[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation triggered by infection or injury is tightly controlled by glucocorticoid hormones which signal via a dedicated transcription factor, the Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR), to regulate hundreds of genes. However, the hierarchy of transcriptional responses to GR activation and the molecular basis of their oftentimes non-linear dynamics are not understood.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Widespread anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoid hormones are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily. In conjunction with its corepressor GR-interacting protein-1 (GRIP1), GR tethers to the DNA-bound activator protein-1 and NF-κB and represses transcription of their target proinflammatory cytokine genes. However, these target genes fall into distinct classes depending on the step of the transcription cycle that is rate-limiting for their activation: Some are controlled through RNA polymerase II (PolII) recruitment and initiation, whereas others undergo signal-induced release of paused elongation complexes into productive RNA synthesis. Whether these genes are differentially regulated by GR is unknown. Here we report that, at the initiation-controlled inflammatory genes in primary macrophages, GR inhibited LPS-induced PolII occupancy. In contrast, at the elongation-controlled genes, GR did not affect PolII recruitment or transcription initiation but promoted, in a GRIP1-dependent manner, the accumulation of the pause-inducing negative elongation factor. Consistently, GR-dependent repression of elongation-controlled genes was abolished specifically in negative elongation factor-deficient macrophages. Thus, GR:GRIP1 use distinct mechanisms to repress inflammatory genes at different stages of the transcription cycle.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a protective response of organisms to pathogens, irritation or injury. Primary inflammatory sensors activate an array of signaling pathways that ultimately converge upon a few transcription factors such as AP1, NFκB and STATs that in turn stimulate expression of inflammatory genes to ultimately eradicate infection and repair the damage. A disturbed balance between activation and inhibition of inflammatory pathways can set the stage for chronic inflammation which is increasingly recognized as a key pathogenic component of autoimmune, metabolic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Nuclear Receptors (NRs) are a large family of transcription factors many of which are known for their potent anti-inflammatory actions. Activated by small lipophilic ligands, NRs interact with a wide range of transcription factors, cofactors and chromatin-modifying enzymes, assembling numerous cell- and tissue-specific DNA-protein transcriptional regulatory complexes with diverse activities. Here we discuss established and emerging roles and mechanisms by which NRs and, in particular, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) repress genes encoding cytokines, chemokines and other pro-inflammatory mediators.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 04/2013; · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of cytokine gene expression by the hormone-activated glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is the key component of the anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Here we report that glucocorticoid repression of cytokine genes in primary macrophages is mediated by GR-interacting protein (GRIP)1, a transcriptional coregulator of the p160 family, which is recruited to the p65-occupied genomic NFκB-binding sites in conjunction with liganded GR. We created a mouse strain enabling a conditional hematopoietic cell-restricted deletion of GRIP1 in adult animals. In this model, GRIP1 depletion in macrophages attenuated in a dose-dependent manner repression of NFκB target genes by GR irrespective of the upstream Toll-like receptor pathway responsible for their activation. Furthermore, genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed a broad derepression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced glucocorticoid-sensitive targets in GRIP1-depleted macrophages without affecting their activation by LPS. Consistently, conditional GRIP1-deficient mice were sensitized, relative to the wild type, to a systemic inflammatory challenge developing characteristic signs of LPS-induced shock. Thus, by serving as a GR corepressor, GRIP1 facilitates the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids in vivo.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2012; 109(29):11776-81. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Much of the regulatory diversity in eukaryotic transcription is provided by coregulators, which are recruited by DNA-binding factors to propagate signaling to basal machinery or chromatin. p160 family members, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-interacting protein 1 (GRIP1), function as coactivators for GR, a ligand-dependent transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Unlike other p160s, GRIP1 also potentiates GR-mediated repression of AP1 and NF-κB targets and, surprisingly, transcriptional activation by interferon regulatory factors. What enables GRIP1 activating or repressing properties or discrimination between physiologically antagonistic pathways is unknown. We found that endogenous GRIP1 in mammalian cells undergoes glucocorticoid-induced, GR interaction-dependent phosphorylation and identified one constitutive and six inducible phosphorylation sites and two putative GRIP1 kinases, casein kinase 2 and cyclin-dependent kinase 9. We raised phosphospecific antibodies to the four closely spaced sites in a previously uncharacterized part of GRIP1 which, combined with mutagenesis, revealed the conservation of GRIP1 phosphorylation across several cell types and species and its functional relevance to GR-activated transcription and to response element-specific recruitment of phospho-GRIP1 to native GR targets. We propose that cofactor engagement by GR is neither passive nor stochastic; rather, GR actively imparts modifications that dictate GRIP1 function in a subset of complexes, adding a layer of specificity to GR transcriptional control.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 12/2011; 32(4):730-9. · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type I interferon (IFN) is essential for host defenses against viruses; however, dysregulated IFN signaling is causally linked to autoimmunity, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoimmune disease treatments rely on glucocorticoids (GCs), which act via the GC receptor (GR) to repress proinflammatory cytokine gene transcription. Conversely, cytokine signaling through cognate Jak/STAT pathways is reportedly unaffected or even stimulated by GR. Unexpectedly, we found that GR dramatically inhibited IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression in macrophages. The target of inhibition, the heterotrimeric STAT1-STAT2-IRF9 (ISGF3) transcription complex, utilized the GR cofactor GRIP1/TIF2 as a coactivator. Consequently, GRIP1 knockdown, genetic ablation, or depletion by GC-activated GR attenuated ISGF3 promoter occupancy, preinitiation complex assembly, and ISG expression. Furthermore, this regulatory loop was restricted to cell types such as macrophages expressing the GRIP1 protein at extremely low levels, and pharmacological disruption of the GR-GRIP1 interaction or transient introduction of GRIP1 restored RNA polymerase recruitment to target ISGs and the subsequent IFN response. Thus, type I IFN is a cytokine uniquely controlled by GR at the levels of not only production but also signaling through antagonism with the ISGF3 effector function, revealing a novel facet of the immunosuppressive properties of GCs.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 10/2010; 30(19):4564-74. · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The kinetics and magnitude of cytokine gene expression are tightly regulated to elicit a balanced response to pathogens and result from integrated changes in transcription and mRNA stability. Yet, how a single microbial stimulus induces peak transcription of some genes (TNFalpha) within minutes whereas others (IP-10) require hours remains unclear. Here, we dissect activation of several lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inducible genes in macrophages, an essential cell type mediating inflammatory response in mammals. We show that a key difference between the genes is the step of the transcription cycle at which they are regulated. Specifically, at TNFalpha, RNA Polymerase II initiates transcription in resting macrophages, but stalls near the promoter until LPS triggers rapid and transient release of the negative elongation factor (NELF) complex and productive elongation. In contrast, no NELF or polymerase is detectible near the IP-10 promoter before induction, and LPS-dependent polymerase recruitment is rate limiting for transcription. We further demonstrate that this strategy is shared by other immune mediators and is independent of the inducer and signaling pathway responsible for gene activation. Finally, as a striking example of evolutionary conservation, the Drosophila homolog of the TNFalpha gene, eiger, displayed all of the hallmarks of NELF-dependent polymerase stalling. We propose that polymerase stalling ensures the coordinated, timely activation the inflammatory gene expression program from Drosophila to mammals.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2009; 106(43):18207-12. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcriptional regulators such as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) recruit multiple cofactors to activate or repress transcription. Although most cofactors are intrinsically bifunctional, little is known about the molecular mechanisms dictating the specific polarity of regulation. Furthermore, chromatin modifications thought to be confined to silent loci appear in actively transcribed genes suggesting that similar enzymatic activities may mediate constitutive and transient chromatin states. GRIP1, a GR ligand-dependent coregulator of the p160 family can potentiate or inhibit transcription but the molecular contexts and mechanisms that enable GRIP1 corepressor activity are poorly understood. In a yeast 2-hybrid screen with GRIP1 repression domain (RD)-containing fragment, we repeatedly isolated the C-terminal region of a SET domain-containing protein subsequently identified as histone H4 lysine 20 trimethyltransferase, Suv4-20h1. We cloned a full-length Suv4-20h1 and dissected its interaction with GRIP1 in yeast, in vitro, and in mammalian cells. Strict nuclear localization and high salt concentration required for Suv4-20h1 extraction were consistent with its tight association with chromatin. Overexpression of Suv4-20h1 in human U2OS and A549 cells expressing integrated and endogenous GR, respectively, antagonized ligand-dependent induction of a subset of GR target genes, whereas Suv4-20h1 siRNA-mediated depletion had a reciprocal effect. Inhibition of GR transactivation required both the GRIP1 interacting region of Suv4-20h1 and its catalytic activity. Thus, Suv4-20h1 known exclusively as a factor involved in constitutive heterochromatin maintenance, actively participates in hormone-dependent transcriptional regulation affecting GR target gene expression in a promoter- and cell type-specific manner.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2009; 105(51):20185-90. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are responsible for the recognition of a variety of microbial pathogens and the initial induction of immune and inflammatory responses. These responses are normally restricted by the adrenally produced glucocorticoid hormones which provide a feedback mechanism to curb unabated inflammation. Glucocorticoids act through a ligand-dependent transcription factor-the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which engages in a complex network of protein:protein and protein:DNA interactions ultimately activating or repressing target gene transcription. Not surprisingly, multiple mechanisms account for the glucocorticoid interference with TLR signaling including enhanced expression of the natural inhibitors of TLR pathways, direct repression of TLR-activated transcriptional regulators and cross-utilization of cofactors essential for both GR and TLR signaling. Here we discuss recent and unexpected examples of crosstalk between the two transcriptional networks and the emerging role of GR in the regulation of innate immunity.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 10/2007; 275(1-2):30-42. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids dramatically inhibit cytokine and chemokine production. They act through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor that binds to and represses activities of other DNA-bound regulators, activator protein 1 and nuclear factor kappaB, utilizing a p160 GRIP1 as a corepressor. A yeast two-hybrid screen with the GRIP1 corepression domain (RD) yielded interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF)3-a downstream effector of Toll-like receptors (TLR) 3/4 and an essential activator of several IFN and chemokine genes. We defined the GRIP1:IRF3 interface and showed that endogenous GRIP1 and IRF3 interact in mammalian cells. Interestingly, GR and IRF3 competed for GRIP1 binding; GR activation or GRIP1 knockdown in macrophages blocked whereas GRIP1 overexpression rescued IRF3-dependent gene expression. GR interference persisted in MyD88- and IFNA receptor-deficient mice, suggesting a specific disruption of TLR3-IRF3 pathway, not of autocrine IFN signaling. Finally, IRF3-stimulated response elements were necessary and sufficient for TLR3-dependent induction and glucocorticoid inhibition. Thus, GRIP1 plays a cofactor role in innate immunity. Competition with GR for GRIP1 antagonizes IRF3-mediated transcription, identifying the GRIP1:IRF3 interaction as a novel target for glucocorticoid immunosuppression.
The EMBO Journal 02/2006; 25(1):108-17. · 9.82 Impact Factor