Amin A Fadl

University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

Are you Amin A Fadl?

Claim your profile

Publications (49)138.39 Total impact

  • Annals of Microbiology. 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) infection in humans is often associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Binding of the bacterium to the intestinal mucosa is a major pathogenic mechanism of Salmonella in poultry. Transposon mutagenesis identified flgC as a potential binding mutant of SE. Therefore, we hypothesize FlgC which plays a significant role in the binding ability of SE to the intestinal mucosa of poultry. To test our hypothesis, we created a mutant of SE in which flgC was deleted. We then tested the in vitro and in vivo binding ability of ∆flgC when compared to the wild-type SE strain. Our data showed a significant decrease in the binding ability of ∆flgC to intestinal epithelial cells as well as in the small intestine and cecum of poultry. Furthermore, the decrease in binding correlated to a defect in invasion as shown by a cell culture model using intestinal epithelial cells and bacterial recovery from the livers and spleens of chickens. Overall, these studies indicate FlgC is a major factor in the binding ability of Salmonella to the intestinal mucosa of poultry.
    Current Microbiology 01/2014; · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • Daniel C Shippy, Amin A. Fadl
    Biology and Medicine. 01/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Salmonella is often implicated in foodborne outbreaks, and is a major public health concern in the United States and throughout the world. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) infection in humans is often associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Adhesion to epithelial cells in the intestinal mucosa is a major pathogenic mechanism of Salmonella in poultry. Transposon mutagenesis identified stdA as a potential adhesion mutant of SE. Therefore, we hypothesize StdA plays a significant role in adhesion of SE to the intestinal mucosa of poultry.Methods and results: To test our hypothesis, we created a mutant of SE in which stdA was deleted. Growth and motility were assayed along with the in vitro and in vivo adhesion ability of the [increment]stdA when compared to the wild-type SE strain. Our data showed a significant decrease in motility in [increment]stdA when compared to the wild-type and complemented strain. A decrease in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells as well as in the small intestine and cecum of poultry was observed in [increment]stdA. Furthermore, the lack of adhesion correlated to a defect in invasion as shown by a cell culture model using intestinal epithelial cells and bacterial recovery from the livers and spleens of chickens. These studies suggest StdA is a major contributor to the adhesion of Salmonella to the intestinal mucosa of poultry.
    Gut Pathogens 12/2013; 5(1):43. · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glucose-inhibited division (GidA) protein is widely distributed in nature, and is highly conserved among bacteria and eukarya. In our previous study, a gidA mutant was attenuated in both in vitro and in vivo models of Salmonella infection. Furthermore, deletion of gidA resulted in a marked reduction in the expression of many virulence genes and proteins, suggesting a role for GidA in the regulation of Salmonella virulence. In this study, the effect of different environmental conditions (glucose, EDTA, and pH 5) on GidA expression in Salmonella was examined. Transcriptional analysis using real-time RT-PCR and a β-galactosidase assay, displayed no differences in gidA transcription and promoter activity in different environmental conditions. Conversely, semiquantitative Western blot analysis revealed a significant increase in the GidA expression in Salmonella when grown under different environmental conditions. Salmonella in vitro virulence assays showed an increased virulence potential in the environmental conditions correlating to the increase in GidA expression. Together, our data indicate that GidA expression is modulated under different environmental conditions which correlate to increased Salmonella in vitro virulence.
    Current Microbiology 04/2013; · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen causing major public health problems throughout the world due to the consumption of contaminated food. Our previous studies have shown that deletion of glucose-inhibited division (gidA) gene significantly altered Salmonella virulence in both in vitro and in vivo models of infection. In Escherichia coli, GidA and MnmE have been shown to modify several bacterial factors by a post-transcriptional mechanism to modify tRNA. Therefore, we hypothesize that GidA and MnmE complex together to modulate virulence genes in Salmonella using a similar mechanism. To test our hypothesis, and to examine the relative contribution of GidA and MnmE in modulation of Salmonella virulence, we constructed gidA and mnmE single mutants as well as a gidA mnmE double mutant strain of Salmonella. Results from the in vitro data displayed a reduction in growth, motility, intracellular replication, and invasion of T84 intestinal epithelial cells in the mutant strains compared to the wild-type Salmonella strain. The in vivo data showed a significant attenuation of the mutant strains as indicated by the induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as in the severity of histopathological lesions in the liver and spleen, compared to mice infected with the wild-type strain. Also, a significant increase in the LD(50) was observed in mice infected with the mutant strains, and mice immunized with the mutants were protected against a lethal dose of wild-type Salmonella. A pull-down assay indicated that Salmonella GidA and MnmE bind together, and HPLC analysis revealed that deletion of gidA and/or mnmE altered Salmonella tRNA modification. Overall, the data suggest MnmE and GidA bind together and use a post-transcriptional mechanism to modify tRNA to regulate Salmonella pathogenesis.
    Microbial Pathogenesis 01/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Daniel C Shippy, Amin A Fadl
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Salmonella is often associated with gastrointestinal disease outbreaks in humans throughout the world due to the consumption of contaminated food. Our previous studies have shown that deletion of glucose-inhibited division gene (gidA) significantly attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM) virulence in both in vitro and in vivo models of infection. Most importantly, immunization with the gidA mutant protected mice from a lethal dose challenge of wild-type STM. In this study, we further characterize the gidA mutant STM strain for potential use in a live-attenuated vaccine. RESULTS: The protective efficacy of immunization with the gidA mutant was evaluated by challenging immunized mice with a lethal dose of wild-type STM. Sera levels of IgG2a and IgG1, passive transfer of sera and cells, and cytokine profiling were performed to study the induction of humoral and cellular immune responses induced by immunization with the gidA mutant strain. Additionally, a lymphocyte proliferation assay was performed to gauge the splenocyte survival in response to treatment with STM cell lysate. Mice immunized with the gidA mutant strain were fully protected from a lethal dose challenge of wild-type STM. Naive mice receiving either cells or sera from immunized mice were partially protected from a lethal dose challenge of wild-type STM. The lymphocyte proliferation assay displayed a significant response of splenocytes from immunized mice when compared to splenocytes from non-immunized control mice. Furthermore, the immunized mice displayed significantly higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2a with a marked increase in IgG1. Additionally, immunization with the gidA mutant strain evoked higher levels of IL-2, IFN-gamma, and IL-10 cytokines in splenocytes induced with STM cell lysate. CONCLUSIONS: Together, the results demonstrate that immunization with the gidA mutant strain protects mice by inducing humoral and cellular immune responses with the humoral immune response potentially being the main mechanism of protection.
    BMC Microbiology 11/2012; 12(1):286. · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The glucose-inhibited division gene (gid)B, which resides in the gid operon, was thought to have a role in the modulation of genes similar to that of gidA. Recent studies have indicated that GidB is a methyltransferase enzyme that is involved in the methylation of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in Escherichia coli. In this study, we investigated the role of GidB in susceptibility to antibiotics and the overall biology of Salmonella. A gidB isogenic mutant of Salmonella was constructed and subsequently characterized under different conditions. Our data indicated that growth and invasion characteristics of the gidB mutant were similar to those of the wild type (WT). The gidB mutant was outgrown by the WT in a competitive growth assay, indicating a compromised overall bacterial fitness. Under the stress of nalidixic acid, the gidB mutant's motility was significantly reduced. Similarly, the mutant showed a filamentous morphology and smaller colony size compared with the rod-shaped and large colonies of the WT in the presence of nalidixic acid. Most importantly, deletion of gidB conferred high-level resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotics streptomycin and neomycin. A primer extension assay determined the methylation site for the WT to be at G527 of the 16S rRNA. A lack of methylation in the mutant indicated that GidB is required for this methylation. Taken together, these data indicate that the GidB enzyme has a significant role in the alteration of antibiotic susceptibility and the modulation of growth and morphology under stress conditions in Salmonella.
    The Journal of Antibiotics 02/2012; 65(4):185-92. · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Archives of Microbiology 01/2012; · 1.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous work by the present authors indicated a murein lipoprotein mutant of Salmonella shows a marked down-regulation in expression of yqhC. Because YqhC is a putative DNA-binding protein, it is likely involved in modulation of Salmonella genes. Deletion of yqhC renders Salmonella defective in invasion of intestinal epithelial cells, motility, and induction of cytotoxicity. In the present study, further attenuation in induction of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and histopathological lesions was seen in mice infected with the yqhC mutant. On the other hand, deletion of yqhC did not significantly affect the LD(50) in mice or the ability of Salmonella to survive and replicate in vivo. To better understand how YqhC affects Salmonella virulence and to identify factors potentially modulated by YqhC, comparative transcriptome and proteome analysis of the yqhC mutant and the WT Salmonella was performed. Data from these experiments indicate that deletion of yqhC significantly alters the transcription of several genes associated with the SPI-1 encoded T3SS and flagellar regulons, correlating with the yqhC mutant phenotype. Overall, this study indicates that deletion of the yqhC gene causes a number of virulence-related defects in vitro, but has a modest effect in vivo, despite affecting induction of inflammatory cytokines and histopathology.
    Microbiology and Immunology 12/2011; 55(12):830-40. · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Salmonella is an important food-borne pathogen that continues to plague the United States food industry. Characterization of bacterial factors involved in food-borne illnesses could help develop new ways to control salmonellosis. We have previously shown that deletion of glucose-inhibited division gene (gidA) significantly altered the virulence potential of Salmonella in both in vitro and in vivo models of infection. Most importantly, the gidA mutant cells displayed a filamentous morphology compared to the wild-type Salmonella cells. In our current study, we investigated the role of GidA in Salmonella cell division using fluorescence and electron microscopy, transcriptional, and proteomic assays. Scanning electron microscopy data indicated a filamentous morphology with few constrictions in the gidA mutant cells. The filamentation of the gidA mutant cells is most likely due to the defect in chromosome segregation, with little to no sign of septa formation observed using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, deletion of gidA altered the expression of many genes and proteins responsible for cell division and chromosome segregation as indicated by global transcriptional profiling and semi-quantitative western blot analysis. Taken together, our data indicate GidA as a potential regulator of Salmonella cell division genes.
    Archives of Microbiology 11/2011; 194(6):405-12. · 1.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a frequent cause of enteric disease due to the consumption of contaminated food. Identification and characterization of bacterial factors involved in Salmonella pathogenesis would help develop effective strategies for controlling salmonellosis. To investigate the role of glucose-inhibited division gene (gidA) in Salmonella virulence, we constructed a Salmonella mutant strain in which gidA was deleted. Deletion of gidA rendered Salmonella deficient in the invasion of intestinal epithelial cells, bacterial motility, intracellular survival, and induction of cytotoxicity in host cells. Deletion of gidA rendered the organism to display a filamentous morphology compared to the normal rod-shaped nature of Salmonella. Furthermore, a significant attenuation in the induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, histopathological lesions, and systemic infection was observed in mice infected with the gidA mutant. Most importantly, a significant increase in LD(50) was observed in mice infected with the gidA mutant, and mice immunized with the gidA mutant were able to survive a lethal dose of wild-type Salmonella. Additionally, deletion of gidA significantly altered the expression of several bacterial factors associated with pathogenesis as indicated by global transcriptional and proteomic profiling. Taken together, our data indicate GidA as a potential regulator of Salmonella virulence genes.
    Microbial Pathogenesis 02/2011; 50(6):303-13. · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A total of 227 isolates of Aeromonas obtained from different geographical locations in the United States and different parts of the world, including 28 reference strains, were analyzed to determine the presence of various virulence factors. These isolates were also fingerprinted using biochemical identification and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of these 227 isolates, 199 that were collected from water and clinical samples belonged to three major groups or complexes, namely, the A. hydrophila group, the A. caviae-A. media group, and the A. veronii-A. sobria group, based on biochemical profiles, and they had various pulsotypes. When virulence factor activities were examined, Aeromonas isolates obtained from clinical sources had higher cytotoxic activities than isolates obtained from water sources for all three Aeromonas species groups. Likewise, the production of quorum-sensing signaling molecules, such as N-acyl homoserine lactone, was greater in clinical isolates than in isolates from water for the A. caviae-A. media and A. hydrophila groups. Based on colony blot DNA hybridization, the heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin gene and the DNA adenosine methyltransferase gene were more prevalent in clinical isolates than in water isolates for all three Aeromonas groups. Using colony blot DNA hybridization and PFGE, we obtained three sets of water and clinical isolates that had the same virulence signature and had indistinguishable PFGE patterns. In addition, all of these isolates belonged to the A. caviae-A. media group. The findings of the present study provide the first suggestive evidence of successful colonization and infection by particular strains of certain Aeromonas species after transmission from water to humans.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 02/2010; 76(7):2313-25. · 3.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the regulation of catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) expression in granulosa cells and assess potential effects of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME2) and COMT inhibitors on granulosa cell steroidogenesis and proliferation. Controlled experimental study in an academic research laboratory. JC410 porcine and HGL5 human granulosa cell lines were used for in vitro experiments. Effects of 2-ME2 and COMT inhibitor treatment on DNA proliferation and steroidogenesis were assessed by using Hoechst dye and p450SCC-luciferase reporter assays. Effects of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), insulin, and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on COMT messenger RNA expression were investigated by using COMTP1 promoter-luciferase reporter and Northern blot. Granulosa cell steroidogenesis and proliferation following COMP inhibitor and 2-ME2 treatment. Regulation of COMT expression with DHT, insulin, and ATRA. 2-Methoxyestradiol had a dual effect on granulosa cell proliferation and p450SCC- luciferase activity; low doses were stimulatory and high doses were inhibitory. Catechol O-methyltransferase inhibitor was associated with up to a 65% increase in JC410 cell number and a maximal 5.6-fold increase in p450SCC-luciferase activity at 20 micromol/L. Dihydrotestosterone, insulin, and ATRA all induced a dose-dependent increase in COMTP1-luciferase transactivation, as well as up-regulated COMT messenger RNA expression in granulosa cells. Catechol O-methyltransferase expression in granulosa cells was up-regulated by insulin, DHT, and ATRA. Catechol O-methyltransferase product, 2-ME2, decreased, whereas COMT inhibitor increased granulosa cell proliferation and steroidogenesis. These data suggest that COMT overexpression with subsequent increased level of 2-ME2 may lead to ovulatory dysfunction.
    Fertility and sterility 06/2008; 89(5 Suppl):1414-21. · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, we cloned and sequenced a virulence-associated gene (vacB) from a clinical isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. We identified this gene based on our recently annotated genome sequence of the environmental isolate ATCC 7966(T) of A. hydrophila and the vacB gene of Shigella flexneri. The A. hydrophila VacB protein contained 798 amino acid residues, had a molecular mass of 90.5 kDa, and exhibited an exoribonuclease (RNase R) activity. The RNase R of A. hydrophila was a cold-shock protein and was required for bacterial growth at low temperature. The vacB isogenic mutant, which we developed by homologous recombination using marker exchange mutagenesis, was unable to grow at 4 degrees C. In contrast, the wild-type (WT) A. hydrophila exhibited significant growth at this low temperature. Importantly, the vacB mutant was not defective in growth at 37 degrees C. The vacB mutant also exhibited reduced motility, and these growth and motility phenotype defects were restored after complementation of the vacB mutant. The A. hydrophila RNase R-lacking strain was found to be less virulent in a mouse lethality model (70% survival) when given by the intraperitoneal route at as two 50% lethal doses (LD(50)). On the other hand, the WT and complemented strains of A. hydrophila caused 80 to 90% of the mice to succumb to infection at the same LD(50) dose. Overall, this is the first report demonstrating the role of RNase R in modulating the expression of A. hydrophila virulence.
    Journal of bacteriology 06/2008; 190(10):3467-74. · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Yersinia pestis evolved from Y. pseudotuberculosis to become the causative agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague. We identified a homolog of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lipoprotein (lpp) gene in Yersinia species and prepared lpp gene deletion mutants of Y. pseudotuberculosis YPIII, Y. pestis KIM/D27 (pigmentation locus minus), and Y. pestis CO92 with reduced virulence. Mice injected via the intraperitoneal route with 5 x 10(7) CFU of the Deltalpp KIM/D27 mutant survived a month, even though this would have constituted a lethal dose for the parental KIM/D27 strain. Subsequently, these Deltalpp KIM/D27-injected mice were solidly protected against an intranasally administered, highly virulent Y. pestis CO92 strain when it was given as five 50% lethal doses (LD(50)). In a parallel study with the pneumonic plague mouse model, after 72 h postinfection, the lungs of animals infected with wild-type (WT) Y. pestis CO92 and given a subinhibitory dose of levofloxacin had acute inflammation, edema, and masses of bacteria, while the lung tissue appeared essentially normal in mice inoculated with the Deltalpp mutant of CO92 and given the same dose of levofloxacin. Importantly, while WT Y. pestis CO92 could be detected in the bloodstreams and spleens of infected mice at 72 h postinfection, the Deltalpp mutant of CO92 could not be detected in those organs. Furthermore, the levels of cytokines/chemokines detected in the sera were significantly lower in animals infected with the Deltalpp mutant than in those infected with WT CO92. Additionally, the Deltalpp mutant was more rapidly killed by macrophages than was the WT CO92 strain. These data provided evidence that the Deltalpp mutants of yersiniae were significantly attenuated and could be useful tools in the development of new vaccines.
    Infection and immunity 05/2008; 76(4):1390-409. · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our laboratory recently molecularly characterized the type II secretion system (T2SS)-associated cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS-secreted AexU effector from a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. The role of these toxin proteins in the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila infections was subsequently delineated in in vitro and in vivo models. In this study, we characterized the new type VI secretion system (T6SS) from isolate SSU of A. hydrophila and demonstrated its role in bacterial virulence. Study of the role of T6SS in bacterial virulence is in its infancy, and there are, accordingly, only limited, recent reports directed toward a better understanding its role in bacterial pathogenesis. We have provided evidence that the virulence-associated secretion (vas) genes vasH (Sigma 54-dependent transcriptional regulator) and vasK (encoding protein of unknown function) are essential for expression of the genes encoding the T6SS and/or they constituted important components of the T6SS. Deletion of the vasH gene prevented expression of the potential translocon hemolysin coregulated protein (Hcp) encoding gene from bacteria, while the vasK gene deletion prevented secretion but not translocation of Hcp into host cells. The secretion of Hcp was independent of the T3SS and the flagellar system. We demonstrated that secreted Hcp could bind to the murine RAW 264.7 macrophages from outside, in addition to its ability to be translocated into host cells. Further, the vasH and vasK mutants were less toxic to murine macrophages and human epithelial HeLa cells, and these mutants were more efficiently phagocytosed by macrophages. We also provided evidence that the expression of the hcp gene in the HeLa cell resulted in apoptosis of the host cells. Finally, the vasH and vasK mutants of A. hydrophila were less virulent in a septicemic mouse model of infection, and animals immunized with recombinant Hcp were protected from subsequent challenge with the wild-type (WT) bacterium. In addition, mice infected with the WT A. hydrophila had circulating antibodies to Hcp, indicating an important role of T6SS in the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila infections. Taken together, we have characterized the T6SS from Aeromonas for the first time and provided new features of this secretion system not yet known for other pathogens.
    Microbial Pathogenesis 05/2008; 44(4):344-61. · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of estrogen and progesterone on the expression of estrogen-metabolizing enzymes such as catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) are not known. COMT converts genotoxic catecholestrogens to anticarcinogenic methoxyestrogens in the endometrium. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of progesterone on COMT expression in well-differentiated endometrial cancer cells. The wild-type Ishikawa cell line as well as progesterone receptor A- or progesterone receptor B-transfected Ishikawa cells were used for in vitro studies. The regulation of COMT expression by progesterone was studied using Western blots, Hoechst dye DNA proliferation studies, and wild-type and/or site-directed mutagenesis of COMT promoter 1-luciferase reporter gene. Progesterone upregulated COMT protein expression in Ishikawa cells through progesterone receptor A isoform. COMT promoter activity was differentially regulated by the 3 half-site progesterone response elements in the COMT promoter. High doses of 2-ME2 inhibited Ishikawa cell proliferation. These data suggest that COMT expression is hormonally regulated in well-differentiated human endometrial cancer cells. COMT regulation and 2-ME2 production in the endometrium may affect endometrial carcinogenesis.
    Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) 03/2008; 15(2):210-20. · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A clinical strain SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila produces a potent cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) with cytotoxic, enterotoxic, and hemolytic activities. A new gene, which encoded a hemolysin of 439-amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 49 kDa, was identified. This hemolysin (HlyA) was detected based on the observation that the act gene minus mutant of A. hydrophila SSU still had residual hemolytic activity. The new hemolysin gene (hlyA) was cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The hlyA gene exhibited 96% identity with its homolog found in a recently annotated genome sequence of an environmental isolate, namely the type strain ATCC 7966 of A. hydrophila subspecies hydrophila. The hlyA gene did not exhibit any homology with other known hemolysins and aerolysin genes detected in Aeromonas isolates. However, this hemolysin exhibited significant homology with hemolysin of Vibrio vulnificus as well as with the cystathionine beta synthase domain protein of Shewanella oneidensis. The HlyA protein was activated only after treatment with trypsin and the resulting hemolytic activity was not neutralizable with antibodies to Act. The presence of the hlyA gene in clinical and water Aeromonas isolates was investigated and DNA fingerprint analysis was performed to demonstrate its possible role in Aeromonas virulence.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 11/2007; 275(2):301-11. · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A type III secretion system (T3SS)-associated cytotoxin, AexT, with ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and homology to Pseudomonas aeruginosa bifuncational toxins ExoT/S, was recently identified from a fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. In this study, we reported the molecular characterization of an aexT-like toxin gene (designated as aexU) from a diarrheal isolate SSU of A. hydrophila. The aexU gene was 1539bp in length and encoded a protein of 512 amino acid (aa) residues. The NH(2)-terminus of AexU (aa residues 1-231) exhibited a 67% homology with the NH(2)-terminus of AexT from A. salmonicida. Importantly, its COOH-terminus (aa residues 232-512) had no homology with any known functional proteins in the database; however, the full-length AexU retained ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. The expression and subsequent secretion of AexU was T3SS dependent, as inactivation of the ascV gene that codes for an inner-membrane component of the T3SS channel from the wild-type (WT) bacterium, blocked translocation of AexU in HT-29 human colonic epithelial cells. We provided evidence that inactivation of acrV and axsE genes (homologs of lcrV and exsE in Yersinia species and P. aeruginosa, respectively) from A. hydrophila SSU, altered expression and/or secretion of AexU. We deleted an aexU gene from the WT, as well as from the DeltaaopB mutant, of A. hydrophila, generating a single knockout (DeltaaexU) and a double knockout mutant, DeltaaopB/DeltaaexU. Increased phagocytosis was observed in RAW264.7 murine macrophages infected with the DeltaaopB/DeltaaexU mutant, as compared to macrophages when infected with the parental DeltaaopB strain. Further, mice infected with the DeltaaexU mutant had a 60% survival rate, compared to animals infected with the WT or the DeltaaexU-complemented strain that caused 90-100% of the animals to die at a 2-3 LD(50s) dose. Immunization of mice with the recombinant AexU protected them from subsequent lethal challenge dose by the WT bacterium. Finally, we detected specific anti-AexU antibodies in the sera of mice that survived challenge by the WT bacterium, which may indicate that AexU plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Aeromonas infections.
    Microbial Pathogenesis 11/2007; 43(4):127-46. · 1.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

841 Citations
138.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      • • Department of Animal Sciences
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2010
    • Marshfield Clinic
      Marshfield, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2003–2010
    • University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Galveston, TX, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • Tuskegee University
      • Department of Pathobiology
      Tuskegee, Alabama, United States
  • 1995–2002
    • University of Connecticut
      • • Department of Animal Science
      • • College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Storrs, CT, United States