ABSTRACT: To understand the response mechanisms of fungus cells upon exposure to the natural fungicide allicin, we performed commercial oligonucleotide microarrays to determine the overall transcriptional response of allicin-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain L1190. Compared with the transcriptional profiles of untreated cultures, 147 genes were significantly upregulated, and 145 genes were significantly downregulated in the allicin-treated cells. We interpreted the microarray data with the hierarchical clustering tool, T-profiler. Major transcriptional responses were induced by allicin and included the following: first, Rpn4p-mediated responses involved in proteasome gene expression; second, the Rsc1p-mediated response involved in iron ion transporter activity; third, the Gcn4p-mediated response, also known as general amino acid control; finally, the Yap1p-, Msn2/4p-, Crz1p-, and Cin5p-mediated multiple stress response. Interestingly, allicin treatment, similar to mycotoxin patulin and artificial fungicide thiuram treatment, was found to induce genes involved in sulfur amino acid metabolism and the defense system for oxidative stress, especially DNA repair, which suggests a potential mutagenicity for allicin. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed for selected genes to verify the microarray results. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the global transcriptional profiling of allicin-treated S. cerevisiae by microarray.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2010; 88(1):219-29. · 3.42 Impact Factor