[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper reports on independent associations of household asset index and education, as components of socio-economic status, on iron status in a black population sample in Gauteng province. The study was cross-sectional, involving 40 men, 184 women (n = 224), randomly selected, based on informed consent. Socio-economic, dietary intake and biochemical data were collected using household socio-demographic questionnaires, a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and a 24 h recall questionnaire and samples of blood. Serum iron, transferrin receptor, ferritin, haemoglobin, haematocrit and mean corpuscular volume were assessed as indicators of iron status. Results indicated high levels of poverty and illiteracy among the participants. Iron intake indicated a mean of 10.88 ± 7.91 mg/day; (13.51 ± 10.20 mg/day for men and 10.31 ± 7.22 mg/day for women). More women below 50 years (43.8%) consumed less than the estimated average requirements for their age group in comparison with women above 50 years (25.0%). More women had low measures of all respective biochemical indicators compared with the men. By age, younger population groups had a higher prevalence of low iron measures than the older age groups. Household asset index, but not education, significantly predicted total iron intake (p < 0.05). Education, however, increased the likelihood of consumption being above the Estimated Average Requirement (not significantly, P > 0.05). Household asset index and total iron intake were significantly associated (p < 0.05) with all biochemical measures, particularly among women. Education level had minimal association with either of the biochemical measures. Household asset index (a proxy measure of long-term socio-economic situation) and total iron intake predict iron status in a population of South Africans.
Scientific research and essays 05/2012; 7:1035-1050. · 0.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assessed dietary diversity, its relation to micronutrient intake and variability between age-groups among women 19–69 years from informal settlements of Gauteng province, South Africa. The study was cross-sectional, involving 260 women. Dietary intake was obtained from 24-hour recall data, and Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) from Food Frequency Questionnaire, calculated based on 9 food groups and 80 foods. Intake of eleven micronutrients was assessed as Nutrient Adequacy Ratios (NAR) and Mean Adequacy Ratios (MAR), using Estimated Average Requirements and Adequate Intakes of these micronutrients, following Institute of Medicine recommendations. On average, 26 foods and 7 food groups were consumed. There was a strong significantly positive relationship (p<0.001) between the NAR of respective micronutrients (as well as MAR) with the DDS, the relationship was negative with food variety and diversity within food groups; except for vitamin C. Age-group comparisons revealed the older age groups (36-years and older) being at-risk of low micronutrient intake; particularly in calcium, vitamins C and A. In conclusion, dietary diversity was above reference, there was a strong relationship between DDS and micronutrient intake, and there is a significant variation in intake between age-groups, with women 36-years and older being more at-risk of low micronutrient intake.
International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. 03/2012; 4:24-39.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Underachievement in schools is a global problem and is especially prevalent in developing countries. Indicators of educational performance show that Uganda has done remarkably well on education access-related targets since the introduction of universal primary education in 1997. However, educational outcomes remain disappointing. The absence of school feeding schemes, one of the leading causes of scholastic underachievement, has not been given attention by the Ugandan authorities. Instead, as a national policy, parents are expected to provide meals even though many, especially in the rural areas, cannot afford to provide even the minimal daily bowl of maize porridge.
To assess and demonstrate the effect of breakfast and midday meal consumption on academic achievement of schoolchildren.
We assessed household characteristics, feeding patterns and academic achievement of 645 schoolchildren (aged 9-15 years) in Kumi district, eastern Uganda, in 2006-2007, using a modified cluster sampling design which involved only grade 1 schools (34 in total) and pupils of grade four. Household questionnaires and school records were used to collect information on socio-demographic factors, feeding patterns and school attendance. Academic achievement was assessed using unstandardized techniques, specifically designed for this study.
Underachievement (the proportion below a score of 120.0 points) was high (68.4%); in addition, significantly higher achievement and better feeding patterns were observed among children from the less poor households (p<0.05). Achievement was significantly associated with consumption of breakfast and a midday meal, particularly for boys (p<0.05), and a greater likelihood of scoring well was observed for better nourished children (all OR values>1.0).
We observed that underachievement was relatively high; inadequate patterns of meal consumption, particularly for the most poor, significantly higher scores among children from 'less poor' households and a significant association between academic achievement and breakfast and midday meal consumption.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study assessed the risk of zinc deficiency in randomly selected children, aged between 7 and 11 years, living in a poor, peri-urban informal settlement in South Africa. Dietary intake of 149 respondents was evaluated by 24-hour recall and quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Anthropometric and biochemical indices of a subset of 113 were determined. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and Pearson correlations were computed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 14.0. Anthropometric data were analysed using the World Health Organization Anthro plus version 1.0.2 statistical software. Dietary data were analysed with FoodFinder® version 3. The mean age of the children was 9.0±1.1 years. Few zinc-rich sources appeared in the diet that was predominantly plant-based. Mean dietary zinc intake was 4.6±2.2 mg/day. The mean value of serum zinc was 66.4±21.5 µg/dL, with 46% of the children having values less than the 70 µg/dL cut-off. The findings indicate a high risk of zinc deficiency and suboptimal zinc status for the majority of this study population of children, possibly as a result of low consumption of food sources with high bioavailability of zinc, which invariably is a direct consequence of poverty and food insecurity.OpsommingDie doel van hierdie dwarsdeursnitstudie was die bepaling van die risiko van ’n sinktekort in ’n ewekansige steekproef van 7 tot 11 jaar-oue kinders, woonagtig in ’n arm, voorstedelike informele woonbuurt in Suid Afrika. Dieetinnames van 149 respondente is geëvalueer deur 24-uur herroep en kwantitatiewe voedselfrekwensie vraelyste. Antropometriese en biochemiese indikatore van ’n kleiner steekproef van 113 is ook bepaal. Beskrywende statistiek, analise van variansie en Pearsonkorrelasies is bepaal deur die Statistical Package for Social Sciences, uitgawe 14.0. Antropometriese data is geanaliseer deur die statistiese program, Anthro plus, uitgawe 1.0.2, van die Wêreld Gesondheid Organisasie. Dieetdata is met behulp van FoodFinder® uitgawe 3 geanaliseer. Die gemiddelde ouderdom van die kinders was 9.0±1.1 jaar. Min sinkryke voedselbronne is in die hoofsaaklik plantryke dieet waargeneem. Die gemiddelde sinkinname was 4.6±2.2 mg/dag en die gemiddelde serumsinkwaarde was 66.4±21.5 µg/dL, met 46% van die kinders se waardes onder die 70 µg/dL afsnypunt. Die bevindings dui op ’n hoë risiko vir sinktekort en suboptimale sinkstatus vir die meerderheid van hierdie kinders, moontlik as gevolg van die swak inname van voedselbronne met hoë biobeskikbare sink, wat gewoonlik ’n direkte gevolg van armoede en huishoudelike voedsel insekuriteit is.How to cite this article: Samuel, F.O., Egal, A.A., Oldewage-Theron, W.H., Napier, C.E. & Venter, C.S., 2010, ‘Prevalence of zinc deficiency among primary school children in a poor peri-urban informal settlement in South Africa’, Health SA Gesondheid 15(1), Art #433, 6 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hsag.v15i1.433
Health SA Gesondheid : Journal of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences. 01/2010;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study was to determine the nutritional value and the total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) of lunch meals consumed by elderly people attending a day-care centre in Sharpeville, South Africa. Meals were monitored and collected for a two-week period. The menus were analysed for water, ash, fat, protein, carbohydrates, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Eighteen food items, grouped in seven different menus, were identified. Energy provided by the menus covered 32% of the daily reference intakes for females and 25% for males, and the distribution of macronutrients in the menus was 10%, 34% and 56% for protein, fat and carbohydrates, respectively. This is close to the prescribed acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges of 10–35% protein, 20–35% fat and 45–65% carbohydrates. TDAC available from the menus was estimated at 332 μmol Trolox equivalents by DPPH (2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and represented about 9% of the recommended daily allowance. Fruit, which represented only 2.8% of the amount of foods composing the menus, supplied 75.3% of TDAC, whilst contributions from vegetables and legumes were low. With 269 mg gallic acid equivalent in the menus, total phenolics appeared to be quantitatively the main dietary antioxidant, and were significantly correlated (r = 0.443 and p = 0.007) with antioxidant capacity. Fruit portions of the meals served by the day-care centre to the elderly of Sharpeville, need to be increased and diversified in order to reinforce their intake of antioxidants and thus reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases.