[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed an extensive study on mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic periodontitis (CP). Electron microscopic analysis of gingival cells revealed abnormal mitochondria in 60% of the patients. Mitochondrial membrane potential and oxygen consumption of gingival cells were reduced by 4 fold and 5.8 fold, respectively; whereas ROS production was increased by 18%. The genetic analysis by complete mitochondrial DNA sequencing revealed the identification of 14 novel mutations only in periodontal tissues but not in the blood, suggesting a role of oxidative stress on periodontal tissues. Thus, our functional and genetic analysis provided an evidence for the mitochondrial dysfunction in CP.