[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have characterized a new male-sterile mutant in Arabidopsis that exhibits conditional sterility but has restored fertility when drought-stressed. This mutant, multiple impairments in male reproduction 1 (mimr1), shows pleiotropic defects in both vegetative and reproductive development. Examination with dissecting and scanning electron microscopes revealed that its pollen grains are not effectively released from the anther locule after dehiscence, and anther differentiation is defective. Growth of the style and stamen filaments are also abnormal. Histological analysis demonstrated that these phenomena are due not only to a noticeably reduced extension of the stamen but also greater elongation of the pistil. Genetic analysis indicated that mimr1 is a single locus recessive nuclear mutant. The mutation can be mapped to a locus strongly linked to a 1200-kb region on Chromosome 3. Meta-analysis of expression patterning presented several candidate genes in that region. No mutants with similar phenotypes have previously been reported, suggesting that mimr1 is a novel male-sterile locus. Characterization of MIMR1 will provide further insights into the molecular basis for the development of plant reproductive organs.
Journal of Plant Biology 08/2013; 55(3). · 0.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) is closely associated with numerous factors to form PEP complex for plastid gene expression and chloroplast development. However, it is not clear how PEP complex are regulated in chloroplast. Here, one thioredoxin-like fold protein, Arabidopsis early chloroplast biogenesis 1 (AtECB1), an allele of MRL7, was identified to regulate PEP function and chloroplast biogenesis. The knockout lines for AtECB1 displayed albino phenotype and impaired chloroplast development. The transcripts of PEP-dependent plastid genes were barely detected, suggesting that the PEP activity is almost lost in atecb1-1. Although AtECB1 was not identified in PEP complex, a yeast two-hybrid assay and pull-down experiments demonstrated that it can interact with Trx Z and FSD3, two intrinsic subunits of PEP complex, respectively. This indicates that AtECB1 may play a regulatory role for PEP-dependent plastid gene expression through these two subunits. AtECB1 contains a βαβαββα structure in the thioredoxin-like fold domain and lacks the typical C-X-X-C active site motif. Insulin assay demonstrated that AtECB1 harbors disulfide reductase activity in vitro using the purified recombinant AtECB1 protein. This showed that this thioredoxin-like fold protein, AtECB1 also has the thioredoxin activity. AtECB1 may play a role in thioredoxin signaling to regulate plastid gene expression and chloroplast development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arabidopsis Ruptured Pollen Grain-1 (RPG1/Sweet8) is a member of the MtN3/saliva protein family that functions as a sugar transporter. The rpg1 mutant shows defective exine pattern formation. In this study, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that much less primexine was deposited in rpg1 tetrads. Furthermore, microspore membrane undulation was abnormal, and sporopollenin accumulation was also defective. This suggests that a reduced primexine deposition in rpg1 leads to abnormal membrane undulation that affects exine pattern formation. Chemical staining revealed thinning of the callose wall of rpg1, as well as significantly reduced expression of Callose synthase-5 (CalS5) in rpg1. The fertility of the rpg1 mutant could be partly restored at late reproductive stages, potentially complemented in part by RPG2, another member of the MtN3/saliva family, which is expressed in the anther during microsporogenesis. The double mutant, rpg1rpg2, was almost sterile and was not restored during late reproduction. These results suggest that RPG1 and RPG2 are involved in primexine deposition and therefore pollen wall pattern formation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In angiosperms, pollen wall pattern formation is determined by primexine deposition on the microspores. Here, we show that an auxin response factor, ARF17, is essential for primexine formation and pollen development in Arabidopsis thaliana. The arf17 mutant exhibited a male sterile phenotype with normal vegetative growth. ARF17 was expressed in microsporocytes and microgametophytes from meiosis to the bicellular microspore stage. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed that primexine was absent in the arf17 mutant, which leads to pollen wall patterning defects and pollen degradation. Callose deposition was also significantly reduced in the arf17 mutant, and the expression of CALLOSE SYNTHASE5 (CalS5), the major gene for callose biosynthesis, was approximately 10% that of wild type. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) showed that ARF17 can directly bind to the CalS5 promoter. As indicated by expression of the DR5::GFP auxin reporter, auxin signaling appeared to be specifically impaired in arf17 anthers. Taken together, our results suggest that ARF17 is essential for pollen wall patterning in Arabidopsis by modulating primexine formation at least partially through direct regulation of CalS5 gene expression.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arabidopsis thaliana CYCLIN-DEPEDENT KINASE G1 (CDKG1) belongs to the family of cyclin-dependent protein kinases that were originally characterized as cell cycle regulators in eukaryotes. Here, we report that CDKG1 regulates pre-mRNA splicing of CALLOSE SYNTHASE5 (CalS5) and, therefore, pollen wall formation. The knockout mutant cdkg1 exhibits reduced male fertility with impaired callose synthesis and abnormal pollen wall formation. The sixth intron in CalS5 pre-mRNA, a rare type of intron with a GC 5' splice site, is abnormally spliced in cdkg1. RNA immunoprecipitation analysis suggests that CDKG1 is associated with this intron. CDKG1 contains N-terminal Ser/Arg (RS) motifs and interacts with splicing factor Arginine/Serine-Rich Zinc Knuckle-Containing Protein 33 (RSZ33) through its RS region to regulate proper splicing. CDKG1 and RS-containing Zinc Finger Protein 22 (SRZ22), a splicing factor interacting with RSZ33 and U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) component U1-70k, colocalize in nuclear speckles and reside in the same complex. We propose that CDKG1 is recruited to U1 snRNP through RSZ33 to facilitate the splicing of the sixth intron of CalS5.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Arabidopsis leaf coloration mutants, the delayed greening phenomenon is common. Nonetheless, the mechanism remains largely elusive. Here, a delayed greening mutant fln2-4 of FLN2 (Fructokinase-Like Protein2) was studied. FLN2 is one component of Transcriptionally Active Chromosome (TAC) complex which is thought to contain the complete plastid-encoded polymerase (PEP). fln2-4 displayed albino phenotype on medium without sucrose. The PEP-dependent plastid gene expression and chloroplast development were inhibited in fln2-4. Besides interacting with thioredoxin z (TRX z), we identified that FLN2 interacted with another two members of TAC complex in yeast including its homologous protein FLN1 (Fructokinase-Like Protein1) and pTAC5. This indicates that FLN2 functions in regulation of PEP activity associated with these TAC components. fln2-4 exhibited delayed greening on sucrose-containing medium. Comparison of the PEP-dependent gene expression among two complete albino mutants (trx z and ptac14), two yellow mutants (ecb2-2 and ys1) and the fln2-4 showed that fln2-4 remains partial PEP activity. FLN2 and FLN1 are the target proteins of TRX z involved in affecting the PEP activity. Together with the data that FLN1 could interact with itself in yeast, FLN1 may form a homodimer to replace FLN1-FLN2 as the TRX z target in redox pathway for maintaining partial PEP activity in fln2-4. We proposed the partial PEP activity in the fln2 mutant allowed plastids to develop into fully functional chloroplasts when exogenous sucrose was supplied, and finally the mutants exhibited green phenotype.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e73092. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcriptionally active chromosome (TAC) is a fraction of protein/DNA complexes with RNA polymerase activity in the plastid. However, the function of most TAC proteins remains unknown. Here, we isolated two allelic mutants of the gene for a TAC component, TAC7, and performed functional analysis in plastid gene expression and chloroplast development in Arabidopsis. tac7-1 is a mutant with a premature translation termination isolated from a population treated with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS), and tac7-2 is a T-DNA tagging mutant. Both of them showed an albino phenotype when grown under normal light conditions, and a few appressed membranes were observed inside the defective chloroplasts. These data indicate that TAC7 is important for thylakoid biogenesis. The TAC7 gene encodes an uncharacterized 161-amino acids polypeptide localized in chloroplast. The transcriptional levels of plastid-encoded polymerase (PEP)-dependent genes were down regulated in tac7-2, suggesting that PEP activity was decreased in the mutant. Yeast two-hybrid assay shows that TAC7 can interact with the four TAC components including FLN1, TAC10, TAC12 and TAC14 which are involved in redox state changes, phosphorylation processes, and phytochrome-dependent light signaling, respectively, These data indicate that TAC7 plays an important role for TAC to regulate PEP-dependent chloroplast gene expression and chloroplast development.
Physiologia Plantarum 10/2012; · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcriptionally active chromosome (TAC) is a fraction of protein/DNA complexes with RNA polymerase activity in the plastid. The function of most TAC proteins is not well known. We isolated a mutant gene encoding a plastid TAC component, pTAC14, and performed functional analysis of plastid gene expression and chloroplast development in Arabidopsis. We found that knockout of pTAC14 led to the blockage of thylakoid formation in the initial process of chloroplast development. Furthermore, the transcript levels of plastid-encoded polymerase (PEP)-dependent genes were downregulated in ptac14, suggesting that PEP activity was decreased in the mutant. On the basis of these results, we briefly review the available evidence and highlight the interaction between pTAC14 and pTAC12 that could help us understand the regulatory role of pTAC14 in chloroplast development and plastid gene expression.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation is the initial event for meiotic recombination catalyzed by the conserved Spo11 protein. In Arabidopsis, several proteins have been reported to be involved in DSB formation. Here, we report an Arabidopsis DSB forming (DFO) gene in Arabidopsis that is involved in DSB formation. The dfo mutant exhibits reduced fertility, producing polyads with an abnormal number of microspores, unlike the tetrads in the wild type. The dfo meiocytes were defective in homologous chromosome synapsis and segregation. Genetic analysis revealed that the homologous recombination of Atdfo-1 is severely affected in meiotic prophase I. DFO encodes a protein without any known conserved domain. There was no homologue identified outside the plant kingdom, indicating that AtDFO is a plant-specific protein. AtMRE11 has been reported to be responsible for processing SPO11-generated DSBs. The Atmre11 mutant displays chromosome fragmentation during meiosis. However, the Atdfo Atmre11 double mutant had no such chromosome fragmentation, indicating that AtDFO is required for DSB formation.
The Plant Journal 06/2012; 72(2):271-81. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The SET domain-containing protein, pTAC14, was previously identified as a component of the transcriptionally active chromosome (TAC) complexes. Here, we investigated the function of pTAC14 in the regulation of plastid-encoded bacterial-type RNA polymerase (PEP) activity and chloroplast development. The knockout of pTAC14 led to the blockage of thylakoid formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and ptac14 was seedling lethal. Sequence and transcriptional analysis showed that pTAC14 encodes a specific protein in plants that is located in the chloroplast associated with the thylakoid and that its expression depends on light. In addition, the transcript levels of all investigated PEP-dependent genes were clearly reduced in the ptac14-1 mutants, while the accumulation of nucleus-encoded phage-type RNA polymerase-dependent transcripts was increased, indicating an important role of pTAC14 in maintaining PEP activity. pTAC14 was found to interact with pTAC12/HEMERA, another component of TACs that is involved in phytochrome signaling. The data suggest that pTAC14 is essential for proper chloroplast development, most likely by affecting PEP activity and regulating PEP-dependent plastid gene transcription in Arabidopsis together with pTAC12.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primexine deposition and plasma membrane undulation are the initial steps of pollen wall formation. However, little is known about the genes involved in this important biological process. Here, we report a novel gene, NO PRIMEXINE AND PLASMA MEMBRANE UNDULATION (NPU), which functions in the early stage of pollen wall development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Loss of NPU function causes male sterility due to a defect in callose synthesis and sporopollenin deposition, resulting in disrupted pollen in npu mutants. Transmission electronic microscopy observation demonstrated that primexine deposition and plasma membrane undulation are completely absent in the npu mutants. NPU encodes a membrane protein with two transmembrane domains and one intracellular domain. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that NPU is strongly expressed in microspores and the tapetum during the tetrad stage. All these results together indicate that NPU plays a vital role in primexine deposition and plasma membrane undulation during early pollen wall development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In anther development, tapetal cells take part in complex processes, including endomitosis and apoptosis (programmed cell death). The tapetum provides many of the proteins, lipids, polysaccharides and other molecules necessary for pollen development. Several transcription factors, including DYT1, TDF1, AMS, MS188 and MS1, have been reported to be essential for tapetum development and function in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we present a detailed cytological analysis of knockout mutants for these genes, along with an in situ RNA hybridization experiment and double mutant analysis showing that these transcription factors form a genetic pathway in tapetum development. DYT1, TDF1 and AMS function in early tapetum development, while MS188 and MS1 are important for late tapetum development. The genetic pathway revealed in this work facilitates further investigation of the function and molecular mechanisms of tapetum development in Arabidopsis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) mediates the initial synthetic step for the formation of glycerolipids, which act as the major components of biological membranes and the principal stored forms of energy. GPAT6 is a member of the Arabidopsis GPAT family, which is crucial for cutin biosynthesis in sepals and petals. In this work, a functional analysis of GPAT6 in anther development and plant fertility was performed. GPAT6 was highly expressed in the tapetum and microspores during anther development. The knockout mutant, gpat6, caused a massive reduction in seed production. This report shows that the ablation of GPAT6 caused defective tapetum development with reduced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) profiles in the tapetum, which largely led to the abortion of pollen grains and defective pollen wall formation. In addition, pollen germination and pollen tube elongation were affected in the mutant plants. Furthermore, the double mutant analysis showed that GPAT6 and GPAT1 make joint effects on the release of microspores from tetrads and stamen filament elongation. This work shows that GPAT6 plays multiple roles in stamen development and fertility in Arabidopsis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AtECB2 encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein that regulates the editing of the plastid genes accD and ndhF. The ecb2-1 knockout shows an albino phenotype and is seedling lethal. In this study, we isolated an allelic mutant of the AtECB2 gene, ecb2-2, which showed delayed greening phenotype but could complete their life cycle. In this mutant, the Thr(500) is converted to Ile(500) in the 13(th) PPR motif of the AtECB2 protein. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that chloroplast development was delayed in both the cotyledons and leaves of the mutant. An investigation of the chloroplast gene expression profile indicated that PEP (plastid-encoded RNA polymerase) activity in ecb2-2 cotyledons was not obviously affected, whereas it was severely impaired in ecb2-1. This result suggests that the PEP activities cause the different phenotypes of the ecb2-1 and ecb2-2 mutants. The editing efficiency of the three editing sites of accD (C794 and C1568) and ndhF (C290) in the mutant was dynamically altered, which was in agreement with the phenotype. This result indicates that the editing efficiency of accD and ndhF in the ecb2-2 mutant is associated with a delayed greening phenotype. As ecb2-2 can survive and set seeds, this mutant can be used for further investigation of RNA editing and chloroplast development in arabidopsis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In land-plant chloroplasts, the grana play multiple roles in photosynthesis, including the potential increase of photosynthetic capacity in light and enhancement of photochemical efficiency in shade. However, the molecular mechanisms of grana formation remain elusive. Here, we report a novel gene, Grana-Deficient Chloroplast1 (GDC1), required for chloroplast grana formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In the chloroplast of knockout mutant gdc1-3, only stromal thylakoids were observed, and they could not stack together to form appressed grana. The mutant exhibited seedling lethality with pale green cotyledons and true leaves. Further blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the trimeric forms of Light-Harvesting Complex II (LHCII) were scarcely detected in gdc1-3, confirming previous reports that the LHCII trimer is essential for grana formation. The Lhcb1 protein, the major component of the LHCIIb trimer, was substantially reduced, and another LHCIIb trimer component, Lhcb2, was slightly reduced in the gdc1-3 mutant, although their transcription levels were not altered in the mutant. This suggests that defective LHCII trimer formation in gdc1-3 is due to low amounts of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2. GDC1 encodes a chloroplast protein with an ankyrin domain within the carboxyl terminus. It was highly expressed in Arabidopsis green tissues, and its expression was induced by photosignaling pathways. Immunoblot analysis of the GDC1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein in 35S::GDC1-GFP transgenic plants with GFP antibody indicates that GDC1 is associated with an approximately 440-kD thylakoid protein complex instead of the LHCII trimer. This shows that GDC1 may play an indirect role in LHCII trimerization during grana formation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The spindle is essential for chromosome segregation during meiosis, but the molecular mechanism of meiotic spindle organization in higher plants is still not well understood. Here, we report on the identification and characterization of a plant-specific protein, MULTIPOLAR SPINDLE 1 (MPS1), which is involved in spindle organization in meiocytes of Arabidopsis thaliana. The homozygous mps1 mutant exhibits male and female sterility. Light microscopy showed that mps1 mutants produced multiple uneven spores during anther development, most of which aborted in later stages. Cytological analysis showed that chromosome segregation was abnormal in mps1 meiocytes. Immunolocalization showed unequal bipolar or multipolar spindles in mps1 meiocytes, which indicated that aberrant spindles resulted in disordered chromosome segregation. MPS1 encodes a 377-amino-acid protein with putative coiled-coil motifs. In situ hybridization analysis showed that MPS1 is strongly expressed in meiocytes.
The Plant Journal 06/2009; 59(6):1001-10. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chloroplast biogenesis is a complex process in higher plants. Screening chloroplast biogenesis mutants, and elucidating their molecular mechanisms, will provide insight into the process of chloroplast biogenesis. In this paper, we obtained an early chloroplast biogenesis mutant atecb2 that displayed albino cotyledons and was seedling lethal. Microscopy observations revealed that the chloroplast of atecb2 mutants lacked an organized thylakoid membrane. The AtECB2 gene, which is highly expressed in cotyledons and seedlings, encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat protein (PPR) with a C-terminal DYW domain. The AtECB2 protein is localized in the chloroplast, and contains a conserved HxEx(n)CxxC motif that is similar to the activated site of cytidine deaminase. The AtECB2 mutation affects the expression pattern of plastid-encoded genes. Immunoblot analyses showed that the levels of photosynthetic proteins decreased substantially in atecb2 mutants. Inspection of all reported plastid RNA editing sites revealed that one editing site, accD, is not edited in atecb2 mutants. Therefore, the AtECB2 protein must regulate the RNA editing of this site, and the dysfunctional AccD protein from the unedited RNA molecules could lead to the mutated phenotype. All of these results indicate that AtECB2 is required for chloroplast transcript accD RNA editing and early chloroplast biogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.
The Plant Journal 06/2009; 59(6):1011-23. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chloroplast is a typical plant cell organelle where photosynthesis takes place. In this study, a total of 1,808 chloroplast core proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana were reliably identified by combining the results of previously published studies and our own predictions. We then constructed a chloroplast protein interaction network primarily based on these core protein interactions. The network had 22,925 protein interaction pairs which involved 2,214 proteins. A total of 160 previously uncharacterized proteins were annotated in this network. The subunits of the photosynthetic complexes were modularized, and the functional relationships among photosystem I (PSI), photosystem II (PSII), light harvesting complex of photosystem I (LHC I) and light harvesting complex of photosystem I (LHC II) could be deduced from the predicted protein interactions in this network. We further confirmed an interaction between an unknown protein AT1G52220 and a photosynthetic subunit PSI-D2 by yeast two-hybrid analysis. Our chloroplast protein interaction network should be useful for functional mining of photosynthetic proteins and investigation of chloroplast-related functions at the systems biology level in Arabidopsis.
Cell Research 10/2008; 18(10):1007-19. · 10.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During microsporogenesis, the microsporocyte (or microspore) plasma membrane plays multiple roles in pollen wall development, including callose secretion, primexine deposition, and exine pattern determination. However, plasma membrane proteins that participate in these processes are still not well known. Here, we report that a new gene, RUPTURED POLLEN GRAIN1 (RPG1), encodes a plasma membrane protein and is required for exine pattern formation of microspores in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The rpg1 mutant exhibits severely reduced male fertility with an otherwise normal phenotype, which is largely due to the postmeiotic abortion of microspores. Scanning electron microscopy examination showed that exine pattern formation in the mutant is impaired, as sporopollenin is randomly deposited on the pollen surface. Transmission electron microscopy examination further revealed that the primexine formation of mutant microspores is aberrant at the tetrad stage, which leads to defective sporopollenin deposition on microspores and the locule wall. In addition, microspore rupture and cytoplasmic leakage were evident in the rpg1 mutant, which indicates impaired cell integrity of the mutant microspores. RPG1 encodes an MtN3/saliva family protein that is integral to the plasma membrane. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that RPG1 is strongly expressed in microsporocyte (or microspores) and tapetum during male meiosis. The possible role of RPG1 in microsporogenesis is discussed.