Ying Mu

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States

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Publications (13)77.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic hypothermia is being clinically used to reduce neurologic deficits after cardiac arrest (CA). Patients receiving hypothermia after CA receive a wide-array of medications. During hypothermia, drug metabolism is markedly reduced. Little, however, is known about the impact of hypothermia on drug metabolism after rewarming. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of CA and hypothermia on the functional regulation of two major drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms. Laboratory investigation. University pharmacy school and animal research facility. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hypothermia was induced via surface cooling in a rat CA model and maintained for 3 hrs. Animals were killed at 5 or 24 hrs and liver was analyzed for hepatic activity and mRNA expression of CYP3A2 and CYP2E1. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were determined. The effect of IL-6 on pregnane X receptor-mediated transcription of the rat CYP3A2 promoter was evaluated via luciferase reporter in HepG2 cells. At 24 hrs after CA a decrease in CYP3A2 and CYP2E1 activity was observed, 55.7% +/- 12.8% and 46.8% +/- 29.7% of control, respectively (p < 0.01). CA decreased CYP3A2 mRNA (p < 0.05), but not CYP2E1 mRNA. Expression of other pregnane X receptor target enzymes and transporter genes were similarly down-regulated. CA also produced an approximately ten-fold increase in plasma IL-6. CA-mediated inhibition of CYP3A2 and CYP2E1 was attenuated by hypothermia, as was the increase in IL-6. Furthermore, IL-6 attenuated pregnane X receptor-mediated transcription of the CYP3A2 promoter. CA produces CYP3A2 down-regulation at 24 hrs, potentially via IL-6 effects on pregnane X receptor-mediated transcription. Also, hypothermia attenuates the CA-mediated down-regulation, thereby normalizing drug metabolism after rewarming.
    Critical care medicine 12/2008; 37(1):263-9. · 6.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N-hydroxy-N'-(4-n-butyl-2-methylphenyl)formamidine (HET0016) is a potent inhibitor of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) formation by specific cytochrome P450 isoforms. Previous studies have demonstrated that administration of HET0016 inhibits brain formation of 20-HETE and reduces brain damage in a rat model of thromboembolic stroke. Delineation of the dose, concentration, and neuroprotective effect relationship of HET0016 has been hampered by the relative insolubility of HET0016 in aqueous solutions and the lack of information concerning the mechanism and duration of HET0016 inhibition of brain 20-HETE formation. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to develop a water-soluble formulation of HET0016 suitable for intravenous (i.v.) administration and to determine the time course and mechanism of brain 20-HETE inhibition after in vivo dosing. In this study we report that HET0016 is a noncompetitive inhibitor of rat brain 20-HETE formation, which demonstrates a tissue concentration range for brain inhibition. In addition, we demonstrate that complexation of HET0016 with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin results in increased aqueous solubility of HET0016 from 34.2 +/- 31.2 to 452.7 +/- 63.3 microg/ml. Administration of the complex as a single HET0016 i.v. dose (1 mg/kg) rapidly reduced rat brain 20-HETE concentrations from 289 to 91 pmol/g. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the i.v. formulation of HET0016 rapidly penetrates the rat brain and significantly inhibits 20-HETE tissue concentrations. These results will enable future studies to determine biopharmaceutics of HET0016 for inhibition of 20-HETE after cerebral ischemia.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 09/2008; 36(11):2324-30. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Liver X receptors (LXRs) have been identified as sterol sensors that regulate cholesterol and lipid homeostasis and macrophage functions. In this study, we found that LXRs also affect sensitivity to bile acid toxicity and cholestasis. Activation of LXRalpha in transgenic mice confers a female-specific resistance to lithocholic acid (LCA)-induced hepatotoxicity and bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced cholestasis. This resistance was also seen in wild-type female mice treated with the synthetic LXR ligand TO1317. In contrast, LXR double knockout (DKO) mice deficient in both the alpha and beta isoforms exhibited heightened cholestatic sensitivity. LCA and BDL resistance in transgenic mice was associated with increased expression of bile acid-detoxifying sulfotransferase 2A (Sult2a) and selected bile acid transporters, whereas basal expression of these gene products was reduced in the LXR DKO mice. Promoter analysis showed that the mouse Sult2a9 gene is a transcriptional target of LXRs. Activation of LXRs a l so suppresses expression of oxysterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7b1), which may lead to increased levels of LXR-activating oxysterols. Conclusion: We propose that LXRs have evolved to have the dual functions of maintaining cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis by increasing cholesterol catabolism and, at the same time, preventing toxicity from bile acid accumulation.
    Hepatology 03/2007; 45(2):422-32. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pregnane X receptor (PXR) was isolated as a xenosensor regulating xenobiotic responses. In this study, we show that PXR plays an endobiotic role by impacting lipid homeostasis. Expression of an activated PXR in the livers of transgenic mice resulted in an increased hepatic deposit of triglycerides. This PXR-mediated lipid accumulation was independent of the activation of the lipogenic transcriptional factor SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c) and its primary lipogenic target enzymes, including fatty-acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC-1). Instead, the lipid accumulation in transgenic mice was associated with an increased expression of the free fatty acid transporter CD36 and several accessory lipogenic enzymes, such as stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and long chain free fatty acid elongase. Studies using transgenic and knock-out mice showed that PXR is both necessary and sufficient for Cd36 activation. Promoter analyses revealed a DR-3-type of PXR-response element in the mouse Cd36 promoter, establishing Cd36 as a direct transcriptional target of PXR. The hepatic lipid accumulation and Cd36 induction were also seen in the hPXR "humanized" mice treated with the hPXR agonist rifampicin. The activation of PXR was also associated with an inhibition of pro-beta-oxidative genes, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and thiolase, and an up-regulation of PPARgamma, a positive regulator of CD36. The cross-regulation of CD36 by PXR and PPARgamma suggests that this fatty acid transporter may function as a common target of orphan nuclear receptors in their regulation of lipid homeostasis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2006; 281(21):15013-20. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) are essential components of alternative medicines. Many TCMs are known to alter the expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The molecular mechanism by which TCMs and/or their constituents regulate enzyme and transporter expression, however, has remained largely unknown. In this report, we show that two TCMs, Wu Wei Zi (Schisandra chinensis Baill) and Gan Cao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch), and their selected constituents activate the xenobiotic orphan nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR). Treatment with TCM extracts and the Schisandrol and Schisandrin constituents of Wu Wei Zi induced the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in reporter gene assays and in primary hepatocyte cultures. The affected enzymes and transporters include CYP3A and 2C isozymes and the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. In transient transfection and reporter gene assays, the Schisandrin constituents of Wu Wei Zi had an estimated EC50 of 2 and 1.25 microM on hPXR and mPXR, respectively. Interestingly, mutations that were intended to alter the pore of the ligand-binding cavity of PXR had species-specific effects on the activities of the individual Schisandrols and Schisandrins. In rats, the administration of Wu Wei Zi and Gan Cao increased the metabolism of the coadministered warfarin, reinforcing concerns involving the safe use of herbal medicines and other nutraceuticals to avoid PXR-mediated drug-drug interactions. Meanwhile, the activation of PXR and induction of detoxifying enzymes provide a molecular mechanism for the hepatoprotective effects of certain TCMs.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 04/2006; 316(3):1369-77. · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is highly expressed in liver, kidney, adrenals, and intestine. FXR may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases via regulating the metabolism and transport of cholesterol. In this study, we report that FXR is also expressed in rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells (EC), a "nonclassical" bile acid target tissue. FXR is functional in EC, as demonstrated by induction of its target genes such as small heterodimer partner (SHP) after treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid, a FXR agonist. Interestingly, activation of FXR in EC led to downregulation of endothelin (ET)-1 expression. Reporter assays showed that activation of FXR inhibited transcriptional activation of the human ET-1 gene promoter and also repressed the activity of a heterologous promoter driven by activator protein (AP)-1 response elements. Electrophoretic mobility-shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that FXR reduced the binding activity of AP-1 transcriptional factors, suggesting that FXR may suppress ET-1 expression via negatively interfering with AP-1 signaling. These studies suggest that FXR may play a role in endothelial homeostasis and may serve as a novel molecular target for manipulating ET-1 expression in vascular EC.
    Circulation Research 03/2006; 98(2):192-9. · 11.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Efficient handling of oxidative stress is critical for the survival of organisms. The orphan nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR) is important in xenobiotic detoxification through its regulation of phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing/detoxifying enzymes and transporters. In this study we unexpectedly found that the expression of an activated human PXR in transgenic female mice resulted in a heightened sensitivity to paraquat, an oxidative xenobiotic toxicant. Heightened paraquat sensitivity was also seen in wild-type mice treated with the mouse PXR agonist pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile. The PXR-induced paraquat sensitivity was associated with decreased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, enzymes that scavenge superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. Paradoxically, the general expression and activity of glutathione S-transferases, a family of phase II enzymes that detoxify electrophilic and cytotoxic substrates, was also induced in the transgenic mice. PXR regulates glutathione S-transferase expression in an isozyme-, tissue-, and sex-specific manner, and this regulation is independent of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2/Kelch-like Ech-associated protein 1 pathway. In cell cultures, expression of activated human PXR sensitizes the cancerous colon and liver cells to the cytotoxic effect of paraquat, which is associated with an increased production of the reactive oxygen species. The current study reveals a novel function of PXR in the mammalian oxidative stress response, and this regulatory pathway may be implicated in carcinogenesis by sensitizing normal and cancerous tissues to oxidative cellular damage.
    Molecular Endocrinology 03/2006; 20(2):279-90. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. In addition to affecting drug metabolism, potent and selective PXR agonists may also have therapeutic potential by removing endogenous and exogenous toxins. In this article, we report the synthesis and identification of novel PXR agonists from a library of peptide isosteres. Compound S20, a C-cyclopropylalkylamide, was found to be a PXR agonist with both enantiomer- and species-specific selectivity. S20 has three chiral carbons and was resolved into its two enantiomers. The individual S20 enantiomers exhibited striking mouse/human-specific PXR activation, whereby enantiomer (+)-S20 preferentially activated hPXR, and enantiomer (-)-S20 was a better activator for mPXR. As a human PXR (hPXR) agonist, (+)-S20 was more potent and efficacious than rifampicin. Mutagenesis studies revealed that the ligand binding domain residue Phe305 is critical for the preference for the (-)-S20 enantiomer by the rodent PXR. Treatment of S20 induced the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in reporter gene assays, in primary human hepatocytes, and in "humanized" hPXR transgenic mice. To our knowledge, S20 represents the first compound whose enantiomers have opposite species preference in activating a xenobiotic receptor. The stereoselectivity may be used to guide the development of safer drugs to avoid drug-drug interactions or to achieve human-specific therapeutic effects when a xenobiotic receptor is being used as a drug target.
    Molecular Pharmacology 09/2005; 68(2):403-13. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are implicated in xenobiotic and endobiotic detoxification, including the clearance of toxic bilirubin. Previous studies have suggested both overlapping and preferential regulation of target genes by these receptors, but the mechanism of cross-talk remains elusive. Here we reveal a dual role of PXR in bilirubin detoxification in that both the loss and activation of PXR led to protection from hyperbilirubinemia induced by bilirubin infusion or hemolysis. The increased bilirubin clearance in PXR-null mice was associated with selective upregulation of detoxifying enzymes and transporters, and the pattern of regulation is remarkably similar to that of transgenic mice expressing the activated CAR. Interestingly, the increased bilirubin clearance and associated gene regulation were absent in the CAR-null or double-knockout mice. In cell cultures, ligand-free PXR specifically suppressed the ability of CAR to induce the multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (MRP2), a bilirubin-detoxifying transporter. This suppression was, at least in part, the result of the disruption of ligand-independent recruitment of coactivator by CAR. In conclusion, PXR plays both positive and negative roles in regulating bilirubin homeostasis, and this provides a novel mechanism that may govern receptor cross-talk and the hierarchy of xenobiotic and endobiotic regulation. PXR is a potential therapeutic target for clinical treatment of jaundice. (HEPATOLOGY 2005;41:497-505.).
    Hepatology 04/2005; 41(3):497-505. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new structural scaffold for antiestrogens was identified from the cell-based screening of transcriptional regulation properties of a 67-member library of homoallylic amides, allylic amides, and C-cyclopropylalkylamides. C-Cyclopropylalkylamide 3a (O-ethyl-N-{2-[(1S*,2R*)-2-{(R*)-[(diphenylphosphinoyl)amino](phenyl)methyl}cyclopropyl]ethyl}-N-[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]carbamate) had antagonistic activity similar to that of tamoxifen and was further evaluated. Compound 3a inhibited estradiol-induced proliferation of the ER-positive MCF-7 cells but had no effect on ER-negative MDA-MB231 human breast cancer cells. Furthermore, high micromolar concentrations of 3a exhibited minimal cytotoxicity to the ER-negative line. The biological activities of the enantiomers of 3a did not differ from one another nor from that of racemic 3a.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 02/2005; 13(1):157-64. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters has an important role in drug metabolism and many human diseases. The genes that encode these enzymes and transporters are inducible by numerous xenobiotics and endobiotics and the inducibility shows clear species specificity. In the past 4–5 years, orphan nuclear receptors such as PXR and CAR have been established as species-specific xeno-sensors that regulate the expression of many detoxifying enzymes and transporters. Their identification represents a major step forward in understanding the pharmacological and genetic control of the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and the implication of this regulation in drug metabolism, drug–drug interactions, and human diseases.
    Drug Discovery Today 06/2004; 9(10):442-9. · 5.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipid oxidation is commonly seen in the innate immune response, in which reactive oxygen intermediates are generated to kill pathogenic microorganisms. Although oxidation products of phospholipids have generally been regarded to play a role in a number of chronic inflammatory processes, several studies have shown that oxidized phospholipids inhibit the LPS-induced acute proinflammatory response in cultured macrophages and endothelial cells. We report in this study that oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (PAPC), but not nonoxidized PAPC, significantly inhibits the LPS-induced TNF-alpha response in intact mice. Oxidized PAPC also inhibits the 2'-deoxyribo(cytidine-phosphate-guanosine) (CpG) DNA-induced TNF-alpha response in cultured macrophages and intact mice. To elucidate the mechanisms of action, we show that oxidized PAPC, but not nonoxidized PAPC, inhibits the LPS- and CpG-induced activation of p38 MAPK and the NF-kappaB cascade. These results suggest a role for oxidized lipids as a negative regulator in controlling the magnitude of the innate immune response. Further studies on the mechanisms of action may lead to development of a new type of anti-inflammatory drug for treatment of acute inflammatory diseases such as sepsis.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 05/2004; 286(4):L808-16. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT)-mediated sulfation plays an essential role in the detoxification of bile acids and is necessary to avoid pathological conditions, such as cholestasis, liver damage, and colon cancer. In this study, using transgenic mice bearing conditional expression of the activated constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), we demonstrate that activation of CAR is both necessary and sufficient to confer resistance to the hepatotoxicity of lithocholic acid (LCA). Surprisingly, the CAR-mediated protection is not attributable to the expected and previously characterized CYP3A pathway; rather, it is associated with a robust induction of SULT gene expression and increased LCA sulfation. We have also provided direct evidence that CAR regulates SULT expression by binding to the CAR response elements found within the SULT gene promoters. Interestingly, activation of CAR was also associated with an increased expression of the 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthetase 2 (PAPSS2), an enzyme responsible for generating the sulfate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Analysis of gene knockout mice revealed that CAR is also indispensable for ligand-dependent activation of SULT and PAPSS2 in vivo. Therefore, we establish an essential and unique role of CAR in controlling the mammalian sulfation system and its implication in the detoxification of bile acids.
    Molecular Pharmacology 03/2004; 65(2):292-300. · 4.12 Impact Factor