A van Bokhoven

University of Colorado, Denver, CO, United States

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Publications (54)217.78 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The "Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain" (MAPP) Research Network was established by the NIDDK to better understand the pathophysiology of urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCPPS), to inform future clinical trials and improve clinical care. The evolution, organization, and scientific scope of the MAPP Research Network, and the unique approach of the network's central study and common data elements are described.
    BMC Urology 08/2014; 14(1):58. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between the length of the polymorphic trinucleotide CAG microsatellite repeats in exon 1 of the AR gene and the risk of prostate cancer containing TMPRSS2:ETS fusion genes. This nested case-control study came from subjects enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial and included 195 biopsy-proven prostate cancer cases with a known TMPRSS2:ETS status and 1344 matched controls. There was no association between the CAG repeat length and the risk of TMPRSS2:ETS-positive (odds ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-1.04) or TMPRSS2:ETS-negative prostate cancer (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.11) and in patients with low- or high-grade disease. Our findings suggested that AR CAG repeats are not associated with TMPRSS2:ETS formation in prostate cancer.
    Urology 05/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate the association between the length of the polymorphic trinucleotide CAG microsatellite repeats in exon 1 of the AR gene and the risk of prostate cancer containing TMPRSS2:ETS fusion genes. Methods This nested case-control study came from subjects enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial and included 195 biopsy-proven prostate cancer cases with a known TMPRSS2:ETS status and 1344 matched controls. Results There was no association between the CAG repeat length and the risk of TMPRSS2:ETS–positive (odds ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-1.04) or TMPRSS2:ETS–negative prostate cancer (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.11) and in patients with low- or high-grade disease. Conclusion Our findings suggested that AR CAG repeats are not associated with TMPRSS2:ETS formation in prostate cancer.
    Urology 01/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate biopsies are usually taken from the peripheral rather than anterior region of the prostate. Consequently, tumors originating from the anterior apical region and transition zones may be under-sampled. We examined whether addition of transrectal anterior biopsy (TAB) would improve efficacy of prostate biopsies. Simulations of TAB and sextant biopsy (SB) were performed using computer models of 86 autopsy prostates (AP) and 40 radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens. TAB was obtained bilaterally from apex, mid, and base regions by advancing the biopsy needle 5 mm-35 mm beyond the prostatic capsule. A phase I clinical trial with 114 patients was conducted to determine the performance of an extended biopsy protocol consisting of TAB, SB, and laterally-directed biopsy (LDB). The overall cancer detection rates of SB and TAB were 33% and 55% for AP series (p = 0.00003); 60% and 88% for RP series (p = 0.006). Alternatively, SB + bilateral apical TAB and SB + bilateral mid TAB had cancer detection rates of 45% and 42% for AP series; 80% and 78% for RP series. The extended biopsy protocol detected cancer in 33% (38/114) of patients with 29, 25, and 15 diagnosed by SB, LDB, and bilateral apical TAB, respectively. Patients diagnosed by bilateral apical TAB versus SB (p = 0.01) and LDB (p = 0.02) were statistically significant. Without bilateral apical TAB, the overall cancer detection rate decreased to 30% (34/114). Inclusion of bilateral TAB from apical region for first time and repeat prostate biopsies may increase diagnosis of prostate cancer. The clinical significance of these findings needs further investigations and clinical follow up.
    The Canadian Journal of Urology 10/2013; 20(5):6897-6906. · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Finasteride, an inhibitor of 5α-reductase (type II), lowers intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is reflected in serum as reduced 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol glucuronide (3α-dG). It also modestly increases serum testosterone (T), estrone (E(1)), and estradiol (E(2)). In this altered hormonal milieu, it is unknown whether serum concentrations of these hormones are associated with prostate cancer risk. In this nested case-control study of men in the finasteride arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, sex steroid hormones and sex hormone binding globulin were measured at baseline and approximately 3-year posttreatment in 553 prostate cancer cases and 694 controls. Median posttreatment changes in concentrations of 3α-dG, T, E(1), and E(2) were -73.8%, +10.1%, +11.2%, and +7.5% (all P < 0.001), respectively. Neither the pre- nor posttreatment concentrations of 3α-dG, nor its change, were associated with risk. Pretreatment, high concentrations of E(1) and low concentrations of T were associated with increased cancer risk [OR; 95% confidence interval (CI) quartile 4 vs. 1: 1.38 (0.99-1.93) P(trend) = 0.03; 0.64 (0.43-0.93) P(trend) = 0.07, respectively]. Posttreatment, high concentrations of both E(1) and E(2) were associated with increased cancer risk [OR; 95% CI quartile 4 vs. 1: 1.54 (1.09-2.17) P(trend) = 0.03; 1.49 (1.07-2.07) P(trend) = 0.02, respectively]. Among finasteride-treated men, concentrations of 3α-dG were not associated with total or Gleason grades 2 to 6, 7 to 10, or 8 to 10 cancer. High serum estrogens may increase cancer risk when intraprostatic DHT is pharmacologically lowered. Impact: Low posttreatment serum estrogens may identify men more likely to benefit from use of finasteride to prevent prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 21(10); 1823-32. ©2012 AACR.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 08/2012; 21(10):1823-32. · 4.56 Impact Factor
  • M Scott Lucia, Adrie van Bokhoven
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty years have witnessed dramatic changes in the manner in which we diagnose and manage prostate cancer. With prostate-specific antigen screening, there was a shift towards smaller, clinically localized tumors. Tumors are often multifocal and display phenotypic and molecular heterogeneity. Pathologic evaluation of tissue obtained by needle biopsy remains the gold standard for the diagnosis and risk assessment of prostate cancer. Years of experience with grading, along with changes in the amount of biopsy tissue obtained and diagnostic tools available, have produced shifts in grading practices among genitourinary pathologists. Trends in Gleason grading and advances in pathological risk assessment are reviewed with particular emphasis on recent Gleason grading modifications of the International Society of Urologic Pathology. Efforts to maximize the amount of information from pathological specimens, whether it be morphometric, histochemical, or molecular, may improve predictive accuracy of prostate biopsies. New diagnostic techniques are needed to optimize management decisions.
    JNCI Monographs 01/2012; 2012(45):157-61.
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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium, a widespread toxic pollutant of occupational and environmental concern, is a known human carcinogen. The prostate is a potential target for cadmium carcinogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Furthermore, cadmium may induce cell death by apoptosis in various cell types, and it has been hypothesized that a key factor in cadmium-induced malignant transformation is acquisition of apoptotic resistance. We investigated the in vitro effects produced by cadmium exposure in normal or tumor cells derived from human prostate epithelium, including RWPE-1 and its cadmium-transformed derivative CTPE, the primary adenocarcinoma 22Rv1 and CWR-R1 cells and LNCaP, PC-3 and DU145 metastatic cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 24 hours with different concentrations of CdCl(2) and apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and expression of tumor suppressor proteins were analyzed. Subsequently, cellular response to cadmium was evaluated after siRNA-mediated p53 silencing in wild type p53-expressing RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells, and after adenoviral p53 overexpression in p53-deficient DU145 and PC-3 cell lines. The cell lines exhibited different sensitivity to cadmium, and 24-hour exposure to different CdCl(2) concentrations induced dose- and cell type-dependent apoptotic response and inhibition of cell proliferation that correlated with accumulation of functional p53 and overexpression of p21 in wild type p53-expressing cell lines. On the other hand, p53 silencing was able to suppress cadmium-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that cadmium can induce p53-dependent apoptosis in human prostate epithelial cells and suggest p53 mutation as a possible contributing factor for the acquisition of apoptotic resistance in cadmium prostatic carcinogenesis.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e33647. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the incidence and prognostic value of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in urothelial cancer (UC). The detection of CTCs is prognostic in several cancer types. A total of 44 subjects with UC were assessed for CTCs using CellSearch Technology and 7.5 mL of peripheral blood, sorted by magnetic separation (epithelial cell adhesion molecule positive) and immunofluorescent staining (positive for cytokeratin 8, 18, or 19, negative for CD45, positive for 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) to identify the CTCs. Five (17%) of 30 subjects with clinically localized and 7 (50%) of 14 subjects with metastatic UC had ≥1 detectable CTC (range 1-177). Six subjects had ≥5 CTCs. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was performed in 20 samples from 18 unique subjects using the UroVysion probe set. Copy number gains consistent with neoplasm were observed in those with measurable CTCs but not in any of the CTC-negative samples tested. With a median follow-up of 337 days, all 7 patients with metastasis and detectable CTCs had died compared with 3 (43%) of the 7 with metastasis but without detectable CTCs. CTCs are commonly observed in metastatic UC. CTCs were observed in 50% of the patients with metastatic UC tested. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed the aneusomic chromosomal content in the CTCs. These findings suggest that measurable CTCs might be prognostic for shortened survival in patients with metastatic UC, although the optimal threshold for a "positive" finding is unknown. CTCs were also detected in a subset of patients with clinically localized disease, identifying a potential high-risk, preoperative group for future study.
    Urology 08/2011; 78(4):863-7. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer in men has a high mortality and morbidity due to metastatic disease. The pathobiology of prostate cancer metastasis is not well understood and cell lines and animal models that recapitulate the complex nature of the disease are needed. Therefore, the goal of the study was to establish and characterize a new prostate cancer line derived from a dog with spontaneous prostate cancer. A new cell line (Leo) was derived from a dog with spontaneous prostate cancer. Immunohistochemistry and PCR were used to characterize the primary prostate cancer and xenografts in nude mice. Subcutaneous tumor growth and metastases in nude mice were evaluated by bioluminescent imaging, radiography and histopathology. In vitro chemosensitivity of Leo cells to therapeutic agents was measured. Leo cells expressed the secretory epithelial cytokeratins (CK)8, 18, and ductal cell marker, CK7. The cell line grew in vitro (over 75 passages) and was tumorigenic in the subcutis of nude mice. Following intracardiac injection, Leo cells metastasized to the brain, spinal cord, bone, and adrenal gland. The incidence of metastases was greatest to the central nervous system (80%) with a lower incidence to bone (20%) and the adrenal glands (16%). In vitro chemosensitivity assays demonstrated that Leo cells were sensitive to Velcade and an HDAC-42 inhibitor with IC(50) concentrations of 1.9 nm and 0.95 µm, respectively. The new prostate cancer cell line (Leo) will be a valuable model to investigate the mechanisms of the brain and bone metastases.
    The Prostate 02/2011; 71(12):1251-63. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Urology - J UROL. 01/2011; 185(4).
  • Journal of Urology - J UROL. 01/2011; 185(4).
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    ABSTRACT: It is currently estimated that infections and inflammatory responses are linked to 15-20% of all deaths from cancer worldwide. Many studies point to an important role of inflammation in prostate growth, although the contribution of inflammation to benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer is not completely understood. There is an unmet need for epidemiologic and molecular pathologic approaches to address the issue of inflammation and prostate cancer. Here we review the published evidence with respect to the involvement of inflammation and infection in prostate cancer. We also present an overarching hypothesis that chronic inflammation associated with aging and infection may play an important role in the etiology and progression of prostate cancer. As such, chronic inflammation may represent an important therapeutic target in prostate cancer.
    Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain: 1998) 12/2010; 46(12):929-43. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Silibinin is a polyphenolic flavonolignan derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianium) with anti-oxidant properties. The purpose of the current trial was to determine the tissue and blood effects of high-dose silybin-phytosome in prostate cancer patients. Subjects with localized prostate cancer planning for a prostatectomy were eligible to enroll. Six patients received 13 g of silybin-phytosome daily with six additional participants serving as control subjects. Patients in the treatment arm received silybin-phytosome for 14-31 days (mean was 20 days) prior to surgery. Silibinin blood levels were measured 1 hr after the first silybin-phytosome dose with a mean value of 19.7 microM. Trough silibinin levels were assessed at the end of the trial with an average concentration of 1.2 microM. In contrast to the high peak levels of silibinin observed in blood, the highest silibinin level observed in the harvested prostate tissue was 496.6 pmol/g. There were no significant differences noted in baseline and post-treatment blood levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3. One of the treated patients developed a grade 4 post-operative thromboembolic event. The other observed toxicities in the treatment group were mild: four subjects had diarrhea and one had asymptomatic grade 2 hyperbilirubinemia which was transient. High-dose oral silybin-phytosome achieves high blood concentrations transiently, but low levels of silibinin are seen in prostate tissue. Silibinin's lack of tissue penetration may be explained by its short half-life, the brief duration of therapy in this study or an active process removing silibinin from the prostate.
    The Prostate 06/2010; 70(8):848-55. · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Urology - J UROL. 01/2009; 181(4):654-654.
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D and dihydrotestosterone pathways interact to promote the growth of prostatic tissue. The nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) moderates the actions of vitamin D. 5alpha-Reductase type II (SRD5A2) codes for the enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in the prostate. This study tested the interactions of VDR (CDX2, FokI) and SRD5A2 (V89L, A49T) polymorphisms, and their associations with prostate cancer. This genetic association study included 932 non-Hispanic White (NHW) men and 414 Hispanic White (HW) men from South Texas. Cases had biopsy-confirmed cancer; controls had normal digital rectal exams and serum prostate-specific antigen levels of <2.5 ng/mL. Using logistic regression analyses to test associations with prostate cancer, only the V89L polymorphism (VV genotype compared with LL/LV) in HW men was statistically significant [odds ratios (OR), 0.64; 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), 0.41-0.99]. The interaction terms for FokI and V89L in NHW men and CDX2 and V89L in HW men in the logistic model were significant (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). When stratified by V89L genotype, the FokI polymorphism (TT/TC versus CC) was significantly associated with prostate cancer in NHW men with the V89L VV genotype (FokI OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.06-2.23). The CDX2 polymorphism (GG versus AG/AA) was significantly associated with prostate cancer only in HW men with the V89L VV genotype (CDX2 OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.39-7.19; interaction term P = 0.02). Our results indicate that the SRD5A2 V89L VV genotype interacts with VDR FokI TT/CT genotypes in NHW men and VDR CDX2 GG genotypes in HW men to increase the risk for prostate cancer.
    Clinical Cancer Research 05/2008; 14(10):3223-9. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the value of loss of expression of E-cadherin and cadherin associated molecules as prognostic markers for prostate cancer patients in a long-term follow-up study. Sixty-five prostate cancer specimens, obtained from patients with different stages of prostate cancer who underwent a radical prostatectomy or TUR-P between 1987 and 1991, were used for immunohistochemical analysis of the expression pattern of E-cadherin, alpha-, beta-, gamma-catenin and p120(ctn). Clinical records of these patients were studied for follow-up data and the prognostic value of expression of these adhesion molecules was determined by Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and multivariable proportional hazard regression analysis. Normal staining patterns were found in 36 cases (55.4%) for E-cadherin, 37 cases (56.9%) for alpha-catenin, 40 cases (61.5%) for beta-catenin, 25 cases (38.5%) for gamma-catenin, and 40 cases (61.5%) for p120(ctn). Overall, a strong correlation was found between the expression of E-cadherin and other cadherin-associated molecules. The 5-year survival rates for each staining were as follows: E-cadherin (normal 79.2%, aberrant 26.8%), alpha-catenin (normal 79.2%, aberrant 26.8%), beta-catenin (normal 73.1%, aberrant 27.3%), gamma-catenin (normal 86.4%, aberrant 37.1%), and p120(ctn) (normal 72.8%, aberrant 30.0%). There was a significant difference in survival between normal and aberrant expression in each staining (log rank P < 0.0001). The proportional hazard regression model including tumor stage and Gleason score revealed alpha-catenin expression as the best prognostic marker for patients with prostate cancer. Our data revealed a strong correlation between E-cadherin expression and other cadherin-associated molecules. Among these markers, alpha-catenin seems the best prognostic marker for prostate cancer specific survival. Larger studies are needed to confirm this result.
    The Prostate 10/2007; 67(13):1432-8. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoblastic metastases are commonly induced by prostate cancer. A canine prostate carcinoma xenograft (Ace-1) was developed and used to evaluate neoplastic prostate cell growth, metastasis, and effects on bone formation in nude mice. Characteristics of the Ace-1 cells were evaluated with histopathology, radiography, and bioluminescent imaging (BLI). Immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR were used to evaluate the expression of factors important in the development of osteoblastic metastases. The Ace-1 cells were invasive and induced bone formation and destruction. Radiographs demonstrated a mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic reaction. Lung and lymph node metastases occurred in 30% of mice. The tumor cells expressed parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP-141 isoform), cathepsin K, keratins 8/18, and vimentin, but not keratins 5/14, and were androgen receptor negative. Intracardiac (IC) injections resulted in metastases in vertebrae and long bones. The Ace-1 xenograft is a useful model for investigating the pathogenesis of prostate cancer invasion and mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic bone metastases.
    The Prostate 09/2006; 66(11):1213-22. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The differential intestinal metabolism of the soy isoflavones is likely to influence the ability of soy to prevent prostate cancer. While daidzein, genistein, and equol have direct antiproliferative effects on prostatic epithelial cells in vitro, there are no such data for the isoflavone glycitein, or seven metabolites: O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA), 6-hydroxyODMA (6H-ODMA), dihydrodaidzein (DHD), cis-4-hydroxyequol (C4HE), 3'-hydroxydaidzein (3HD), 6-hydroxydaidzein (6HD), and 8-hydroxydaidzein (8HD). In the current study, the in vitro activities of these compounds were elucidated, and the active ranges of concentrations were compared to that found in Caucasian prostatic fluid (PF) and plasma samples. The effects of isoflavonoids on cell growth, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis (active Caspase 3) were examined on benign prostatic epithelial cells (PrEC), and the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. PF concentrations of genistein, equol, and daidzein (but not ODMA or DHD) were often within the ranges that reduce PrEC growth in vitro. Profound differences in sensitivities were observed with LNCaP. The hydroxydaidzeins, C4HE, and 6H-ODMA had significant inhibitory effects at 10(-5)M on PrEC growth (but not LNCaP). Glycitein had significant effects on both. Reductions in cell growth were typically associated with both changes in cell cycle distribution and Caspase 3 activation. When five isoflavonoids were used in combination at concentrations present in PF samples, synergistic effects were observed. The profound differences in sensitivities of prostatic epithelial cells to these compounds along with their synergistic effects suggest that multiple metabolites in vivo may be optimal for preventing prostate cancer.
    The Prostate 05/2006; 66(5):557-66. · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • Shock. 01/2006; 25.
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents a comprehensive survey and characterization of available prostate carcinoma cell lines, most of which have been widely used but are incompletely characterized. A total of 21 cell lines were investigated, including three "classical" (DU 145, LNCaP, and PC-3) and 18 "non-classical" lines (1013L, 22Rv1, ALVA-55, ALVA-101, ARCaP, CWR-R1, DuCaP, DuPro-1, LAPC-4, MDA PCa 1, MDA PCa 2a, MDA PCa 2b, NCI-H660, PC-346C, PC-93, PSK-1, UM-SCP-1, and VCaP). Cytogenetics, DNA profiling, expression of basal, luminal, and neuroendocrine differentiation markers, and mutation analyses of the TP53 and androgen receptor (AR) genes were performed. Based on cytogenetics and DNA profiling analyses, out of the 18 "non-classical" lines, six were confirmed to be unique, eight (in four pairs) were confirmed to be related in origin, and four lines were identified as cross-contaminants. Of this latter group, PC-93 was found to be a derivative of HeLa, whereas DuPro-1, ALVA-55, and ALVA-101 were derivatives of PC-3. The 17 genuine prostate cell lines expressed keratin 8 (K8) and K18. Nine showed AR expression, of which five harbored mutations in the AR gene. Prostate-specific antigen and DD3 were exclusively detected in AR expressing cell lines. Seven lines expressed the basal cell marker K5, three of these lines showed co-expression of AR. This study defines a collection of 17 genuine prostate carcinoma cell lines. This collection, although small, constitutes a variety of different types and stages of prostate cancer, while it also partly reflects the heterogeneous nature of this malignancy.
    The Prostate 12/2003; 57(3):205-25. · 3.84 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
217.78 Total Impact Points


  • 2011–2012
    • University of Colorado
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Denver, CO, United States
  • 1989–2007
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      • • Department of Urology
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      Nijmegen, Provincie Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 1993–2000
    • Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc)
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
    • KU Leuven
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Leuven, VLG, Belgium
  • 1998
    • University of Tsukuba
      • Department of Urology
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken, Japan
  • 1996
    • Utrecht University
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands