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ABSTRACT: To explore the effect of Simvastatin on the regeneration of sciatic nerve with crush injury in rats. Animals were randomized into the following experimental groups: Simvastatin-treated, vehicle and sham-operated groups. Sciatic nerves with crush injury were performed. After surgery, the functional evaluation of nerve recovery, electrophysiologic assessment, histological assessment, serum IL-6 and lipid were performed. The toe spread index of Simvastatin-treated rats after operation was higher significantly than vehicle rats at 5 d and 8 d (P<0.05). CMAP was higher and NCV was faster (P < 0.05). The serum IL-6 at 5 d of post-operation was significant lower (P < 0.05). Total serum cholesterol of Simvastatin-treated animals was higher than that of other animals (P < 0.05) at 2 weeks of post-operation. The histological analysis showed that the numbers of myelinated axons and the thickness of myelin sheath of Simvastatin-treated crush injury animals at 4 weeks of post-operation were more than that of vehicle animals. The present study showed that Simvastatin could promote the regeneration of the sciatic nerve after crush injury in rats, partly through inhibiting immune and inflammatory responses and making the balance of serum cholesterol during these processes.Zhongguo ying yong sheng li xue za zhi = Zhongguo yingyong shenglixue zazhi = Chinese journal of applied physiology. 05/2007; 23(2):246-51.