Amanda J Cox

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States

Are you Amanda J Cox?

Claim your profile

Publications (52)202.61 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with altered cerebral structure and function. Relationships between mild-to-moderate CKD and brain morphology and cognitive performance were evaluated in European Americans (EAs). A total of 478 EAs with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) < 300 mg/g, most with type 2 diabetes (T2D), were included. Measures of total intracranial volume (TICV), cerebrospinal fluid volume, total white matter volume (TWMV), total gray matter volume (TGMV), total white matter lesion volume (TWMLV), hippocampal white matter volume (HWMV) and hippocampal gray matter volume (HGMV) were obtained with magnetic resonance imaging. Cognitive testing included memory (Rey Auditory Visual Learning Test), global cognition (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination) and executive function (Stroop Task, Semantic Fluency, Digit Symbol Substitution Test). Associations with CKD were assessed using log-transformed eGFR and UACR, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, diabetes duration, cardiovascular disease and education. Participants were 55.2% female, 78.2% had T2D; mean ± SD age 67.6 ± 9.0 years, T2D duration 16.4 ± 6.5 years, eGFR 92.0 ± 22.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and UACR 23.8 ± 39.6 mg/g. In adjusted models, eGFR was negatively associated with TICV only in participants with T2D [parameter estimate (β): -72.2, P = 0.002]. In non-diabetic participants, inverse relationships were observed between eGFR and HGMV (β: -1.0, P = 0.03) and UACR and normalized TWMLV (β: -0.2, P = 0.03). Kidney function and albuminuria did not correlate with cognitive testing. In EAs with mild CKD enriched for T2D, brain structure and cognitive performance were generally not impacted. Longitudinal studies are necessary to determine when cerebral structural changes and cognitive dysfunction develop with progressive CKD in EAs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It remains unclear whether the high cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with genetic variants that contribute to CVD in general populations. Recent studies have examined genetic risk scores of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by genome-wide association studies for their cumulative contribution to CVD-related traits. Most analyses combined SNPs associated with a single phenotypic class, e.g., lipids. In the present analysis, we examined a more comprehensive risk score comprised of SNPs associated with a broad range of CVD risk phenotypes. The composite risk score was analyzed for potential associations with subclinical CVD, self-reported CVD events, and mortality in 983 T2D-affected individuals of European descent from 466 Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) families. Genetic association was examined using marginal models with generalized estimating equations for subclinical CVD and prior CVD events and Cox proportional hazards models with sandwich-based variance estimation for mortality; analyses were adjusted for age and sex. An increase in genetic risk score was significantly associated with higher levels of coronary artery calcified plaque (p = 1.23 × 10(-4)); however, no significant associations with self-reported myocardial infarction and CVD events and all-cause and CVD mortality were observed. These results suggest that a genetic risk score of SNPs associated with CVD events and risk factors does not significantly account for CVD risk in the DHS, highlighting the limitations of applying current genetic markers for CVD in individuals with diabetes.
    Acta Diabetologica 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00592-015-0720-5 · 3.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Vascular calcified plaque, a measure of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), is unlikely to be limited to a single vascular bed in patients with multiple risk factors. Consideration of vascular calcified plaque as a global phenomenon may allow for a more accurate assessment of the CVD burden. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of a combined vascular calcified plaque score in the prediction of mortality.Methods Vascular calcified plaque scores from the coronary, carotid, and abdominal aortic vascular beds and a derived multi-bed score were examined for associations with all-cause and CVD-mortality in 699 European-American type 2 diabetes (T2D) affected individuals from the Diabetes Heart Study. The ability of calcified plaque to improve prediction beyond Framingham risk factors was assessed.ResultsOver 8.4¿±¿2.3 years (mean¿±¿standard deviation) of follow-up, 156 (22.3%) participants were deceased, 74 (10.6%) from CVD causes. All calcified plaque scores were significantly associated with all-cause (HR: 1.4-1.8; p¿<¿1x10¿5) and CVD-mortality (HR: 1.5-1.9; p¿<¿1×10¿4) following adjustment for Framingham risk factors. Associations were strongest for coronary calcified plaque. Improvement in prediction of outcome beyond Framingham risk factors was greatest using coronary calcified plaque for all-cause mortality (AUC: 0.720 to 0.757, p¿=¿0.004) and the multi-bed score for CVD mortality (AUC: 0.731 to 0.767, p¿=¿0.008).Conclusions Although coronary calcified plaque and the multi-bed score were the strongest predictors of all-cause mortality and CVD-mortality respectively in this T2D-affected sample, carotid and abdominal aortic calcified plaque scores also significantly improved prediction of outcome beyond traditional risk factors and should not be discounted as risk stratification tools.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 12/2014; 13(1):160. DOI:10.1186/s12933-014-0160-5 · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have indicated that cytokine gene polymorphisms of Indigenous Australians were predominantly associated with strong pro-inflammatory responses. We tested the hypothesis that cells of donors with genetic profiles of inflammatory cytokine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) similar to Indigenous Australians produce higher pro-inflammatory responses. PBMCs from 14 donors with genetic profiles for a high risk of strong pro-inflammatory responses and 14 with low-risk profiles were stimulated with endotoxin and effects of gender, IFN-γ, cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and testosterone on cytokine responses analysed. Cytokines were calculated from standard curves (Luminex 2.3 software). No significant differences were associated with SNP profile alone. Lower pro-inflammatory responses were observed for cells from males with low- or high-risk profiles. For cells from females with high-risk profiles, anti-inflammatory IL-10 responses were significantly reduced. There was no effect of testosterone levels on responses from males. For females, results from IFN-γ-treated cells showed positive correlations between testosterone levels and IL-1β responses to endotoxin for both risk groups and TNF-α for the high-risk group. If interactions observed among CSE, IFN-γ, genetic background and testosterone reflect those in vivo, these might contribute to increased incidences of hospitalisations for infectious diseases among Indigenous women. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
    Innate Immunity 11/2014; DOI:10.1177/1753425914553645 · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of age-related cognitive decline and dementia. Neuroimaging measures such as white matter lesion volume, brain volume, and fractional anisotropy may reflect the pathogenesis of these cognitive declines, and genetic factors may contribute to variability in these measures. This study examined multiple neuroimaging measures in 465 participants from 238 families with extensive genotype data in the type 2 diabetes enriched Diabetes Heart Study-Mind cohort. Heritability of these phenotypes and their association with candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and SNP data from genome- and exome-wide arrays was explored. All neuroimaging measures analysed were significantly heritable (hˆ2=0.55-0.99 in unadjusted models). Seventeen candidate SNPs (from 16 genes/regions) associated with neuroimaging phenotypes in prior studies showed no significant evidence of association. A missense variant (rs150706952, A432V) in PLEKHG4B from the exome-wide array was significantly associated with white matter mean diffusivity (p=3.66x10-7) and gray matter mean diffusivity (p=2.14x10-7). This analysis suggests genetic factors contribute to variation in neuroimaging measures in a population enriched for metabolic disease and other associated comorbidities.
    Neurobiology of Aging 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.11.008 · 4.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Probiotic supplementation has traditionally focused on gut health. However, in recent years, the clinical applications of probiotics have broadened to allergic, metabolic, inflammatory, gastrointestinal and respiratory conditions. Gastrointestinal health is important for regulating adaptation to exercise and physical activity. Symptoms such as nausea, bloating, cramping, pain, diarrhoea and bleeding occur in some athletes, particularly during prolonged exhaustive events. Several studies conducted since 2006 examining probiotic supplementation in athletes or highly active individuals indicate modest clinical benefits in terms of reduced frequency, severity and/or duration of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness. The likely mechanisms of action for probiotics include direct interaction with the gut microbiota, interaction with the mucosal immune system and immune signalling to a variety of organs and systems. Practical issues to consider include medical and dietary screening of athletes, sourcing of recommended probiotics and formulations, dose-response requirements for different probiotic strains, storage, handling and transport of supplements and timing of supplementation in relation to travel and competition.
    European Journal of Sport Science 10/2014; 15(1):1-10. DOI:10.1080/17461391.2014.971879 · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The use of calcium supplements to prevent declines in bone mineral density and fractures is widespread in the United States, and thus reports of elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in users of calcium supplements are a major public health concern. Any elevation in CVD risk with calcium supplement use would be of particular concern in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) because of increased risks of CVD and fractures observed in this population. Objective: In this study, we examined associations between calcium intake from diet and supplements and measures of subclinical CVD (calcified plaque in the coronary artery, carotid artery, and abdominal aorta) and mortality in individuals affected by T2D. Design: We performed a cross-sectional analysis in individuals affected by T2D from the family-based Diabetes Heart Study (n=720). Results: We observed no significant associations of calcium from diet or supplements with any of our measures of calcified plaque, and no greater mortality risk was observed with increased calcium intake. Instead, calcium supplement use was modestly associated with reduced all-cause mortality in women (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.92; P = 0.017). Conclusion: Our results do not support a substantial association between calcium intake from diet or supplements and CVD risk in individuals with T2D.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 08/2014; 100(4). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.114.090365 · 6.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Use of probiotic-containing foods and probiotic supplements is increasing; however, few studies document safety and tolerability in conjunction with defined clinical end points. This paper reports the effects of 150 days of supplementation with either a single- (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04) or a double-strain (Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07) probiotic on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults. Pre- to post-intervention changes in laboratory measures were determined and compared between supplement and placebo groups. Overall there were few differences in routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures between supplement and placebo groups post-intervention. Exceptions included plasma calcium (P=0.03) and urea (P=0.015); however, observed changes were small and within assay-specific laboratory reference ranges. These data provide evidence supporting the use of these probiotic supplements over a period of 5 months in healthy active adults without obvious safety or tolerability issues.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 23 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.137.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 07/2014; 68(11). DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2014.137 · 2.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Not all individuals with type 2 diabetes and high coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) experience the same risk for adverse outcomes. This study examined a subset of high-risk individuals based on CAC >1,000 mg (using a total mass score) and evaluated whether differences in a range of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors provided further insights into risk for mortality.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed contributors to all-cause mortality among 371 European American individuals with type 2 diabetes and CAC >1,000 from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) after 8.2 ± 3.0 years (mean ± SD) of follow-up. Differences in known CVD risk factors, including modifiable CVD risk factors, were compared between living (n = 218) and deceased (n = 153) participants. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to quantify risk for all-cause mortality.RESULTS: Deceased participants had a longer duration of type 2 diabetes (P = 0.02) and reduced use of cholesterol-lowering medications (P = 0.004). Adjusted analyses revealed that vascular calcified plaque scores were associated with increased risk for mortality (hazard ratio 1.31-1.63; 3.89 × 10(-5) < P < 0.03). Higher HbA1c, lipids, and C-reactive protein and reduced kidney function also were associated with a 1.1- to 1.5-fold increased risk for mortality (3.45 × 10(-6) < P < 0.03) after adjusting for confounding factors.CONCLUSIONS: Even in this high-risk group, vascular calcification and known CVD risk factors provide useful information for ongoing assessment. The use of cholesterol-lowering medication seemed to be protective for mortality.
    Diabetes Care 07/2014; 37(10). DOI:10.2337/dc14-0081 · 8.57 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As the prevalence of obesity and associated disease continues to rise and concerns for the spiralling economic and social costs also escalate, innovative management strategies beyond primary prevention and traditional lifestyle interventions are urgently needed. The biological basis of disease is one avenue for further exploration in this context. Several key inflammatory markers have been consistently associated with both obesity and risk of adverse outcomes in obesity-associated diseases, which suggests that a persistent, low-grade, inflammatory response is a potentially modifiable risk factor. In this Review, we provide evidence supporting perturbation of the intestinal microbiota and changes in intestinal permeability as potential triggers of inflammation in obesity. Further characterisation of the mechanisms underpinning the triggers of such inflammatory responses in overweight and obese individuals could offer unique opportunities for intervention strategies to help ameliorate the risk of obesity-associated disease.
    07/2014; 3(3). DOI:10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70134-2
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Identification of genetic risk factors for CVD is important to understand disease risk. Two recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium detected CVD-associated loci. Variants identified in CHARGE were tested for association with CVD phenotypes, including vascular calcification, and conventional CVD risk factors, in the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) (n = 1208; >80% T2DM affected). This included 36 genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from DHS GWAS data. 28 coding SNPs from 14 top CHARGE genes were also identified from exome sequencing resources and genotyped, along with 209 coding variants from the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip genotype data in the DHS were also tested. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were calculated to evaluate the association of combinations of variants with CVD measures. After correction for multiple comparisons, none of the CHARGE SNPs were associated with vascular calcification (p < 0.0014). Multiple SNPs showed nominal significance with calcification, including rs599839 (PSRC1, p = 0.008), rs646776 (CELSR2, p = 0.01), and rs17398575 (PIK3CG, p = 0.009). Additional COL4A2 and CXCL12 SNPs were nominally associated with all-cause or CVD-cause mortality. Three SNPs were significantly or nominally associated with serum lipids: rs3135506 (Ser19Trp, APOA5) with triglycerides (TG) (p = 5x10-5), LDL (p = 0.00070), and nominally with high density lipoprotein (HDL) (p = 0.0054); rs651821 (5[prime]UTR, APOA5) with increased TGs (p = 0.0008); rs13832449 (splice donor, APOC3) associated with decreased TGs (p = 0.0015). Rs45456595 (CDKN2A, Gly63Arg), rs5128 (APOC3, 3[prime]UTR), and rs72650673 (SH2B3, Glu400Lys) were nominally associated with history of CVD, subclinical CVD, or CVD risk factors (p < 0.010). From the exome chip, rs3750103 (CHN2, His204Arg/His68Arg) with carotid intima-medial thickness (IMT) (p = 3.9X10-5), and rs61937878 (HAL, Val549Met) with infra-renal abdominal aorta CP (AACP) (p = 7.1X10-5). The unweighted GRS containing coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) SNPs was nominally associated with history of prior CVD (p = 0.033; OR = 1.09). The weighted GRS containing SNPs was associated with CAC and myocardial infarction (MI) was associated with history of MI (p = 0.026; OR = 1.15). Genetic risk factors for subclinical CVD in the general population (CHARGE) were modestly associated with T2DM-related risk factors and CVD outcomes in the DHS.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 04/2014; 13(1):77. DOI:10.1186/1475-2840-13-77 · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cognitive performance is an important component of healthy aging. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with negative outcomes for the brain and cognition, although causal mechanisms have not been definitely determined. Genetic risk factors warrant further consideration in this context. This study examined the heritability of cognitive function as assessed by (1) the Digit Symbol Substitution Task; (2) the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination; (3) the Stroop Task; (4) the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Task; and (5) the Controlled Oral Word Association Task for Phonemic and Semantic Fluency, in the family-based, T2D-enriched, Diabetes Heart Study sample (n = 550 participants from 257 families). The genetic basis of these cognitive measures was further evaluated by association analysis with candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genome-wide SNP data. Measures of cognitive function were significantly heritable (hˆ(2) = 0.28-0.62) following adjustment for age, gender, and education. A total of 31 SNPs (from 26 genes/regions) selected to form an a priori set of candidate SNPs showed limited evidence of association with cognitive function when applying conservative metrics of significance. Genome-wide assessment of both noncoding and coding variants revealed suggestive evidence of association for several coding variants including rs139509083 in CNST (p = 4.9 × 10(-9)), rs199968569 in PLAA (p = 4.9 × 10(-9)) and rs138487371 in PCDH8 (p = 3.7 × 10(-8)). The identification of a heritable component to cognitive performance in T2D suggests a role for genetic contributors to cognitive performance even in the presence of metabolic disease and other associated comorbidities and is supported by the identification of genetic association signals in functionally plausible candidates.
    Neurobiology of aging 03/2014; 35(8). DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.03.005 · 4.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Given the high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes, identifying and understanding predictors of CVD events and mortality could help inform clinical management in this high-risk group. Recent large-scale genetic studies may provide additional tools in this regard.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Genetic risk scores (GRSs) were constructed in 1,175 self-identified European American (EA) individuals comprising the family-based Diabetes Heart Study based on 1) 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 2) 30 SNPs with previously documented associations with CVD in genome-wide association studies. Associations between each GRS and a self-reported history of CVD, coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) determined by noncontrast computed tomography scan, all-cause mortality, and CVD mortality were examined using marginal models with generalized estimating equations and Cox proportional hazards models.RESULTSThe weighted 13-SNP GRS was associated with prior CVD (odds ratio [OR] 1.51 [95% CI 1.22-1.86]; P = 0.0002), CAC (β-coefficient [β] 0.22 [0.02-0.43]; P = 0.04) and CVD mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.35 [1.10-1.81]; P = 0.04) when adjusting for the other known CVD risk factors: age, gender, type 2 diabetes affection status, BMI, current smoking status, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The weighted 30-SNP GRS was also associated with prior CVD (OR 1.33 [1.08-1.65]; P = 0.008), CAC (β 0.29 [0.08-0.50]; P = 0.006), all-cause mortality (HR 1.28 [1.05-1.56]; P = 0.01), and CVD mortality (HR 1.46 [1.08-1.96]; P = 0.01).CONCLUSIONS These findings support the utility of two simple GRSs in examining genetic associations for adverse outcomes in EAs with type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetes care 02/2014; 37(4). DOI:10.2337/dc13-1514 · 8.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval is associated with mortality in the general population, but this association is less clear in individuals with type 2 diabetes. We assessed the association of QTc interval with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in the Diabetes Heart Study.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 1,020 participants with type 2 diabetes (83% European Americans; 55% women; mean age 61.4 years) who were free of atrial fibrillation, major ventricular conduction defects, and antiarrhythmic therapy at baseline. QT duration was automatically calculated from a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Following American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation recommendations, a linear scale was used to correct the QT for heart rate. Using Cox regression, risk was estimated per 1-SD increase in QTc interval as well as prolonged QTc interval (>450 ms) vs. normal QTc interval for mortality.RESULTSAt baseline, the mean (SD) QTc duration was 414.9 ms (18.1 ms), and 3.0% of participants had prolonged QTc. After a median follow-up time of 8.5 years (maximum follow-up time 13.9 years), 204 participants were deceased. In adjusted multivariate models, a 1-SD increase in QTc interval was associated with an 18% higher risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.18 [95% CI 1.03-1.36]) and 29% increased risk for CVD mortality (1.29 [1.05-1.59]). Similar results were obtained when QTc interval was used as a categorical variable (prolonged vs. normal) (all-cause mortality 1.73 [0.95-3.15]; CVD mortality 2.86 [1.35-6.08]).CONCLUSIONS Heart rate QTc interval is an independent predictor of all-cause and CVD mortality in this population with type 2 diabetes, suggesting that additional prognostic information may be available from this simple ECG measure.
    Diabetes care 02/2014; 37(5). DOI:10.2337/dc13-1257 · 8.57 Impact Factor
  • Donald W Bowden, Amanda J Cox
    Nature Reviews Endocrinology 10/2013; DOI:10.1038/nrendo.2013.192 · 12.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The health profile of Indigenous Australians is characterised by high rates of classic 'lifestyle' diseases. Potential roles of inflammation in pathophysiology of these diseases requires investigation. It is not clear if genetic regulation of inflammation in Indigenous Australians is similar to other populations. This study characterised frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for eight cytokine genes for 100 individuals from a remote Indigenous Australian community and assessed novel genetic variants in four cytokine genes. We used a commercially-available allelic discrimination assay for SNP genotyping; re-sequencing was undertaken by standard Sanger sequencing methodologies for 26 samples. Frequencies of cytokine gene SNPs differed significantly from the Caucasian population (P < 0.001-0.044). Twenty-five novel variants were identified across four re-sequenced genes; frequencies ranged from <5% to 100%. Genotype frequencies observed in Indigenous Australians did not consistently resemble reported HapMap frequencies in Northern and Western European populations, Yoruba Nigerian or Han Chinese. Our findings indicate Indigenous Australians might have an inherited propensity for strong inflammatory responses. Preliminary evidence of novel genetic variants highlights the need to catalogue the extent of genetic variation in specific population groups. Improved understanding of differences in genetic variation between specific population groups could assist in assessment of risk for lifestyle diseases.
    Innate Immunity 08/2013; 20(4). DOI:10.1177/1753425913498911 · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. Recent studies have assessed the impact of genetic variants affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) concentrations on CVD risk in the general population. This study examined the utility of HDL-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for CVD risk prediction in European Americans with T2D enrolled in the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS). Genetic risk scores (GRS) of HDL-associated SNPs were constructed and evaluated for potential associations with mortality and with coronary artery calcified atherosclerotic plaque (CAC), a measure of subclinical CVD strongly associated with CVD events and mortality. Two sets of SNPs were used to construct GRS; while all SNPs were selected primarily for their impacts on HDL, one set of SNPs had pleiotropic effects on other lipid parameters, while the other set lacked effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) or triglyceride concentrations. The GRS were specifically associated with HDL concentrations (4.90 x 10-7 < p < 0.02) in models adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), but were not associated with LDL or triglycerides. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis suggested the HDL-associated GRS had no impact on risk of CVD-mortality (0.48 < p <0.99) in models adjusted for other known CVD risk factors. However, associations between several of the GRS and CAC were observed (3.85 x 10-4 < p < 0.03) in models adjusted for other known CVD risk factors. The GRS analyzed in this study provide a tool for assessment of HDL-associated SNPs and their impact on CVD risk in T2D. The observed associations between several of the GRS and CAC suggest a potential role for HDL-associated SNPs on subclinical CVD risk in patients with T2D.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 06/2013; 12(1):95. DOI:10.1186/1475-2840-12-95 · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Understanding the interplay between adiposity, inflammation, and cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains a challenge. Signaling from adipocytes is considered important in this context. Adiponectin is the most abundant adipocytokine and has been associated with various measures of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study examines the relationships between genetic variants in the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and adiponectin-related signaling pathway genes and measures of subclinical CVD (vascular calcified plaque and carotid intima-media thickness), plasma lipids, and inflammation in T2DM. DESIGN AND METHODS: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADIPOQ (n = 45), SNPs tagging ADIPOR1 (n = 6), APIPOR2 (n = 8), APPL1 (n = 6) and known rare coding variants in KNG1 (n = 3) and LYZL1 (n = 3) were genotyped in 1220 European Americans from the family-based Diabetes Heart Study. Associations between SNPs and phenotypes of interest were assessed using a variance components analysis with adjustment for age, sex, T2DM-affected status, and body mass index. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was minimal evidence of association between SNPs in the adiponectin signaling pathway genes and measures of calcified plaque; eight of the 71 SNPs showed evidence of association with subclinical CVD (P = 0.007-0.046) but not with other phenotypes examined. Nine additional SNPs were associated with at least one of the plasma lipid measures (P = 0.008-0.05). Findings from this study do not support a significant role for variants in the adiponectin signaling pathway genes in contributing to risk for vascular calcification in T2DM. However, further understanding the interplay between adiposity, plasma lipids, and inflammation may prove important in the prediction and management of cardiovascular complications in T2DM.
    Obesity 05/2013; 21(9). DOI:10.1002/oby.20184 · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: A negative relationship between total bilirubin concentration (TBili) and CVD risk has been documented in a series of epidemiological studies. In addition, TBili is thought to be under strong genetic regulation via the UGT1A gene family, suggesting it may be a heritable CVD risk factor. However, few studies directly relate TBili-associated UGT1A variants to CVD severity or outcome. This study replicated the genetic association for TBili in the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS), and examined the relationships of TBili-associated SNPs with measures of subclinical CVD and mortality. METHODS: This investigation included 1220 self-described European American (EA) individuals from the DHS, a family-based study examining risk for macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Genetic associations with TBili were examined using the Affymetrix Genome-wide Human SNP Array 5.0 and the Illumina Infinium Human Exome beadchip v1.0. Subsequent analyses assessed the relationships of the top TBili-associated SNPs with measures of vascular calcified plaque and mortality. RESULTS: A genome-wide association study detected 18 SNPs within the UGT1A gene family associated with TBili at p < 5 × 10(-8). The top hit was rs887829 (p = 8.67 × 10(-20)). There was no compelling evidence of association between the top TBili-associated SNPs and vascular calcified plaque (p = 0.05-0.88). There was, however, evidence of association with all-cause mortality (p = 0.0004-0.06), the top hit being rs2741034. CONCLUSION: These findings support a potential role for UGT1A genetic variants in risk for mortality in T2D. Further quantification of the extent of CVD risk conferred by UGT1A gene family variants in a high risk cohort with T2D is still required.
    Atherosclerosis 04/2013; 229(1). DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.04.008 · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Risk stratification in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains an important priority in the management of associated morbidity and mortality, including from cardiovascular disease (CVD). The current investigation examined whether estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) were independent predictors of CVD-mortality in European Americans (EAs) with T2D after accounting for subclinical CVD. Methods The family-based Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) cohort (n=1,220) had baseline measures of serum creatinine, eGFR, UACR and coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) assessed by non-contrast computed tomography scan. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to determine risk for all-cause mortality and CVD-mortality associated with indices of kidney disease after accounting for traditional CVD risk factors and CAC as a measure of subclinical CVD. Results Participants were followed for 8.2±2.6 years (mean±SD) during which time 247 (20.9%) were deceased, 107 (9.1%) from CVD. Univariate analyses revealed positive associations between serum creatinine (HR:1.56; 95% CI:1.37–1.80; p<0.0001) and UACR (1.59; 1.43–1.77; p>0.0001) and negative associations between serum albumin (0.74; 0.65–0.84; p<0.0001) and eGFR (0.66; 0.58–0.76; p<0.0001) with all-cause mortality. Associations remained significant after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors, as well as for CAC. Similar trends were noted when predicting risk for CVD-mortality. Conclusions The DHS reveals that kidney function and albuminuria are independent risk factors for all-cause mortality and CVD-mortality in EAs with T2D, even after accounting for CAC.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 04/2013; 12(1):68. DOI:10.1186/1475-2840-12-68 · 3.71 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

465 Citations
202.61 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2015
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
    • Wake Forest University
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 2014
    • Griffith University
      • Program in Molecular Basis of Disease
      Southport, Queensland, Australia
  • 2012
    • Oakwood Hospital & Medical Center
      Dearborn, Michigan, United States
  • 2004–2010
    • University of Newcastle
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
    • John Hunter Hospital
      New Lambton, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2008–2009
    • Australian Institute of Sport (AIS)
      • Division of Physiology
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia