Z.Y. Cui

Southwestern Institute of Physics, Hua-yang, Sichuan, China

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Publications (18)33.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Linear regularization has been applied to the HL-2A infrared imaging bolometer to reconstruct local plasma emission with one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) modeling under the assumption of toroidal symmetry. In the 3D modeling, a new method to calculate the detector point response function is introduced. This method can be adapted to an arbitrarily shaped pinhole. With the full 3D treatment of the detector geometry, up to 50% of the mean-squared error is reduced compared with the 1D modeling. This is attributed to the effects of finite detector size being taken into account in the 3D modeling. Meanwhile, the number of the bolometer pixels has been optimized to 20 × 20 by making a trade-off between the number of bolometer pixels and the sensitivity of the system. The plasma radiated power density distributions have been calculated as a demonstration using 1D modeling and 3D modeling, respectively.
    Review of Scientific Instruments 01/2014; 85(4):043505-043505-6. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The frequency modulated continuous wave reflectometer was developed for the first time on the HL-2A tokamak. The system utilizes a voltage controlled oscillator and an active multiplier for broadband coverage and detects as heterodyne mode. Three reflectometers have been installed and operated in extraordinary mode polarization on HL-2A to measure density profiles at low field side, covering the Q-band (33-50 GHz), V-band (50-75 GHz), and W-band (75-110 GHz). For density profile reconstruction from the phase shift of the probing wave, a corrected phase unwrapping method is introduced in this article. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated. The density profile behavior of a fast plasma event is presented and it demonstrates the capability of the reflectometer. These diagnostics will be contributed to the routine density profile measurements and the plasma physics study on HL-2A.
    The Review of scientific instruments 01/2014; 85(1):013507. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) and low-frequency zonal flow (LFZF) are both observed through Langmuir probe arrays during electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) on the HL-2A tokamak edge. The radial distributions of the amplitude and peak frequency of GAM in floating potential fluctuations are investigated through rake probe arrays under different ECRH powers. It is observed that the GAM frequency would decrease and the intensity of carbon line emission would increase as the ECRH power exceeds a certain threshold. The analyses suggest that the impurity ions may play an important role in the GAM frequency at the edge region. It is also found that during the ECRH phase besides the mean flow, both GAM and LFZF are strengthened. The total fluctuation power and the fraction of that power associated with zonal flows both increase with the ECRH power, consistent with a predator-prey model. The auto- and cross-bicoherence analyses show the coupling between GAM and its second harmonic during the ECRH phase. Moreover, the results also suggest that the couplings between GAM and the components with multiple GAM frequency are strengthened. These couplings may be important for GAM saturation during the ECRH phase.
    Nuclear Fusion 12/2013; 53(12):3006-. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system has been developed for measurement of electron temperature fluctuations in the HL-2A tokamak. It is comprised of a front-end 24 channel heterodyne imaging array with a tunable RF range spanning 75-110 GHz, and a set of back-end ECEI electronics that together generate 24 × 8 = 192 channel images of the 2nd harmonic X-mode electron cyclotron emission from the HL-2A plasma. The simulated performance of the local oscillator (LO) optics and radio frequency (RF) optics is presented, together with the laboratory characterization results. The Gaussian beams from the LO optics are observed to properly cover the entire detector array. The ECE signals from the plasma are mixed with the LO signal in the array box, then delivered to the electronics system by low-loss microwave cables, and finally to the digitizers. The ECEI system can achieve temporal resolutions of ∼μs, and spatial resolutions of 1 cm (radially) and 2 cm (poloidally).
    The Review of scientific instruments 11/2013; 84(11):113501. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Edge impurity transport is studied in electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) L-mode plasmas of the HL-2A tokamak based on space-resolved vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy with which radial profiles of impurity line emissions are measured from the core region inside the last closed flux surface (LCFS) and the edge region in the scrape-off layer, simultaneously. The radial profile of carbon emissions of C V (2271 Å: 1s2s 3S–1s2p 3P) reconstructed into the local emissivity profile is analysed with a one-dimensional impurity transport code, and the diffusion coefficient and convective velocity of impurity ions are determined in the core region of the HL-2A tokamak. The impurity source is also determined with the measured absolute emissivity profiles of C IV (1548 Å: 1s22s 2S–1s22p 2P) located at the LCFS. The ratio of C V to C IV can therefore be used as an index to characterize the core impurity transport between the LCFS and the radial region of the C V emission at a normalized radius of about ρ = 0.6. The ratio measured from ohmic discharges shows a gradual decrease with electron density. However, the ratio suddenly decreases by a factor of three when the ECRH focused in the plasma centre is switched on, suggesting a strong enhancement of the impurity transport. The analysis with the transport code indicates a change in the convective term. The convective velocity of C4+ ions changes from inward to outward direction during the ECRH phase, while an inward velocity usually exists in the ohmic phase. Possible mechanisms for the reversal of the convective velocity are discussed.
    Nuclear Fusion 08/2013; 53(9):093001. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The diamagnetic concentric loop method in the HL-2A tokamak is described in this article. The system consists of two concentric poloidal loops with different areas enclosing the plasma column and a short time constant differential integrator, RC < 1 ms. The diamagnetic flux in HL-2A ranges from 1 mWb to 2 mWb for typical discharges with plasma current Ip = 100-400 kA. The integrator output ranges from 0.1 V to 0.2 V with time constant RC = 0.5 ms, and differential area ΔS∕Sout ≈ 7%. Using hybrid analog-digital compensation, the integration drift can be well compensated within 5 mV∕10 s, which can meet the requirement of the concentric loop system. In this method, the measurement of differential area ΔS is not required. The vacuum toroidal flux can be compensated by adjusting the resistance in the integration circuit for several discharges with toroidal field only, which minimizes the additional error produced by a measurement of differential area. The diamagnetic concentric loop system improved the signal to noise ratio by using the short time constant integration. The system with a resolution of ±0.2 kJ can be used to study rapid changes in plasma stored energy, such as the additional power absorbed by the plasma, and the energy loss caused by edge localized modes.
    The Review of scientific instruments 08/2013; 84(8):083507. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, an overview of the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities induced by energetic electrons on HL-2A is given and some new phenomena with high-power electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) are presented. A toroidal Alfvén eigenmode with frequency from 200 to 350 kHz is identified during powerful ECRH. In the lower frequency range from 10 to 35 kHz, which is in the beta-induced Alfvén eigenmode frequency range, the coexistence of multi-mode is found during the high-power ECRH for the first time. The spectra become wide when the power is sufficiently high. The frequencies of the modes increase with and are much lower than the Alfvén frequency. The relationship between the mode frequency and (7/4 + Te/Ti)1/2 (Ti)1/2 can be obtained by statistical data analysis. Between the two previous frequency ranges, a group of new modes with frequencies from 50 to 180 kHz is observed with high-power ECRH and neutral beam injection heating together. The modes have clear frequency chirping within several milliseconds or several tens of milliseconds, which are identified as energetic particle mode like instabilities. The new features of the fishbone instability excited by energetic electrons are identified. It is interesting to find the frequency jump phenomena in the high-power ECRH. The difference between the low and high frequencies increases with ECRH power. The frequency jumps between 8 and 15 kHz within about 25 ms periodically, when the power is 1.2 MW.
    Nuclear Fusion 03/2013; 53(4):043015. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pellet pacing ELM mitigation concept is being tested in some tokamaks such as ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D and JET. By increasing the ELM frequency, the ELM size can be reduced and eventually suppressed to meet the lifetime requirements on ITER target plates. In the HL-2A tokamak, ELMy H-mode operation is routinely performed and small type-III ELMs with a high repetition rate and some type-I (or possibly large type-III) ELM events are observed. Large ELMs are often preceded by strong coherent magnetic oscillations, and produce obvious perturbations on plasma current Ip, electron density at the edge, stored energy WE, etc. The coherent magnetic oscillations before an ELM crash or during the ELM are measured by toroidal and poloidal Mirnov coils and analysed by the wavelet technique to study the spectral characteristics of the short time ELM events. Pellet injection experiments are performed in type-III ELMy H-mode plasmas and ELM-free H-mode plasmas to study the physics of pellet triggering ELM. The analyses of pellet-induced ELMs and spontaneous ELMs are presented. Because the pellet size is relatively large, it induces magnetic oscillations lasting longer than that of a natural ELM.
    Nuclear Fusion 10/2012; 52(11):114008. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Choi-Williams distribution (CWD) technique is introduced as a time-frequency tool for processing data measured from the new developed homodyne and the fixed frequency reflectometry in the HL-2A tokamak. The comparison between spectrogram and CWD for the simulated signal is presented. It indicates that the CWD can greatly improve the representation of the time-frequency content of the multi-components signal. Its effectiveness is demonstrated through two applications in HL-2A, which are the extraction of beat frequencies from the frequency modulated-continuous wave reflectometry (FM-CW) and the characterizing of the fluctuations. The density profile inversed from the group delay of the FM-CW and the density fluctuations deduced from the fixed-frequency reflectometry would be more reliable and accurate by using the CWD technique.
    The Review of scientific instruments 10/2011; 82(10):103508. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The physics experiments on the HL-2A tokamak have been focused on confinement improvement, particle and thermal transport, zonal flow and turbulence, filament characteristics, energetic particle induced modes and plasma fuelling efficiency since 2008. ELMy H-mode discharges are achieved in a lower density regime using a combination of NBI heating with ECRH. The power threshold is found to increase with a decrease in density, almost independent of the launching order of the ECRH and NBI heating power. The pedestal density profiles in the H-mode discharges are measured. The particle outward convection is observed during the pump-out transient phase with ECRH. The negative density perturbation (pump-out) is observed to propagate much faster than the positive one caused by out-gassing. The core electron thermal transport reduction triggered by far off-axis ECRH switch-off is investigated. The coexistence of low frequency zonal flow (LFZF) and geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is observed. The dependence of the intensities of LFZFs and GAMs on the safety factor and ECRH power is identified. The 3D spatial structures of plasma filaments are measured in the boundary plasma and large-scale structures along a magnetic field line analysed for the first time. The beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (BAEs), excited by large magnetic islands (m-BAE) and by energetic electrons (e-BAE), are observed. The results for the study of fuelling efficiency and penetration characteristics of supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) are described.
    Nuclear Fusion 08/2011; 51(9):094016. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Typical ELMy H-mode discharges have been achieved on the HL-2A tokamak with combined auxiliary heating of NBI and ECRH. The minimum power required is about 1.1 MW at a density of 1.6 × 1019 m−3 and increases with a decrease in density, almost independent of the launching order of the ECRH and NBI heating. The energy loss by each edge localized mode (ELM) burst is estimated to be lower than 3% of the total stored energy. At a frequency of typically 400 Hz, the energy confinement time is only marginally reduced by the ELMs. The supersonic molecular beam injection fuelling is found to be beneficial for triggering an L–H transition due to less induced recycling and higher fuelling efficiency. The dwell time of the L–H transition is 20–200 ms, and tends to decrease as the power increases. The delay time of the H–L transition is 10–30 ms for most discharges and is comparable to the energy confinement time. The ELMs with a period of 1–3 ms are sustained for more than ten times the energy confinement time with enhanced confinement factor H89 > 1.5, which tends to decrease with the total heating power. The confinement time in the H-mode discharges increases with plasma current approximately linearly.
    Nuclear Fusion 08/2010; 50(9):095011. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Significant experimental advances have been made on the HL-2A tokamak along with substantial improvement and development of the hardware. A spontaneous particle transport barrier has been observed in Ohmic discharges without any external momentum input. The barrier was evidenced by a density perturbation study using modulated supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) and microwave reflectometry. The new features of the non-local transport effect induced with SMBI have been analysed. The three-dimensional spectral structures of the low frequency zonal flow, the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) and the quasi-mode-like low frequency fluctuations have been observed simultaneously for the first time. In addition, the spectral structure of the density fluctuations of GAM was also identified. The e-fishbone instability excited by energetic electrons deviated from Maxwellian distribution has been investigated via a 10-channel CdTe hard x-ray detector. It was found that the e-fishbone was correlated with the existence of energetic electrons of 30–70 keV. The MHD experiment has indicated that the suppression of m/n = 2/1 tearing modes may be sustained by ECRH modulation at a frequency of about 10 Hz.
    Nuclear Fusion 09/2009; 49(10):104012. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent experiment results from the HL-2A tokamak are presented in this paper. Supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) with liquid nitrogen temperature propellant is used. Low temperature SMBI can form hydrogen clusters that penetrate into the plasma more deeply and efficiently. Particle diffusion coefficient and convection velocity (D = 0.5–1.5 m2 s−1 and Vconv < 40 m s−1, respectively) are obtained at the plasma periphery using modulated SMBI. Multi-probe measurements reveal the m = 0–1, n = 0 symmetries of directly measured low frequency (7–9 kHz) electric potential and field are simultaneously observed for the first time. Impurity transport is determined with the laser blow-off system and transport code. A disruption predictor has been derived based on MHD activity observations and statistical analysis. Sawtooth characteristics during ECRH are investigated and coupling between m = 1 and m/n = 2/1 modes is studied. Detachment features of HL-2A divertor are numerically and experimentally studied using the code SOLPS5.0 and measured data. The long divertor legs and thin divertor throats in HL-2A pose MHD shaping problems resulting in momentum losses even at low densities and strongly enhanced main chamber losses.
    Nuclear Fusion 09/2007; 47(10):S635. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A fast ionization gauge capable of working in a strong magnetic field and noisy environment is developed for the pressure measurement in the main chamber and the divertor chamber of the HL-2A tokamak. The neutral pressure in the main chamber evidently decreases after in-situ siliconization. Improvement of boundary plasma confinement is observed with SMBI or PI fueling after siliconization. The neutral pressure in the main chamber for divertor configuration is 50% lower than that for limiter one. The pressure in the divertor chamber rises when the strike point moves toward the bottom of the vertical target plates. The maximum pressure compression of is 24. The relative high pressure in the main chamber is contributed primarily by plasma limiter interaction due to the short distance from separatrix to limiter and secondly by neutral flux from the divertor chamber to the main chamber by leaks in HL-2A.
    Journal of Nuclear Materials 06/2007; · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wall conditioning with siliconization has been performed in the HL-2A tokamak to improve the plasma performance. It was based on the plasma chemical vapor deposition by using a four-anode glow discharge cleaning system and gas mixture of 90% He + 10% SiH 4 . It was found that the main components of the residual gas were CO, H 2 and H 2 O. The amount of H 2 O was reduced from 49.5% to 24.5%. After siliconization, the impurity fluxes released from the first wall were reduced, especially the oxygen level (till to 10%) and high z impurities like Cu were decreased significantly. The total radiated power measured by the bolometer was decreased from 70% to 35%. A high density exceeding the Greenwald limit and energy confinement improvement have been achieved. The plasma operational region of HL-2A has been effectively broadened.
    01/2007; 5225.
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiment campaigns were conducted on the HL-2A tokamak in 2003 and 2004 after the first plasma was obtained at the end of 2002. Progresses in many aspects have been made, especially in the divertor discharge and feedback control of plasma configuration. Up to now, the following operation parameters have been achieved: Ip = 320 kA, Bt = 2.2 T and discharge duration Td = 1580 ms. With the feedback control of plasma current and horizontal position, an excellent repeatability of the discharge has been achieved. The tokamak has been operated at both limiter configuration and single null (SN) divertor configuration. The HL-2A SN divertor configuration is simulated with the MHD equilibrium code SWEQU. When the divertor configuration is formed, the impurity radiation in the main plasma decreases remarkably.
    Nuclear Fusion 10/2005; 45(10):S239. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: On the HL-2A tokamaks, a series of experiments have been conducted to study the m/n = 1/1 mode topology and its influence on transport properties in the plasma centre. Several new characteristics of central MHD activities during auxiliary fuelling and heating are observed, and some important information about the changes in local plasma parameters and how the plasma responds to the perturbation caused by molecular beam injection (MBI) or laser blow-off are provided. It was found that the m/n = 1/1ideal-fluid instability can be regarded as a possible cause for varieties of persistent m/n = 1/1 oscillations when there is a nonmonotonic q(r) profile in the central plasma region under different discharge conditions on HL-2A. During electron cyclotron heating (ECRH), a strong m=1/n=1 mode is excited when the heating power is high enough and the resonance position is located just around the core of the plasma. With the strong m=1 oscillation driven by ECRH, a sawtooth tends to saturate or decrease in its ramp phase and the shape of the sawtooth is usually changed, leading to formation of a saturated sawtooth, a hill, or a compound sawtooth. Furthermore, a strong effect of ECRH on sawtooth tailoring and plasma transport properties in the vicinity of the q=1 surface was found.
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