Alexander J Rogers

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States

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Publications (15)32.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Plain chest x-ray (CXR) is often the initial screening test to identify pneumothoraces in trauma patients. Computed tomography (CT) scans can identify pneumothoraces not seen on CXR ("occult pneumothoraces"), but the clinical importance of these radiographically occult pneumothoraces in children is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of occult pneumothoraces in injured children and the rate of treatment with tube thoracostomy among these children. This was a planned substudy from a large prospective multicenter observational cohort study of children younger than 18 years old evaluated in emergency departments (EDs) in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) for blunt torso trauma from May 2007 to January 2010. Children with CXRs as part of their trauma evaluations were included for analysis. The faculty radiologist interpretations of the CXRs and any subsequent imaging studies, including CT scans, were reviewed for the absence or presence of pneumothoraces. An "occult pneumothorax" was defined as a pneumothorax that was not identified on CXR, but was subsequently demonstrated on cervical, chest, or abdominal CT scan. Rates of pneumothoraces and placement of tube thoracostomies and rate differences with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Of 12,044 enrolled in the parent study, 8,020 (67%) children (median age = 11.3 years, interquartile range [IQR] = 5.3 to 15.2 years) underwent CXRs in the ED, and these children make up the study population. Among these children, 4,276 had abdominal CT scans performed within 24 hours. A total of 372 of 8,020 children (4.6%; 95% CI = 4.2% to 5.1%) had pneumothoraces identified by CXR and/or CT. The CXRs visualized pneumothoraces in 148 patients (1.8%; 95% CI = 1.6% to 2.2%), including one false-positive pneumothorax, which was identified on CXR, but was not demonstrated on CT. Occult pneumothoraces were present in 224 of 372 (60.2%; 95% CI = 55.0% to 65.2%) children with pneumothoraces. Tube thoracostomies were performed in 85 of 148 (57.4%; 95% CI = 49.0% to 65.5%) children with pneumothoraces on CXR and in 35 of 224 (15.6%; 95% CI = 11.1% to 21.1%) children with occult pneumothoraces (rate difference = -41.8%; 95% CI = -50.8 to -32.3%). In pediatric patients with blunt torso trauma, pneumothoraces are uncommon, and most are not identified on the ED CXR. Nearly half of pneumothoraces, and most occult pneumothoraces, are managed without tube thoracostomy. Observation, including in children requiring endotracheal intubation, should be strongly considered during the initial management of children with occult pneumothoraces.
    Academic Emergency Medicine 04/2014; 21(4):440-448. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Empiric parenteral ampicillin has traditionally been used to treat listeria and enterococcal serious bacterial infections (SBI) in neonates 28 days of age or younger. Anecdotal experience suggests that these infections are rare. Existing data suggest an increasing resistance to ampicillin. Guidelines advocating the routine use of empiric ampicillin may need to be revisited. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology and ampicillin sensitivity of listeria and enterococcal infections in neonates 28 days of age and younger who presented to 2 pediatric emergency departments (ED) in Michigan. We conducted a 2-center, retrospective chart review (2006-2010) of neonates 28 days of age or younger who were evaluated for SBI in the ED. We abstracted and compared relevant demographic, historical and physical details, laboratory test results, and antibiotic sensitivity patterns to ampicillin from the eligible patient records. We identified SBI in 6% (72/1192) of neonates 28 days of age or younger who were evaluated for SBI, of which 0.08% (1/1192) neonates had enterococcal bacteremia and 0.08% (1/1192) neonates had listeria bacteremia. A total of 1.4% (15/1192) of patients had enterococcal urinary tract infection (UTI). Urinalysis is less helpful as a screening tool for enterococcal UTI when compared with Escherichia coli UTI (P < 0.001). Seventy-three percent (11/15) of urine isolates had an increase of minimal inhibitory concentrations, which indicate gradual development of resistance to ampicillin. Listeria is an uncommon cause of neonatal SBI in febrile neonates who presented to the ED. Empiric use of ampicillin may need to be reconsidered if national data confirm very low listeria and enterococcal prevalence and high ampicillin resistance patterns.
    Pediatric emergency care 03/2014; · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to compare children diagnosed with cervical spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) relative to whether there is evidence of cervical spinal cord abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We conducted a planned subanalysis of a cohort of children younger than 16 years with blunt cervical spine injury presenting to Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network centers from January 2000 to December 2004 who underwent cervical MRI and did not have bony or ligamentous injury identified on neuroimaging. We defined SCIWORA with normal MRI finding as children with clinical evidence of cervical cord injury and a normal MRI finding and compared them with children with SCIWORA who had cervical cord signal changes on MRI (abnormal MRI finding). Of the children diagnosed with cervical spine injury, 55% (297 of 540) were imaged with MRI; 69 had no bony or ligamentous injuries and were diagnosed with SCIWORA by clinical evaluation; 54 (78%) had normal MRI finding, and 15 (22%) had cervical cord signal changes on MRI (abnormal MRI finding). Children with abnormal MRI findings were more likely to receive operative stabilization (0% normal MRI finding vs. 20% abnormal MRI finding) and have persistent neurologic deficits at initial hospital discharge (6% normal MRI finding vs. 67% abnormal MRI finding). Children diagnosed with SCIWORA but with normal MRI finding in our cohort presented differently and had substantially more favorable clinical outcomes than those with cervical cord abnormalities on MRI. Epidemiologic study, level III.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 10/2013; 75(5):843-7.
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    ABSTRACT: STUDY OBJECTIVE: We determine whether intra-abdominal injury is rarely diagnosed after a normal abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan result in a large, generalizable sample of children evaluated in the emergency department (ED) after blunt torso trauma. METHODS: This was a planned analysis of data collected during a prospective study of children evaluated in one of 20 EDs in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. The study sample consisted of patients with normal results for abdominal CT scans performed in the ED. The principal outcome measure was the negative predictive value of CT for any intra-abdominal injury and those undergoing acute intervention. RESULTS: Of 12,044 enrolled children, 5,380 (45%) underwent CT scanning in the ED; for 3,819 of these scan the results were normal. Abdominal CT had a sensitivity of 97.8% (717/733; 95% confidence interval [CI] 96.5% to 98.7%) and specificity of 81.8% (3,803/4,647; 95% CI 80.7% to 82.9%) for any intra-abdominal injury. Sixteen (0.4%; 95% CI 0.2% to 0.7%) of the 3,819 patients with normal CT scan results later received a diagnosis of an intra-abdominal injury, and 6 of these underwent acute intervention for an intra-abdominal injury (0.2% of total sample; 95% CI 0.06% to 0.3%). The negative predictive value of CT for any intra-abdominal injury was 99.6% (3,803/3,819; 95% CI 99.3% to 99.8%); and for injury undergoing acute intervention, 99.8% (3,813/3,819; 95% CI 99.7% to 99.9%). CONCLUSION: In a multicenter study of children evaluated in EDs after blunt torso trauma, intra-abdominal injuries were rarely diagnosed after a normal abdominal CT scan result, suggesting that safe discharge is possible for the children when there are no other reasons for admission.
    Annals of emergency medicine 04/2013; · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: STUDY OBJECTIVE: We derive a prediction rule to identify children at very low risk for intra-abdominal injuries undergoing acute intervention and for whom computed tomography (CT) could be obviated. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled children with blunt torso trauma in 20 emergency departments. We used binary recursive partitioning to create a prediction rule to identify children at very low risk of intra-abdominal injuries undergoing acute intervention (therapeutic laparotomy, angiographic embolization, blood transfusion for abdominal hemorrhage, or intravenous fluid for ≥2 nights for pancreatic/gastrointestinal injuries). We considered only historical and physical examination variables with acceptable interrater reliability. RESULTS: We enrolled 12,044 children with a median age of 11.1 years (interquartile range 5.8, 15.1 years). Of the 761 (6.3%) children with intra-abdominal injuries, 203 (26.7%) received acute interventions. The prediction rule consisted of (in descending order of importance) no evidence of abdominal wall trauma or seat belt sign, Glasgow Coma Scale score greater than 13, no abdominal tenderness, no evidence of thoracic wall trauma, no complaints of abdominal pain, no decreased breath sounds, and no vomiting. The rule had a negative predictive value of 5,028 of 5,034 (99.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 99.7% to 100%), sensitivity of 197 of 203 (97%; 95% CI 94% to 99%), specificity of 5,028 of 11,841 (42.5%; 95% CI 41.6% to 43.4%), and negative likelihood ratio of 0.07 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.15). CONCLUSION: A prediction rule consisting of 7 patient history and physical examination findings, and without laboratory or ultrasonographic information, identifies children with blunt torso trauma who are at very low risk for intra-abdominal injury undergoing acute intervention. These findings require external validation before implementation.
    Annals of emergency medicine 01/2013; · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if patient race/ethnicity is independently associated with cranial computed tomography (CT) use among children with minor blunt head trauma. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study. Pediatric research network of 25 North American emergency departments. In total, 42 412 children younger than 18 years were seen within 24 hours of minor blunt head trauma. Of these, 39 717 were of documented white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, or Hispanic race/ethnicity. Using a previously validated clinical prediction rule, we classified each child's risk for clinically important traumatic brain injury to describe injury severity. Because no meaningful differences in cranial CT rates were observed between children of black non-Hispanic race/ethnicity vs Hispanic race/ethnicity, we combined these 2 groups. Cranial CT use in the emergency department, stratified by race/ethnicity. In total, 13 793 children (34.7%) underwent cranial CT. The odds of undergoing cranial CT among children with minor blunt head trauma who were at higher risk for clinically important traumatic brain injury did not differ by race/ethnicity. In adjusted analyses, children of black non-Hispanic or Hispanic race/ethnicity had lower odds of undergoing cranial CT among those who were at intermediate risk (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.96) or lowest risk (odds ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.65-0.80) for clinically important traumatic brain injury. Regardless of risk for clinically important traumatic brain injury, parental anxiety and request was commonly cited by physicians as an important influence for ordering cranial CT in children of white non-Hispanic race/ethnicity. Disparities may arise from the overuse of cranial CT among patients of nonminority races/ethnicities. Further studies should focus on explaining how medically irrelevant factors, such as patient race/ethnicity, can affect physician decision making, resulting in exposure of children to unnecessary health care risks.
    JAMA Pediatrics 08/2012; 166(8):732-7. · 4.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity of plain radiographs in identifying bony or ligamentous cervical spine injury in children. We identified a retrospective cohort of children younger than 16 years with blunt trauma-related bony or ligamentous cervical spine injury evaluated between 2000 and 2004 at 1 of 17 hospitals participating in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. We excluded children who had a single or undocumented number of radiographic views or one of the following injuries types: isolated spinal cord injury, spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities, or atlantoaxial rotary subluxation. Using consensus methods, study investigators reviewed the radiology reports and assigned a classification (definite, possible, or no cervical spine injury) as well as film adequacy. A pediatric neurosurgeon, blinded to the classification of the radiology reports, reviewed complete case histories and assigned final cervical spine injury type. We identified 206 children who met inclusion criteria, of which 127 had definite and 41 had possible cervical spine injury identified by plain radiograph. Of the 186 children with adequate cervical spine radiographs, 168 had definite or possible cervical spine injury identified by plain radiograph for a sensitivity of 90% (95% confidence interval, 85%-94%). Cervical spine radiographs did not identify the following cervical spine injuries: fracture (15 children) and ligamentous injury alone (3 children). Nine children with normal cervical spine radiographs presented with 1 or more of the following: endotracheal intubation (4 children), altered mental status (5 children), or focal neurologic findings (5 children). Plain radiographs had a high sensitivity for cervical spine injury in our pediatric cohort.
    Pediatric emergency care 04/2012; 28(5):426-32. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate sample sizes available for clinical trials of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children, we described the patient demographics and hospital characteristics associated with children hospitalized with severe TBI in the United States. We analyzed the 2006 Kids' Inpatient Database. Severe TBI hospitalizations were defined as children discharged with TBI who required mechanical ventilation or intubation. Types of high-volume severe TBI hospitals were categorized based on the numbers of discharged patients with severe TBI in 2006. National estimates of demographics and hospital characteristics were calculated for pediatric severe TBI. Simulation analyses were performed to assess the potential number of severe TBI cases from randomly selected hospitals for inclusion in future clinical trials. The majority of children with severe TBI were discharged from either a children's unit in general hospitals (41%) or a nonchildren's hospital (34%). Less than 5% of all hospitals were high-volume TBI hospitals, which discharged >78% of severe TBI cases and were more likely to be a children's unit in a general hospital or a children's hospital. Simulation analyses indicate that there is a saturation point after which the benefit of adding additional recruitment sites decreases significantly. Children with severe TBI are infrequent at any one hospital in the United States, and few hospitals treat large numbers of children with severe TBI. To effectively plan trials of therapies for severe TBI, much attention has to be paid to selecting the right types of centers to maximize enrollment efficiency.
    PEDIATRICS 12/2011; 129(1):e24-30. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives were to characterize physician beliefs and practice of analgesia and anesthesia use for infant lumbar puncture (LP) in the emergency department (ED) and to determine if provider training type, experience, and beliefs are associated with reported pain intervention use. An anonymous survey was distributed to ED faculty and pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) fellows at five Midwestern hospitals. Questions consisted of categorical, yes/no, descriptive, and incremental responses. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics with confidence intervals (CIs) and odds ratios (ORs). A total of 156 of 164 surveys (95%) distributed were completed and analyzed. Training background of respondents was 52% emergency medicine (EM), 30% PEM, and 18% pediatrics. Across training types, there was no difference in the belief that pain treatment was worthwhile (overall 78%) or in the likelihood of using at least one pain intervention. Pharmacologic pain interventions (sucrose, injectable lidocaine, and topical anesthetic) were used in the majority of LPs by 20, 29, and 27% of respondents, respectively. Nonpharmacologic pain intervention (pacifier/nonnutritive sucking) was used in the majority of LPs by 67% of respondents. Many respondents indicated that they never used sucrose (53%), lidocaine (41%), or anesthetic cream (49%). Physicians who thought pain treatment was worthwhile were more likely to use both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic pain interventions than those who did not (93% vs. 53%, OR = 10.98, 95% CI = 4.16 to 29.00). The number of LPs performed or supervised per year was not associated with pain intervention use. Other than pacifiers, injectable lidocaine was the most frequently reported pain intervention. Provider beliefs regarding infant pain are associated with variation in anesthesia and analgesia use during infant LP in the ED. Although the majority of physicians hold the belief that pain intervention is worthwhile in this patient group, self-reported pharmacologic interventions to reduce pain associated with infant LP are used regularly by less than one-third. Strategies targeting physician beliefs on infant pain should be developed to improve pain intervention use in the ED for infant LPs.
    Academic Emergency Medicine 02/2011; 18(2):140-4. · 1.76 Impact Factor
  • Annals of Emergency Medicine - ANN EMERG MED. 01/2011; 58(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Cervical spine injuries in children are rare. However, immobilization and imaging for potential cervical spine injury after trauma are common and are associated with adverse effects. Risk factors for cervical spine injury have been developed to safely limit immobilization and radiography in adults, but not in children. The purpose of our study is to identify risk factors associated with cervical spine injury in children after blunt trauma. We conducted a case-control study of children younger than 16 years, presenting after blunt trauma, and who received cervical spine radiographs at 17 hospitals in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) between January 2000 and December 2004. Cases were children with cervical spine injury. We created 3 control groups of children free of cervical spine injury: (1) random controls, (2) age and mechanism of injury-matched controls, and (3) for cases receiving out-of-hospital emergency medical services (EMS), age-matched controls who also received EMS care. We abstracted data from 3 sources: PECARN hospital, referring hospital, and out-of-hospital patient records. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to identify predictors of cervical spine injury and calculated the model's sensitivity and specificity. We reviewed 540 records of children with cervical spine injury and 1,060, 1,012, and 702 random, mechanism of injury, and EMS controls, respectively. In the analysis using random controls, we identified 8 factors associated with cervical spine injury: altered mental status, focal neurologic findings, neck pain, torticollis, substantial torso injury, conditions predisposing to cervical spine injury, diving, and high-risk motor vehicle crash. Having 1 or more factors was 98% (95% confidence interval 96% to 99%) sensitive and 26% (95% confidence interval 23% to 29%) specific for cervical spine injury. We identified similar risk factors in the other analyses. We identified an 8-variable model for cervical spine injury in children after blunt trauma that warrants prospective refinement and validation.
    Annals of emergency medicine 10/2010; 58(2):145-55. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to utilize the electronic medical record system to identify frequent lower acuity patients presenting to the Pediatric Emergency Department and to evaluate their impact on Pediatric Emergency Department overcrowding and resource utilization. The electronic medical records (EMR) of two pediatric emergency centers were reviewed from August 2002 to November 2004. Pediatric Emergency Department encounters that met any of the following criteria were classified as Visits Necessitating Pediatric Emergency Department care (VNEC): Disposition of admission, transfer or deceased; Intravenous fluids (IVF) or medications (excluding single antipyretic or antihistamine); Radiology or laboratory tests (excluding Rapid Strep); Fractures, dislocations, and febrile seizures. All other visits were classified as non-VNEC. ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) codes from the Pediatric Emergency Department encounters were defined as representing chronic or non-chronic conditions. Patients were then evaluated for utilization patterns, frequency of Emergency Department (ED) visits, chronic illness, and VNEC status. There were 153,390 patients identified, representing 255,496 visits (1.7 visits/patient, range 1-49). Overall, 189,998 visits (74%) required defined ED services and were categorized as VNEC, with the remaining 65,498 visits (26%) categorized as non-VNEC. With increasing visits, a steady decline in those requiring ED services was observed, with a plateau by visit six (VNEC 77% @ one visit, 64% @ six visits, p < 0.001). There were 141,765 patients seen fewer than four times, representing 92% of the patients and 74% of all visits (1.3 visits/patient, 225 visits/day). In contrast, 2664 patients disproportionately utilized the ED more than six times (maximum 49), representing 1.7% of patients and 9.8% of visits (9.4 visit/patient, 30 visits/day, p < 0.001). Excluding patients with chronic illness, 1074 patients also disproportionately utilized the ED more than six times (maximum 28), representing 0.7% of patients and 3.6% of visits (8.6 visit/patient, 11 visits/day, p < 0.001). While representing < 2% of patients, frequent lower acuity utilizers of ED services accounted for nearly 10% of all visits (30/day). Low acuity patients may require only limited additional marginal resources for their individual care. However, in aggregate, inefficiencies occur, especially when systems reach capacity constraints, at which point these patients utilize limited resources (manpower and space) that could more effectively be directed toward the more acutely ill and injured patients. Therefore, identification of these patients utilizing the electronic medical record will allow for targeted interventions of this subgroup to improve future resource allocation.
    Journal of Emergency Medicine 04/2009; 36(3):311-6. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To determine whether an oral sucrose solution improves pain response for infants undergoing bladder catheterization in an emergency department (ED) population.Methods: A randomized, double-blinded study comparing the analgesic effects of a sucrose solution to placebo for infants ≤90 days of age and requiring bladder catheterization. Infants with prior bladder catheterization, previous painful procedures that day, or neurological or genital abnormalities were excluded. Infants were assigned baseline pain scores and then given 2 mL of sucrose or water 2 minutes before catheterization. Trained pediatric ED nurses rated the infants for pain, presence of cry, and time to return to baseline.Results: Eighty-three patients were enrolled; 40 were randomized to sucrose, and 40, to placebo. Baseline pain scores were similar within each age group. Overall, sucrose did not produce a significant analgesic effect. In subgroup analysis, infants 1–30 days of age receiving sucrose showed a smaller change in pain scores (2.9 vs. 5.3, p = 0.035), were less likely to cry with catheterization (29% vs. 72%, p = 0.008), and returned to baseline more rapidly after catheter removal (10 seconds vs. 37 seconds, p = 0.04) compared with infants who received placebo. Infants older than 30 days of age who received sucrose did not show statistically significant differences in pain scores, crying, or time to return to baseline behavior.Conclusions: There was no overall treatment effect when using an oral sucrose solution before bladder catheterization in infants younger than 90 days of age. However, infants younger than or equal to 30 days of age who received sucrose had smaller increases in pain scores, less crying, and returned to baseline more rapidly than infants receiving placebo. Older infants did not show an improved pain response with oral sucrose.
    Academic Emergency Medicine 05/2006; 13(6):617 - 622. · 1.76 Impact Factor
  • Alexander J Rogers, Carlos A Delgado, Harold K Simon
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of Limited English Proficiency (LEP) visits and acuity status on admission rates from a pediatric ED. A retrospective cohort study was performed using a fully computerized medical record, which includes information on language spoken, triage acuity, and disposition. Data was collected on all patient visits from July 2002 to November 2002 from a tertiary-care pediatric ED. Admission rates and acuity status for LEP and non-LEP patients were compared. A total of 13,585 patient visits were identified, of which 12,416 fit the study criteria. There were 244 LEP patient visits, of which 206 were Spanish-speaking. There were 12,172 English-speaking patient visits. Compared with English-speaking visits, LEP visits were more likely to be triaged as high acuity (25.8% vs. 16.1%, P < .001). LEP patients were more likely to be admitted to the hospital (22.1% vs. 13%, P < .001). For high- and low-acuity patients, no significant differences in admission rates were seen between LEP and English-speaking patients. In contrast, moderate-acuity LEP visits showed a significantly increased admission rate compared to moderate acuity English visits (22.5% vs. 12.4%, P = .005). Similar trends were seen among Spanish-speaking LEP patients. Differences in medical disposition from the ED were found between English-speaking and LEP patient visits. There were higher rates of admission for LEP patients, particularly among moderate-acuity visits. This highlights disparities of care for this vulnerable population.
    American Journal of Emergency Medicine 12/2004; 22(7):534-6. · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • Alexander J Rogers, Larry D Denk, Paul M Wax
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    ABSTRACT: Much attention has been paid to the long-term toxic and carcinogenic effects of nicotine-containing substances, particularly tobacco. Although rare, acute ingestions of large amounts of nicotine can produce rapid and dramatic toxicity. We present a case of an ingestion of a nicotine sulfate solution by a 15-year-old boy resulting in hypoxia and irreversible encephalopathy. The diagnosis of acute nicotine toxicity potentially could be delayed due to the fact that nicotine and cotinine are so commonly found on drug screens that they are considered "normal variants."
    Journal of Emergency Medicine 03/2004; 26(2):169-72. · 1.33 Impact Factor