[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To document the immunization rates, factors associated with incomplete immunization, and missed opportunities for immunizations in children affected by HIV presenting for routine outpatient follow-up. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of immunization status of children affected by HIV presenting for routine outpatient care was conducted. RESULTS: Two hundred and six HIV affected children were enrolled. The median age of children in this cohort was 6 y. One hundred ninety seven of 206 children were HIV infected, nine were HIV exposed, but indeterminate. Fifty (25 %) children had incomplete immunizations per the Universal Immunization Program (UIP) of India. Hundred percent of children had received OPV. Ninety three percent of children got their UIP vaccines from a government clinic. Children with incomplete immunization were older, median age of 8 compared to 5 (p = 0.003). Each year of maternal education increased the odds of having a child with complete UIP immunizations by 1.18 (p = 0.008)-children of mothers with 6 y of education compared to those with no education were seven times more likely to have complete UIP vaccine status. The average number of visits to the clinic by an individual child in a year was 4. This represents 200 missed opportunities for immunizations. CONCLUSIONS: HIV infected children are at risk for incomplete immunization coverage though they regularly access medical care. Including routine immunizations, particularly catch-up immunizations in programs for HIV infected children maybe an effective way of protecting these children from vaccine preventable disease.
The Indian Journal of Pediatrics 05/2013; · 0.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine nasopharyngeal colonization rates of two vaccine preventable bacterial pathogens Hemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus), antibiotic susceptibility of isolates, factors associated with their colonization, and immunization history in a cohort of HIV infected children.
The authors conducted a cross-sectional nasopharyngeal swab survey of 151 children affected with HIV presenting for routine outpatient care in West Bengal, India.
151 HIV affected children were enrolled. The median age was 6, 148/151 children were HIV positive, 65% had moderate to severe malnutrition, 53% were moderately to severely immunosuppressed, 17% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 90% were on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (TMP/SMX). None had received the pneumococcal or Hib conjugate vaccines. Hib prevalence was 13% and pneumococcal prevalence was 28%. Children with normal or moderate immune suppression had high rates of colonization compared to those with severe immunosuppression (71% Hib, 61% pneumococcus). Hib and pneumococcal isolates had high rates of resistance to tested antibiotics including TMP/SMX and third generation cephalosporins. Neither ART nor TMP/SMX prevented colonization. Children colonized with multidrug resistant isolates had high rates of exposure to TMP/SMX.
HIV infection, late access to ART, high rates of colonization to resistant organisms and lack of access to vaccines makes this population vulnerable to invasive disease from Hib and pneumococcus.
The Indian Journal of Pediatrics 12/2010; 78(4):423-9. · 0.72 Impact Factor