E. Baron

University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, United States

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Publications (266)902.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present UV through NIR broad-band photometry, and optical and NIR spectroscopy of Type Iax supernova 2012Z. The data set consists of both early and late-time observations, including the first late phase NIR spectrum obtained for a spectroscopically classified SN Iax. Simple model calculations of its bolometric light curve suggest SN 2012Z produced ~0.3 M_sun of (56)Ni, ejected about a Chandrasekhar mass of material, and had an explosion energy of ~10^51 erg, making it one of the brightest and most energetic SN Iax yet observed. The late phase NIR spectrum of SN 2012Z is found to broadly resemble similar epoch spectra of normal SNe Ia; however, like other SNe Iax, corresponding visual-wavelength spectra differ substantially compared to all supernova types. Constraints from the distribution of IMEs, e.g. silicon and magnesium, indicate that the outer ejecta did not experience significant mixing during or after burning, and the late phase NIR line profiles suggests most of the (56)Ni is produced during high density burning. The various observational properties of SN 2012Z are found to be consistent with the theoretical expectations of a Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf progenitor that experiences a pulsational delayed detonation, which produced several tenths of a solar mass of (56)Ni during the deflagration burning phase and little (or no) (56)Ni during the detonation phase. Within this scenario only a moderate amount of Rayleigh-Taylor mixing occurs both during the deflagration and fallback phase of the pulsation, and the layered structure of the IMEs is a product of the subsequent denotation phase. The fact that the SNe Iax population does not follow a tight brightness-decline relation similar to SNe Ia can then be understood in the framework of variable amounts of mixing during pulsational rebound and variable amounts of (56)Ni production during the early subsonic phase of expansion.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present near-infrared synthetic spectra of a delayed-detonation hydrodynamical model and compare them to observed spectra of four normal type Ia supernovae ranging from day +56.5 to day +85. This is the epoch during which supernovae are believed to be undergoing the transition from the photospheric phase, where spectra are characterized by line scattering above an optically thick photosphere, to the nebular phase, where spectra consist of optically thin emission from forbidden lines. We find that most spectral features in the near-infrared can be accounted for by permitted lines of Fe II and Co II. In addition, we find that [Ni II] fits the emission feature near 1.98 {\mu}m, suggesting that a substantial mass of 58Ni exists near the center of the ejecta in these objects, arising from nuclear burning at high density. A tentative identification of Mn II at 1.15 {\mu}m may support this conclusion as well.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 792(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multi-level non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) radiation transfer calculations have become standard throughout the stellar atmospheres community and are applied to all types of stars as well as dynamical systems such as novae and supernovae. Even today spherically symmetric 1D calculations with full physics are computationally intensive. We show that full NLTE calculations can be done with fully 3 dimensional (3D) radiative transfer. With modern computational techniques and current massive parallel computational resources, full detailed solution of the multi-level NLTE problem coupled to the solution of the radiative transfer scattering problem can be solved without sacrificing the micro physics description. We extend the use of a rate operator developed to solve the coupled NLTE problem in spherically symmetric 1D systems. In order to spread memory among processors we have implemented the NLTE/3D module with a hierarchical domain decomposition method that distributes the NLTE levels, radiative rates, and rate operator data over a group of processes so that each process only holds the data for a fraction of the voxels. Each process in a group holds all the relevant data to participate in the solution of the 3DRT problem so that the 3DRT solution is parallelized within a domain decomposition group. We solve a spherically symmetric system in 3D spherical coordinates in order to directly compare our well-tested 1D code to the 3D case. We compare three levels of tests: a) a simple H+He test calculation, b) H+He+CNO+Mg, c) H+He+Fe. The last test is computationally large and shows that realistic astrophysical problems are solvable now, but they do require significant computational resources. With presently available computational resources it is possible to solve the full 3D multi-level problem with the same detailed micro-physics as included in 1D modeling.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: With substantial target-of-opportunity (ToO) access on Gemini- South (+GMOS) and the VLT (+X-Shooter), along with visitor nights at the NTT (+EFOSC, SOFI), SOAR (+GOODMAN), and du Pont (+WFCCD) telescopes, a detailed time series of optical and NIR spectroscopy was obtained for SN 2010ae. The resulting early phase time series consists of 21 spectra covering 20 epochs of optical spectroscopy, extending from -2d to +57d relative to T(B)max, as well as eight NIR spectra covering seven epochs ranging from -1d to +18d. Additionally, at late phases a visual-wavelength spectrum was taken with the VLT (+FORS2) on +252d.(2 data files).
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive set of optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry and spectroscopy is presented for the faint and fast 2008ha-like supernova (SN) 2010ae. Contingent on the adopted value of host extinction SN 2010ae reached a peak brightness of ~ -13.8 > M_V > -15.3 mag, while modeling of the UVOIR light curve suggests it produced 0.003--0.007 M_sun of 56^Ni, ejected ~ 0.30--0.60 M_sun of material, and had an explosion energy of ~ 0.04--0.30x10^51 erg. The values of these explosion parameters are similar to the peculiar SN 2008ha --for which we also present previously unpublished early phase optical and NIR light curves-- and places these two transients at the faint end of the 2002cx-like SN population. Detailed inspection of the post maximum NIR spectroscopic sequence indicates the presence of a multitude of spectral features, which are identified through SYNAPPS modeling to be mainly attributed to Co II. Comparison with a collection of published and unpublished NIR spectra of other 2002cx-like SNe, reveals that a Co II footprint is ubiquitous to this subclass of transients, providing a link to Type Ia SNe. A visual-wavelength spectrum of SN 2010ae obtained +252 days past maximum shows a striking resemblance to a similar epoch spectrum of SN 2002cx. However subtle difference in the strength and ratio of calcium emission features, as well as diversity amongst similar epoch spectra of other 2002cx-like SNe indicates a range of physical conditions of the ejecta, highlighting the heterogeneous nature of this peculiar class of transients.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present predictions for hydrogen and helium emission line luminosities from circumstellar matter around Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using time dependent photoionization modeling. ESO/VLT optical echelle spectra of the SN Ia 2000cx were taken before and up to 70 days after maximum. We detect no hydrogen and helium lines, and place an upper limit on the mass loss rate for the putative wind of less than 1.3EE{-5} solar masses per year, assuming a speed of 10 km/s and solar abundances for the wind. In a helium-enriched case, the best line to constrain the mass loss would be He I 10,830 A. We confirm the details of interstellar Na I and Ca II absorption towards SN 2000cx as discussed by Patat et al., but also find evidence for 6613.56 A Diffuse Interstellar Band (DIB) absorption in the Milky Way. We discuss measurements of the X-ray emission from the interaction between the supernova ejecta and the wind and we re-evaluate observations of SN 1992A obtained 16 days after maximum by Schlegel & Petre. We find an upper limit of 1.3EE{-5} solar masses per year. These results, together with the previous observational work on the normal SNe Ia 1994D and 2001el, disfavour a symbiotic star in the upper mass loss rate regime from being the likely progenitor scenario for these SNe. To constrain hydrogen in late time spectra, we present ESO/VLT and ESO/NTT optical and infrared observations of SNe Ia 1998bu and 2000cx 251-388 days after maximum. We see no hydrogen line emission in SNe 1998bu and 2000cx at these epochs, and we argue from modeling that the mass of such hydrogen-rich gas must be less than 0.03 solar masses for both supernovae. Comparing similar upper limits with recent models of Pan et al., it seems hydrogen-rich donors with a separation of less than 5 times the radius of the donor may be ruled out for the five SNe Ia 1998bu, 2000cx, 2001el, 2005am and 2005cf.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; 435(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: We use our 3D radiative transfer framework to investigate how the presence of a parametrized starspot affects radiative transfer in stellar atmospheres in general, and molecular CO lines in a stellar spectrum, in particular. Methods: The equation of state is solved for a given temperature structure including a simple parametrized spot model and the 3D scattering problem for line transfer is solved via an operator splitting technique. The formal solution is based on a full characteristics solution. We have used both a LTE model and a test model with a 2 level atom, simulating a single spectral line in NLTE. Results: We present the resulting CO band spectra showing both surface resolved and an integrated total emergent flux for the star and compare the umbral, penumbral, and quiet spectrum for a solar type star, which clearly shows the presence of spots as an increased CO line-depth. Furthermore, we show that the opacity structure of the spot has a significantly different angular variation than the quiet plane parallel star and its visible shape is strongly influenced by scattering, where strong scattering disconnects the lateral intensity profile from the temperature profile of the spot. Conclusions: Even a simple, small scale parametrized model shows significant 3D effects, in both the resolved and in the surface integrated spectrum. The 3D model allows for a much more detailed treatment than simple mixing of spectra with different effective temperatures.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Bin Chen, Xinyu Dai, E. Baron
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    ABSTRACT: Recent quasar microlensing observations have constrained the X-ray emission sizes of quasars to be about 10 gravitational radii, one order of magnitude smaller than the optical emission sizes. Using a new ray-tracing code for the Kerr spacetime, we find that the observed X-ray flux is strongly influenced by the gravity field of the central black hole, even for observers at moderate inclination angles. We calculate inclination-dependent flux profiles of active galactic nuclei in the optical and X-ray bands by combining the Kerr lensing and projection effects for future reference. We further study the dependence of the X-ray-to-optical flux ratio on the inclination angle caused by differential lensing distortion of the X-ray and optical emission, assuming several corona geometries. The strong lensing X-ray-to-optical magnification ratio can change by a factor of ~10 for normal quasars in some cases, and a further factor of ~10 for broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and obscured quasars. Comparing our results with the observed distributions in normal and BAL quasars, we find that the inclination angle dependence of the magnification ratios can significantly change the X-ray-to-optical flux ratio distributions. In particular, the mean value of the spectrum slope parameter αox, 0.3838log F 2 keV/F 2500 Å, can differ by ~0.1-0.2 between normal and BAL quasars, depending on corona geometries, suggesting larger intrinsic absorptions in BAL quasars.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2013; 762(2):122-. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent quasar microlensing observations have constrained the sizes of X-ray emission regions to be within about 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. Therefore, the X-ray emission from lensed quasars is first strongly lensed by the black hole before it is lensed by the foreground galaxy and star fields. We present a scheme that combines the initial strong lensing of a Kerr black hole with standard linearized microlensing by intervening stars. We find that X-ray microlensed light curves incorporating Kerr strong gravity can differ significantly from standard curves. The amplitude of the fluctuations in the light curves can increase or decrease by ~0.65-0.75 mag by including Kerr strong gravity. Larger inclination angles give larger amplitude fluctuations in the microlensing light curves. Consequently, current X-ray microlensing observations might have under or overestimated the sizes of the X-ray emission regions. We estimate this bias using a simple metric based on the amplitude of magnitude fluctuations. The half light radius of the X-ray emission region can be underestimated up to ~50% or overestimated up to ~20%. Underestimates are found in most situations we have investigated. The only exception is for a disk with large spin, radially flat emission profile, and observed nearly face on, where an overestimate is found. Thus, more accurate microlensing size constraints should be obtainable by including Kerr lensing. The caustic crossing time can differ by months after including Kerr strong gravity. A simultaneous monitoring of gravitational lensed quasars in both X-ray and optical bands with densely sampled X-ray light curves might reveal this feature. We conclude that it should be possible to constrain important parameters such as inclination angles and black hole spins from combined Kerr and microlensing effects.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2012; 769(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    Bin Chen, Xinyu Dai, Eddie Baron
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    ABSTRACT: Recent quasar microlensing observations have constrained the X-ray emission sizes of quasars to be about 10 gravitational radii, one order of magnitude smaller than the optical emission sizes. Using a new ray-tracing code for the Kerr space-time, we find that the observed X-ray flux is strongly influenced by the gravity field of the central black hole, even for observers at moderate inclination angles. We calculate inclination-dependent flux profiles of active galactic nuclei in the optical and X-ray bands by combining the Kerr lensing and projection effects for future references. We further study the dependence of the X-ray-to-optical flux ratio on the inclination angle caused by differential lensing distortion of the X-ray and optical emission, assuming several corona geometries. The strong lensing X-ray-to-optical magnification ratio can change by a factor of ~10 for normal quasars in some cases, and another factor of ~10 for broad absorption line quasars (BALs) and obscured quasars. Comparing our results with the observed distributions in normal and broad absorption line quasars, we find that the inclination angle dependence of the magnification ratios can change the X-ray-to-optical flux ratio distributions significantly. In particular, the mean value of the spectrum slope parameter $\alpha_{ox},$ $0.3838\log F_{2 keV}/F_{2500 {\AA}}$, can differ by ~0.1-0.2 between normal and broad absorption line quasars, depending on corona geometries, suggesting larger intrinsic absorptions in BALs.
    11/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: 3-D astrophysical atmospheres will have random velocity fields. We seek to combine the methods we have developed for solving the 1-D problem with arbitrary flows to those that we have developed for solving the fully 3-D relativistic radiative transfer problem in the case of monotonic flows. The methods developed in the case of 3-D atmospheres with monotonic flows, solving the fully relativistic problem along curves defined by an affine parameter, are very flexible and can be extended to the case of arbitrary velocity fields in 3-D. Simultaneously, the techniques we developed for treating the 1-D problem with arbitrary velocity fields are easily adapted to the 3-D problem. The algorithm we present allows the solution of 3-D radiative transfer problems that include arbitrary wavelength couplings. We use a quasi-analytic formal solution of the radiative transfer equation that significantly improves the overall computation speed. We show that the approximate lambda operator developed in previous work gives good convergence, even neglecting wavelength coupling. Ng acceleration also gives good results. We present tests that are of similar resolution to what has been presented using Monte-Carlo techniques, thus our methods will be applicable to problems outside of our test setup. Additional domain decomposition parallelization strategies will be explored in future work.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Time-dependent, 3D radiation transfer calculations are important for the modeling of a variety of objects, from supernovae and novae to simulations of stellar variability and activity. Furthermore, time-dependent calculations can be used to obtain a 3D radiative equilibrium model structure via relaxation in time. Aims. We extend our 3D radiative transfer framework to include direct time dependence of the radiation field; i.e., the $\partial I/ \partial t$ terms are fully considered in the solution of radiative transfer problems. Methods. We build on the framework that we have described in previous papers in this series and develop a subvoxel method for the $\partial I/\partial t$ terms. Results. We test the implementation by comparing the 3D results to our well tested 1D time dependent radiative transfer code in spherical symmetry. A simple 3D test model is also presented. Conclusions. The 3D time dependent radiative transfer method is now included in our 3D RT framework and in PHOENIX/3D.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In supernova spectroscopy relatively little attention has been given to the properties of optically thick spectral lines in epochs following the photosphere's recession. Most treatments and analyses of post-photospheric optical spectra of supernovae assume that forbidden-line emission comprises most if not all spectral features. However, evidence exists which suggests that some spectra exhibit line profiles formed via optically thick resonance-scattering even months or years after the supernova explosion. To explore this possibility we present a geometrical approach to supernova spectrum formation based on the "Elementary Supernova" model, wherein we investigate the characteristics of resonance-scattering in optically thick lines while replacing the photosphere with a transparent central core emitting non-blackbody continuum radiation, akin to the optical continuum provided by decaying 56Co formed during the explosion. We develop the mathematical framework necessary for solving the radiative transfer equation under these conditions, and calculate spectra for both isolated and blended lines. Our comparisons with analogous results from the Elementary Supernova code SYNOW reveal several marked differences in line formation. Most notably, resonance lines in these conditions form P Cygni-like profiles, but the emission peaks and absorption troughs shift redward and blueward, respectively, from the line's rest wavelength by a significant amount, despite the spherically symmetric distribution of the line optical depth in the ejecta. These properties and others that we find in this work could lead to misidentification of lines or misattribution of properties of line-forming material at post-photospheric times in supernova optical spectra.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 09/2012; 203(1). · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radiative transfer studies of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) hold the promise of constraining both the time-dependent density profile of the SN ejecta and its stratification by element abundance which, in turn, may discriminate between different explosion mechanisms and progenitor classes. Here we present a detailed analysis of Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet (UV) and ground-based optical spectra and light curves of the SN Ia SN 2010jn (PTF10ygu). SN 2010jn was discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) 15 days before maximum light, allowing us to secure a time-series of four UV spectra at epochs from -11 to +5 days relative to B-band maximum. The photospheric UV spectra are excellent diagnostics of the iron-group abundances in the outer layers of the ejecta, particularly those at very early times. Using the method of 'Abundance Tomography' we have derived iron-group abundances in SN 2010jn with a precision better than in any previously studied SN Ia. Optimum fits to the data can be obtained if burned material is present even at high velocities, including significant mass fractions of iron-group elements. This is consistent with the slow decline rate (or high 'stretch') of the light curve of SN 2010jn, and consistent with the results of delayed-detonation models. Early-phase UV spectra and detailed time-dependent series of further SNe Ia offer a promising probe of the nature of the SN Ia mechanism.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2012; 429(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a new astrophysical version of a cell-based adaptive mesh refinement code ALLA for reactive flow fluid dynamic simulations, including a new implementation of α-network nuclear kinetics, and present preliminary results of first three-dimensional simulations of incomplete carbon-oxygen detonation in Type Ia Supernovae.
    07/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The nearby Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe in M101 (cz=241 km s^-1) provides a unique opportunity to study the early evolution of a "normal" Type Ia supernova, its compositional structure, and its elusive progenitor system. We present 18 high signal-to-noise spectra of SN 2011fe during its first month beginning 1.2 days post-explosion and with an average cadence of 1.8 days. This gives a clear picture of how various line-forming species are distributed within the outer layers of the ejecta, including that of unburned material (C+O). We follow the evolution of C II absorption features until they diminish near maximum light, showing overlapping regions of burned and unburned material between ejection velocities of 10,000 and 16,000 km s^-1. This supports the notion that incomplete burning, in addition to progenitor scenarios, is a relevant source of spectroscopic diversity among SNe Ia. The observed evolution of the highly Doppler-shifted O I 7774 absorption features detected within five days post-explosion indicate the presence of O I with expansion velocities from 11,500 to 21,000 km s^-1. The fact that some O I is present above C II suggests that SN 2011fe may have had an appreciable amount of unburned oxygen within the outer layers of the ejecta.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 05/2012; 752(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a study of the peculiar Type Ia supernova 2001ay (SN 2001ay). The defining features of its peculiarity are: high velocity, broad lines, and a fast rising light curve, combined with the slowest known rate of decline. It is one magnitude dimmer than would be predicted from its observed value of Delta-m15, and shows broad spectral features. We base our analysis on detailed calculations for the explosion, light curves, and spectra. We demonstrate that consistency is key for both validating the models and probing the underlying physics. We show that this SN can be understood within the physics underlying the Delta-m15 relation, and in the framework of pulsating delayed detonation models originating from a Chandrasekhar mass, white dwarf, but with a progenitor core composed of 80% carbon. We suggest a possible scenario for stellar evolution which leads to such a progenitor. We show that the unusual light curve decline can be understood with the same physics as has been used to understand the Delta-m15 relation for normal SNe Ia. The decline relation can be explained by a combination of the temperature dependence of the opacity and excess or deficit of the peak luminosity, alpha, measured relative to the instantaneous rate of radiative decay energy generation. What differentiates SN 2001ay from normal SNe Ia is a higher explosion energy which leads to a shift of the Ni56 distribution towards higher velocity and alpha < 1. This result is responsible for the fast rise and slow decline. We define a class of SN 2001ay-like SNe Ia, which will show an anti-Phillips relation.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2012; 753(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    C. Inserra, E. Baron, M. Turatto
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    ABSTRACT: We compare and analyze a time series of spectral observations obtained during the first 30 days of evolution of SN 2007od with the non-LTE code PHOENIX. Despite some spectroscopic particularities in the Balmer features, this supernova appears to be a normal Type II, and the fits proposed are generally in good agreement with the observations. As a starting point we have carried out an analysis with the parameterized synthetic spectrum code SYNOW to confirm line identifications and to highlight differences between the results of the two codes. The analysis computed using PHOENIX suggests the presence of a high velocity feature in H{\beta} and an H{\alpha} profile reproduced with a density profile steeper than that of the other elements. We also show a detailed analysis of the ions velocities of the 6 synthetic spectra. The distance is estimated for each epoch with the Spectral-fitting Expanding Atmosphere Method (SEAM). Consistent results are found using all the spectra which give the explosion date of JD 2454403 (29 October, 2007) and a distance modulus \mu = 32.2 \pm 0.3.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2012; 422(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present photometry and spectroscopy of the type IIP supernova 2009bw in UGC 2890 from few days after the outburst to 241 days. The light curve of SN 2009bw during the photospheric phase is similar to that of normal SNe IIP but with brighter peak and plateau (Mmax R = -17.82 mag, Mplateau R = -17.37 mag). The luminosity drop from the photospheric to the nebular phase is one of the fastest ever observed, ~2.2 mag in about 13 days. The radioactive tail of the bolometric light curve indicates that the amount of ejected 56 Ni is \approx 0.022 M\odot. The photospheric spectra reveal high velocity lines of H{\alpha} and H{\beta} until about 105 days after the shock breakout, suggesting a possible early interaction between the SN ejecta and pre-existent circumstellar material, and the presence of CNO elements. By modeling the bolometric light curve, ejecta expansion velocity and photospheric temperature, we estimate a total ejected mass of 8-12M\odot, a kinetic energy of ~0.3 foe and an initial radius of ~ 3.6 - 7 \times 10^13 cm.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2012; 422(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. With our time-dependent model atmosphere code PHOENIX, our goal is to simulate light curves and spectra of hydrodynamical models of all types of supernovae. In this work, we simulate near-infrared light curves of SNe Ia and confirm the cause of the secondary maximum. Methods. We apply a simple energy solver to compute the evolution of an SN Ia envelope during the free expansion phase. Included in the solver are energy changes due to expansion, the energy deposition of {\gamma}-rays and interaction of radiation with the material. Results. We computed theoretical light curves of several SN Ia hydrodynamical models in the I, J, H, and K bands and compared them to the observed SN Ia light curves of SN 1999ee and SN 2002bo. By changing a line scattering parameter in time, we obtained quite reasonable fits to the observed near-infrared light curves. This is a strong hint that detailed NLTE effects in IR lines have to be modeled, which will be a future focus of our work. Conclusions. We found that IR line scattering is very important for the near-infrared SN Ia light curve modeling. In addition, the recombination of Fe III to Fe II and of Co III to Co II is responsible for the secondary maximum in the near-infrared bands. For future work the consideration of NLTE for all lines (including the IR subordinate lines) will be crucial.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
902.92 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1970–2013
    • University of Oklahoma
      • Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Norman, Oklahoma, United States
  • 2007
    • Astronomical Observatory Belgrade
      Beograd, Central Serbia, Serbia
  • 2001–2007
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
      • • Computational Research Division (CRD)
      • • Physics Division
      Berkeley, CA, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Georgia
      • Center for Simulational Physics
      Атина, Georgia, United States
  • 1993–1999
    • Arizona State University
      • School of Earth and Space Exploration
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States