N Rolf

Universitätsklinikum Münster, Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (66)126.43 Total impact

  • European Journal of Anaesthesiology 05/2003; 20(4):333-6. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic ingestion of small doses of ethanol protects the myocardium from ischemic damage. It was demonstrated that short-term administration of ethanol (SAE) enhances the recovery of stunned myocardium in acutely instrumented, anesthetized dogs. It is unclear whether this beneficial effect of SAE also occurs in awake dogs. Therefore, we investigated the effects of SAE on regional myocardial stunning in awake dogs. Thirty-six dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of heart rate, left atrial, aortic, and left ventricular pressure, left systolic ventricular contactility (dP/dt(max)) and diastolic ventricular function (dP/dt(min)), and regional myocardial wall-thickening fraction (WTF). Occluders around the left anterior descending (LAD) artery allowed the induction of reversible ischemia in the LAD-perfused myocardium. The dogs were assigned to one of three groups that differed in the dose of ethanol administered in the ethanol experiment (I, 0.125 g/kg [n = 12]; II, 0.25 g/kg [n = 12]; III, 0.5 g/kg [n = 12]). In each group, the dogs underwent two ischemic episodes (randomized crossover fashion; separate days): 10 min of LAD occlusion after the application of ethanol IV over 30 min (ethanol group) and without ethanol (control). WTF and hemodynamic variables were measured at baseline and at predetermined time points until complete recovery of myocardial stunning occurred. LAD-ischemia led to a significant decrease of LAD-WTF in all groups. There was no difference in WTF and hemodynamic variables with or without SAE during reperfusion. We conclude that SAE (0.125 g/kg, 0.25 g/kg, and 0.5 g/kg) does not significantly affect myocardial stunning in conscious dogs. IMPLICATIONS: In contrast to previous experiments in anesthetized dogs, short-term administration of ethanol does not alter myocardial stunning in conscious dogs.
    Anesthesia & Analgesia 04/2003; 96(3):665-72, table of contents. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients undergoing colonoscopy, naloxone has vasodilative properties. However, it remains unclear whether this effect is mediated by central or peripheral mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these effects are mediated by an effect of naloxone on the central nervous system. Twenty dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of hemodynamic parameters. Splanchnic blood flow was determined using colored microspheres. Transthoracic echocardiographic examinations were performed to measure cardiac output. In each animal, two experiments were performed in a random order: experiment 1 was determination of splanchnic blood flow before and 5 min after intravenous administration of naloxone (63 microg/kg), and experiment 2 was determination of splanchnic blood flow before and 5 min after administration of naloxone methiodide (63 microg/kg), which does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Naloxone, but not naloxone methiodide, significantly increased blood flow to the stomach (from 0.41 +/- 0.022 to 0.9 +/- 0.016# ml x g (-1) x min(-1) with naloxone), jejunum (from 0.31 +/- 0.024 to 0.83 +/- 0.083# ml x g(-1) x min(-1) with naloxone), colon (from 0.41 +/- 0.057 to 0.68 +/- 0.008# ml x g(-1) x min(-1) with naloxone), spleen (from 1.45 +/- 0.21 to 2.13 +/- 0.25# ml x g(-1) x min(-1) with naloxone), pancreas (from 0.97 +/- 0.021 to 1.25 +/- 0.005# ml x g(-1) x min(-1) with naloxone), and kidneys (from 3.24 +/- 0.108 to 5.31 +/- 0.26# ml x g(-1) x min(-1) with naloxone), without altering cardiac output or arterial blood pressure in conscious dogs. There were no differences in the hemodynamics or cardiac output between the two experiments. Data are presented as mean +/- SD. The increased splanchnic perfusion after naloxone is not caused by direct peripheral vascular effects or increased cardiac output. Indirect vasodilative effects on splanchnic vessels mediated by actions of naloxone on the central nervous system account for the increased gastrointestinal perfusion after naloxone in dogs.
    Anesthesiology 03/2002; 96(2):438-41. · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release is increased in patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction. A beneficial effect of naloxone on recovery from myocardial stunning was shown previously. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of naloxone on ANP release during regional myocardial ischaemia and stunning in awake dogs. Ten dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of heart rate, left atrial, aortic, and left ventricular pressure (LVP), LV dP x dtmax/min(-1), and myocardial wall-thickening fraction. An occluder around the left anterior descending artery (LAD) allowed induction of reversible ischaemia in the LAD-perfused myocardium. Each dog underwent two ischaemic episodes (randomized crossover fashion; separate days): 10 min of LAD occlusion (1) after application of naloxone (63 microg kg(-1)), and (2) without naloxone. ANP levels were measured at baseline (BL) and at predetermined time points until complete recovery of myocardial stunning occurred. LAD ischaemia-induced release of ANP (peak level: 182 (30) vs 27 (7) pg ml(-1) BL) only in the control group without naloxone. Between 1 and 180 min of reperfusion, ANP levels were significantly higher only in the control group (P<0.05). Pre-ischaemic application of naloxone prevents this ischaemia-induced ANP-release in conscious dogs.
    BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 01/2002; 88(1):87-93. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) on myocardial repolarization and arrhythmogenicity are only incompletely understood. This is primarily because of the lack of appropriate experimental models. In most of the studies performed thus far, TEA was used in anesthetized animals. Baseline anesthesia itself may have modified the effects of TEA. This study investigates right atrial and ventricular repolarization by recording monophasic action potentials after TEA in awake dogs. The authors hypothesized that an antiarrhythmic role of TEA exists, which may be related to a direct effect of TEA on myocardial repolarization. The hypothesis was tested in an in vivo canine model, in which atrial and ventricular myocardial action potential duration and refractoriness are recorded by means of monophasic action potential catheters. Thoracic epidural anesthesia significantly increased ventricular monophasic action potential duration for cycle lengths shorter than 350 ms. Changes in monophasic action potential duration were paralleled by a concomitant prolongation of effective refractory period (ERP) at higher rates so that the ratio of ERP to action potential duration was unaffected. This model helps to study the role of TEA on ventricular repolarization and arrhythmogenicity. Because lengthening of repolarization and prolongation of refractoriness may, in some circumstances, be antiarrhythmic, TEA may be protective against generation of ventricular arrhythmias mediated, e.g., by increased sympathetic tone. The results also imply that the beneficial role of TEA might be stronger at the ventricular site as compared with the atrium. At atrial sites there was only a trend toward prolongation of repolarization even at short cycle lengths.
    Anesthesiology 08/2001; 95(1):132-8; discussion 6A. · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the effects of pretreatment with hemin, an inducer of the potential antioxidative enzyme heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) or heat-shock protein 32, on myocardial stunning. Randomized animal study. Animal laboratory of a university hospital. Chronically instrumented mongrel dogs (n = 44). Dogs underwent chronic instrumentation for measurement of hemodynamics and myocardial wall thickening fraction (WTF). Experiments with 12 dogs were performed on separate days in a crossover fashion: (1) 10 minutes of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion after application of hemin (9 mg/kg/d) for 1 week and (2) 10 minutes of LAD coronary artery occlusion without hemin pretreatment. In control experiments (n = 32), the reversible induction of HO-1, using gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, was determined. WTF was measured as a baseline value before hemin administration and at predetermined time points until complete recovery from stunning. LAD artery occlusion caused a significant reduction in the WTF in the LAD-perfused area with and without hemin, without significant hemodynamic changes. At all time points, after 1 minute of reperfusion, the WTF as percentage of baseline values was significantly higher after hemin pretreatment (p < 0.05). Baseline WTF values were reached after 24 hours with and after >48 hours without hemin pretreatment (p < 0.05). Hemin pretreatment attenuates myocardial stunning in conscious dogs.
    Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 08/2001; 15(4):422-7. · 1.45 Impact Factor
  • Anesthesiology 04/2001; 94(3):540-1. · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study tests the hypothesis that naloxone, but not its quarternary salt, naloxone methiodide (which does not enter the central nervous system), improves recovery from myocardial stunning in conscious dogs. Twenty dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of heart rate, left atrial, aortic and left ventricular pressure (LVP), LV dP x dtmax(-1) and myocardial wall thickening fraction (WTF). Regional myocardial blood flow was determined with coloured microspheres. Occluder around the left anterior descending artery (LAD) allowed induction of reversible LAD ischaemia. Each of the 20 dogs underwent two LAD ischaemic challenges. Experiments (performed on separate days, in crossover fashion) were: (i) 10 min of LAD occlusion after application of naloxone 63 microg kg(-1) or naloxone methiodide 63 microg kg(-1) and (ii) occlusion without naloxone or naloxone methiodide. WTF was measured at baseline and until complete recovery occurred. LAD ischaemia significantly reduced LAD WTF with (mean (SD) 54 (15)% lower than baseline) and without naloxone (55 (16)% lower than baseline), without significant haemodynamic differences. Between I to 30 min of reperfusion, WTF was significantly higher with naloxone (P < 0.05). There was no difference in WTF with or without naloxone methiodide. We conclude that naloxone improved recovery from myocardial stunning in conscious dogs, and that this was centrally mediated.
    BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 04/2001; 86(4):545-9. · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • N Rolf, H Van Aken
    Acta anaesthesiologica Belgica 02/2001; 52(4):409-12.
  • European Journal of Anaesthesiology - EUR J ANAESTH. 01/2001; 18:1-2.
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    ABSTRACT: Volatile anesthetics exert a protective role in myocardial ischemia. An increase in sympathetic tone might exert deleterious effects on the ischemic myocardium. The use of the volatile anesthetic desflurane in myocardial ischemia is controversial because of its sympathetic activation. We compared propofol and desflurane on myocardial stunning in chronically instrumented dogs. Mongrel dogs (n = 8) were chronically instrumented for measurement of heart rate, left atrial, aortic, and left ventricular pressure, rate of rise of left ventricular pressure, and myocardial wall-thickening fraction (WTF). An occluder around the left anterior descending artery (LAD) allowed the induction of reversible LAD-ischemia. Two experiments were performed in a cross-over fashion on separate days: 1) Induction of 10 min of LAD-ischemia during desflurane anesthesia and 2) Induction of 10 min of LAD-ischemia during propofol anesthesia. Both anesthetics were discontinued immediately after completion of ischemia. WTF was measured at predetermined time points until complete recovery from ischemic dysfunction occurred. Both anesthetics caused a significant decrease of WTF in the LAD-perfused myocardium. LAD-ischemia led to a further significant decrease of LAD-WTF in both groups. During the first 3 h of reperfusion, WTF was significantly larger in the desflurane group. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were greater during ischemia and the first 10 min of reperfusion in the desflurane group compared with the propofol group. Recovery from myocardial stunning in dogs was faster when desflurane was used at the time of ischemia as compared with propofol anesthesia. The mechanism for this difference is unclear, but sympathetic activation by desflurane was not a limiting factor for ischemic tolerance in chronically instrumented dogs.
    Anesthesia & Analgesia 01/2001; 91(6):1333-8. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary enzyme heme oxygenase, which catalyses carbon monoxide production, may be responsible for arteriovenous carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) differences measured in humans. Unspecific inflammatory stimuli have been shown to induce pulmonary heme oxygenase possibly leading to increased pulmonary carbon monoxide production and elevated arterial COHb. Arteriovenous COHb gradients may therefore be a measurable parameter of lung injury severity. To exclude a technical artefact, we repeated measurements of central venous COHb and arterial COHb in healthy humans (ASA I-II) undergoing elective surgery with the ABL 625 and the updated version, ABL 725 (Radiometer, Copenhagen). In addition to the standard calibration, an especially accurate adjustment of the spectrophotometer wavelengths (SAT100) was performed. This adjustment eliminates the FCOHb dependency on the oxygen saturation. No significant differences were detectable between central venous and arterial COHb concentrations with either blood gas analyzer. The difference between central venous COHb and arterial COHb was 0.09 with the ABL 625 and -0.03 with the ABL 725. Therefore, we conclude that previously reported arteriovenous COHb differences are artifactual and may be eliminated by SAT 100 adjustment, as is possible with the ABL 725.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2000; 278(2):447-8. · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Norbert Rolf, Thomas P Weber, Hugo Van Aken
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    ABSTRACT: High thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) is increasingly often used in combination with general anesthesia for major thoracic and abdominal surgery. TEA leads to sympatholysis of cardiac efferences leading to improved myocardial oxygen balance, which is in part due to vasodilation of atherosclerotic coronary vessels. To provide the full benefit of TEA, it is important to extend it as patient-controlled epidural analgesia in the postoperative period. If adequate vascular volume is maintained, hypotension is less frequent after TEA than after lumbar epidural anesthesia. However, in combination with general anesthesia, it may be more frequent and more severe. Treatment of hypotension is sometimes difficult and may require the use of nonadrenergic vasoconstrictors (eg, vasopressin). Copyright © 2000 by W.B. Saunders Company
    Techniques in Regional Anesthesia [amp ] Pain Management 10/2000; 4(4):161–166.
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanism(s) underlying contractile dysfunction in cardiac stunning is not completely understood. The expression and/or the phosphorylation state of cardiac Ca(2+) homoeostasis-regulating proteins might be altered in stunning. We tested this hypothesis in a well-characterized model of stunning. Conscious dogs were chronically instrumented, and the left anterior descending artery (LAD) was occluded for 10 min. Thereafter, reperfusion of the LAD was initiated. Tissues from reperfused LAD (stunned) and Ramus circumflexus (control) areas were obtained when left ventricular regional wall thickening fraction had recovered by 50%. Northern and Western blotting revealed no differences in the expression of the following genes: phospholamban, calsequestrin, sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2a, and the inhibitory subunit of troponin I (TnI). However, the phosphorylation state of TnI and phospholamban were reduced in the LAD area. Fittingly, cAMP levels were reduced by 28% (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the contractile dysfunction in cardiac stunning might be mediated in part by decreased levels of cAMP and subsequently a reduced phosphorylation state of phospholamban and TnI.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 07/2000; 279(1):H176-84. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidural blockade leads to a sympathetic block in affected segments and an increase of sympathetic out-flow from various unblocked segments. A limited upper thoracic epidural block (LUTEB) is used during coronary artery surgery affecting the cardiac sympathetic fibers cephalad to the fifth thoracic segment. This block does not extend to the sympathetic fibers innervating the gastrointestinal organs. A LUTEB may lead to an increase of sympathetic activity in the unaffected splanchnic sympathetic segments and the decrease in splanchnic blood flow may contribute to gastrointestinal ischemia after cardiac surgery. We tested the hypothesis that a LUTEB decreases splanchnic perfusion in anesthetized dogs. Thirteen dogs were chronically instrumented with aortic and left atrial catheters, which were used for pressure measurement, as well as injection and withdrawal of reference samples. Thoracic epidural catheters were placed under general anesthesia the day before the experiment. Splanchnic blood flow was determined by using colored microspheres. Induction of a LUTEB did not change general hemodynamics in awake dogs. Propofol anesthesia induced an increase in heart rate that was abolished after LUTEB. LUTEB also decreased mean arterial pressure during propofol anesthesia. We conclude that thoracic epidural anesthesia had no effect on splanchnic blood flow. In propofol anesthetized animals, liver blood flow was increased compared with awake animals; however, it did not change after induction of LUTEB. IMPLICATIONS: A sympathetic block in certain segments leads to increased sympathetic output in unblocked segments. For an upper thoracic epidural block, this might lead to impaired splanchnic perfusion. In awake and propofol-anesthetized, chronically instrumented dogs, however, a limited upper thoracic epidural blockade had no compromising effect on gastrointestinal perfusion.
    Anesthesia & Analgesia 01/2000; 89(6):1378-81. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: A reversible contractile dysfunction without necrosis after transient myocardial ischemia has been termed stunning . The molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are only now beginning to be unraveled. It is conceivable that the expression of early-response genes may play a crucial role in stunning. Methods: The expression of HSP-70, c-jun, and GRP-94 was investigated in a chronically instrumented dog model (n = 9). The left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded temporarily for 10 minutes after the animals had fully recovered from instrumentation. The wall thickening fraction was measured in the left anterior descending coronary artery and the nonischemic ramus circumflex of the left coronary artery–perfused region. When the wall thickening fraction of the left anterior descending coronary artery had recovered to 50% of preocclusion values, tissue samples were obtained from the areas perfused by the left anterior descending coronary artery and the nonischemic ramus circumflex of the left coronary artery. Results: The messenger RNA of HSP-70 was increased to 214% ± 26% in the area perfused by the left anterior descending artery compared with that perfused by the nonischemic ramus circumflex of the left coronary artery. There was no difference in the messenger RNA of GRP-94. The HSP-70 content was elevated to 130% ± 14% in the left anterior descending artery compared with the area perfused by the ramus circumflex of the left coronary artery, and the c-jun protein content was 70% ± 25% higher in the ischemic area compared with the control area. Conclusions: The induction of early-response genes observed here may indicate that they play an adaptive role in myocardial stunning, even in conscious mammals. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2000;119:820-5)
    Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 01/2000; 119(4):820-825. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Anesthesia & Analgesia 08/1999; 89(1):262-3. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report our experience with the Perma-Flow aortocoronary-right heart graft in 15 patients in whom autologous conduits were not available. Fifteen patients received 39 coronary anastomoses--10 to left anterior descending coronary artery branches, 15 to circumflex coronary artery branches, and 14 to branches of the right coronary artery. Early angiography was done in 11 patients. One patient died on postoperative day 17 of multiorgan failure. The graft was patent at postmortem examination. Of 30 coronary anastomoses at risk, 24 were patent. Three connections to the left anterior descending system were occluded in patients with an additional internal mammary artery graft to the same coronary system, and three connections to the circumflex system were occluded in patients with a history of major posterior infarction. Three of five distal anastomoses to the right atrial appendage were occluded, whereas all six connections to the superior vena cava were patent. None of the patients had shown recurrent angina at a mean follow-up of 10.9 months (range, 2-39 months). The synthetic Perma-Flow coronary graft appears to be a safe alternative in patients in whom arterial or venous conduits are not available. Competitive flow may lead to anastomotic occlusions. The appropriate site for the distal arteriovenous fistula seems to be the superior vena cava.
    The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 06/1999; 67(5):1240-4; discussion 1244-5. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is generally accepted that pectus excavatum should be repaired in childhood if possible. The procedure could be performed conveniently even without implantation of any foreign material. In contrast there are several adult patients with aesthenic or marfanoid habitus and poor thorax cosmetics, who seek medical help especially surgical correction due to late awareness or cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Between 1989 and 1997, 22 adult patients (mean age 26 years, 18 males and 4 females) underwent repair of the pectus excavatum in our institution. Patients data were analysed retrospectively. Indication was mainly for aesthetics or cardiopulmonary symptoms, in 3 patients for recurrence after primary repair elsewhere. The total surgical repair technique consisted of V-shape osteotomy of the ribs at the outer and inner limit of the funnel and transverse osteotomy of the sternum without displacement of the posterior cortical The sternal and chest wall stabilization in corrected position was performed with at least two metal struts installed transsternal and transversely. In most of our cases other diagonal struts on both sides were needed to achieve further stabilization of the lowest costal cartilages. The metal struts are removed 1 year after the procedure. All repairs were completed with a low complication rate. Chest radiographs and pulmonary function studies were performed routinely before and after corrective surgery. Good to satisfactory chest contour was achieved in 20 patients (91%), with a follow-up from 5 months to 8 years. Our current technique with perioperative management is successfully performed in adults and will be presented.
    The Journal of cardiovascular surgery 05/1999; 40(2):289-97. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this prospective study, we evaluated whether high thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) or i.v. clonidine, in addition to general anesthesia, affects the cardiopulmonary bypass- and surgery-associated stress response and incidence of myocardial ischemia by their sympatholytic properties. Seventy patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) received general anesthesia with sufentanil and propofol. TEA was randomly induced before general anesthesia and continued during the study period in 25 (anesthetized dermatomes C6-T10). Another 24 patients received i.v. clonidine as a bolus of 4 microg/kg before the induction of general anesthesia. Clonidine was then infused at a rate of 1 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1) during surgery and at 0.2-0.5 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1) postoperatively. The remaining 21 patients underwent general anesthesia as performed routinely (control). Hemodynamics, plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine, cortisol, the myocardial-specific contractile protein troponin T, and other cardiac enzymes were measured pre- and postoperatively. During the preoperative night and a follow-up of 48 h after surgery, five-lead electrocardiogram monitoring was used for ischemia detection. Both TEA and clonidine reduced the postoperative heart rate compared with the control group without jeopardizing cardiac output or perfusion pressure. Plasma epinephrine increased perioperatively in all groups but was significantly lower in the TEA group. Neither TEA nor clonidine affected the increase in plasma cortisol. The release of troponin T was attenuated by TEA. New ST elevations > or = 0.2 mV or new ST depression > or = 0.1 mV occurred in > 70% of the control patients but only in 40% of the clonidine group and in 50% of the TEA group. We conclude that TEA (but not i.v. clonidine) combined with general anesthesia for CABG demonstrates a beneficial effect on the perioperative stress response and postoperative myocardial ischemia. Implications: Thoracic epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia attenuates the myocardial sympathetic response to cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac surgery. This is associated with decreased myocardial ischemia as determined by less release of troponin T. These findings may have an impact on the anesthetic management for coronary artery bypass grafting.
    Anesthesia & Analgesia 05/1999; 88(4):701-9. · 3.30 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

533 Citations
126.43 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2001
    • Universitätsklinikum Münster
      Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • University of Münster
      • • Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care
      • • Department of Cardiology
      Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany