [Mg(2+)] reported by an Mg(2+)-sensitive fluorescent indicator, exploiting the differential affinity of ADP and ATP to Mg(2+). In the current article, we describe a modification of this method suited for following ADP-ATP exchange rates in environments with competing reactions that interconvert adenine nucleotides such as in permeabilized cells that harbor phosphorylases and kinases, ion pumps exhibiting substantial ATPase activity, and myosin ATPase activity. Here we report that the addition of BeF(3)(-) and sodium orthovanadate (Na(3)VO(4)) to medium containing digitonin-permeabilized cells inhibits all ADP-ATP-using reactions except the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT)-mediated mitochondrial ADP-ATP exchange. An advantage of this assay is that mitochondria that may have been also permeabilized by digitonin do not contribute to ATP consumption by the exposed F(1)F(o)-ATPase due to its sensitivity to BeF(3)(-) and Na(3)VO(4). With this assay, ADP-ATP exchange rate mediated by the ANT in permeabilized cells is measured for the entire range of mitochondrial membrane potential titrated by stepwise additions of an uncoupler and expressed as a function of citrate synthase activity per total amount of protein.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein, Huntington's disease leads to striatal degeneration via the transcriptional dysregulation of a number of genes, including those involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Here we show that transglutaminase 2, which is upregulated in HD, exacerbates transcriptional dysregulation by acting as a selective corepressor of nuclear genes; transglutaminase 2 interacts directly with histone H3 in the nucleus. In a cellular model of HD, transglutaminase inhibition de-repressed two established regulators of mitochondrial function, PGC-1alpha and cytochrome c and reversed susceptibility of human HD cells to the mitochondrial toxin, 3-nitroproprionic acid; however, protection mediated by transglutaminase inhibition was not associated with improved mitochondrial bioenergetics. A gene microarray analysis indicated that transglutaminase inhibition normalized expression of not only mitochondrial genes but also 40% of genes that are dysregulated in HD striatal neurons, including chaperone and histone genes. Moreover, transglutaminase inhibition attenuated degeneration in a Drosophila model of HD and protected mouse HD striatal neurons from excitotoxicity. Altogether these findings demonstrate that selective TG inhibition broadly corrects transcriptional dysregulation in HD and defines a novel HDAC-independent epigenetic strategy for treating neurodegeneration.
EMBO Molecular Medicine 09/2010; 2(9):349-70. · 7.80 Impact Factor