[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a 17-year-old man who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and laboratory exams for uncontrolled seizure. Patients with an autistic disorder require deep sedation or, occasionally, general anesthesia even for radiologic exams or simple procedures. The anesthetic management of an obese, violent patient with a severe autistic disorder and mental retardation can be challenging to anesthesiologists and requires a more careful approach in selecting adequate anesthetics and doses. This case emphasizes the importance of having a detailed plan to ensure the smooth process of premedication, anesthetic induction, maintenance, emergence and safe discharge of incorporated patients in the event of unexpected situations. A 5% lidocaine patch to relieve the pain from the intramuscular injection and intravenous cannulation, intramuscular midazolam as premedication, and propofol for the maintenance of sedation can be a good sedation protocol in incorporated patients.
Korean journal of anesthesiology 12/2014; 67(6):421-4. DOI:10.4097/kjae.2014.67.6.421
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aminophylline can elicit thermogenesis in rats or increase metabolic rate during cold stress in lambs. We tested the hypothesis that aminophylline would reduce the change in core body temperature during laparoscopic abdominal surgery requiring pneumoperitoneum. Fifty patients were randomly divided into an aminophylline group (n=25) and a saline control group (n=25). Esophageal temperature, index finger temperature, and hemodynamic variables, such as mean blood pressure and heart rate, were measured every 15 min during sevoflurane anesthesia. In the aminophylline group, esophageal temperatures at T45 (36.1±0.38 vs. 35.7±0.29, P=0.024), T60 (36.0±0.39 vs. 35.6±0.28, P=0.053), T75 (35.9±0.34 vs. 35.5±0.28, P=0.025), T90 (35.8±0.35 vs. 35.3±0.33, P=0.011), and T105 (35.8±0.36 vs. 35.1±0.53, P=0.017) and index finger temperatures at T15 (35.8±0.46 vs. 34.9±0.33, P<0.001), T30 (35.7±0.36 vs. 35.0±0.58, P=0.029), T45 (35.8±0.34 vs. 35.2±0.42, P=0.020), T60 (35.7±0.33 vs. 34.9±0.47, P=0.010), T75 (35.6±0.36 vs. 34.8±0.67, P=0.028), T90 (35.4±0.55 vs. 34.4±0.89, P=0.042), and T105 (34.9±0.53 vs. 33.9±0.85, P=0.024) were significantly higher than in the saline control group. Aminophylline is effective in maintaining the core temperature through a thermogenic effect, despite reduced peripheral thermoregulatory vasoconstriction.
Journal of Korean Medical Science 08/2014; 29(8):1161-5. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.8.1161 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that there are acute and delayed phases of renal protection against renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury with renal ischemic preconditioning (IPC). This study assessed whether hepatic IPC could also reduce distant renal IR injury through the blood stream-mediated supply of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: group I, sham operated including right nephrectomy; group II (IR), left renal ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion injury; group III (IPC-IR), hepatic ischemia for 10 min followed by 10 min of reperfusion before left renal IR injury; group IV (MPG - IPC + IR), pretreated with 100 mg/kg N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine (MPG) 15 min before hepatic IPC and left renal IR injury. Renal function, histopathologic findings, proinflammatory cytokines, and cytoprotective proteins were evaluated 15 min or 24 hr after reperfusion. Hepatic IPC attenuated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor α, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and induced inducible nitric-oxide synthase, and the phosphorylation of Akt in the murine kidney. Renal function was better preserved in mice with hepatic IPC (group III) than groups II or IV. Hepatic IPC protects against distant renal IR injury through the blood stream-delivery of hepatic IPC-induced ROS, by inducing cytoprotective proteins, and by inhibiting inflammatory reactions.
Journal of Korean medical science 05/2012; 27(5):547-52. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.5.547 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pain in terminal cancer patients may be refractory to systemic analgesics or associated with adverse drug reactions to analgesics. Epidural analgesia has been effectively used in such patients for pain control. However, this method does not provide pain relief to all patients. The efficacy and complications of continuous epidural analgesia were evaluated for expanding efficacy in terminal cancer patients.
The charts of patients who received epidural analgesia for over 5 years for the control of terminal cancer pain were reviewed retrospectively.
Ninety-six patients received 127 epidural catheters. The mean duration for epidural catheterization was 31.5±55.6 (5-509) days. The dose of epidural morphine increased by 3.5% per day. The efficacy of epidural analgesia at 2 weeks follow up revealed improved pain control (n=56), as the morphine equivalent drug dose dropped from 213.4 mg/day to 94.1 mg/day (p<0.05) at 2 weeks follow up. Accordingly, after 2 weeks institution of epidural analgesia, there was a significant reduction in the proportion of patients with severe pain, from 78.1% to 19.6% (p<0.05).
Epidural analgesia was an effective pain control method in patients with terminal cancer pain, however, a systematized algorithm for the control of cancer-related pain in needed.
Yonsei medical journal 05/2012; 53(3):649-53. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2012.53.3.649 · 1.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a 32-year-old, extremely obese, pregnant woman who developed severe hypotension and water intoxication after an accidental injection of large bolus of oxytocin during cesarean section under general anesthesia. The patient was initially thought to have an amniotic fluid embolism because of the abrupt hemodynamic changes developed immediately after fetal delivery and lack of recognition of medication error. It is highly recommended that careful attention should be paid not only to the possibility of hemodynamic deterioration and water intoxication if oxytocin is given rapidly in excessive doses, but to the confirmation of the proper use of the drug before it is injected.
Korean journal of anesthesiology 04/2011; 60(4):290-3. DOI:10.4097/kjae.2011.60.4.290
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rats which have undergone spinal nerve ligation (SNL) display increases in the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) and cyclic AMP response element-binding (CREB) protein. The present study was designed to determine whether lidocaine has a beneficial effect on the treatment of neuropathic pain by analysing related proteins.
Twenty-four male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly allocated to three groups (eight per group): shamoperated (control) group, a neuropathic pain and normal saline group (NP+NS), a neuropathic pain and lidocaine group (NP+Lido, 2mgkg(-1) h(-1)). Anaesthetised rats received left L5 and L6 SNL. The mechanical withdrawal threshold test was performed 7 days after SNL and for 7 days with the pump implanted (saline or lidocaine). At post-implanted pump day 7, their brains and spinal cords were harvested. ERK 1/2, CREB proteins and mRNA amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor a, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, monocyte chemo-attractive protein 1 and macrophage inflammatory protein 2) were assessed by immunoblotting or reverse transcriptase-PCR on samples collected from the three groups.
Lidocaine increased the mechanical withdrawal threshold of a neuropathic rats. In only spinal tissues, ERK 1/2 and CREB proteins in the NP+Lido group was significantly reduced to 39%, and 48% in comparison with the NP+NS group. The NP+Lido group showed a significant reduction in mRNA amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared with the NP+NS group (P<0.05).
These results suggest that lidocaine therapy may be effective in treating neuropathic pain after spinal nerve injury, and that these effects may occur via suppression of ERK 1/2 and CREB signalling proteins and anti-inflammatory effects.
European Journal of Anaesthesiology 02/2011; 28(2):106-11. DOI:10.1097/EJA.0b013e32834050fb · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of Rumpel-Leede (RL) phenomenon, - acute dermis capillary rupture, secondary to noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) monitoring in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension. The first most likely cause is vascular fragility in microangiopathy as a result of DM and chronic steroid use. The second is the increased venous pressure during cycling of the blood pressure cuff in a hypertensive state. Anesthesiologists need to be aware that acute dermal capillary rupture, although rare, can occur in patients with long-standing DM, hypertension and chronic steroid use.
Korean journal of anesthesiology 09/2010; 59(3):203-5. DOI:10.4097/kjae.2010.59.3.203
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 38-year-old woman underwent a 4-hour operation in the prone position for a laminectomy at C4-7 and posterior cervical decompressive fusion at C7-T1 under general anesthesia. After undraping at the end of surgery, considerable swelling with many blisters of the left forearm and hand was observed. The chest roll at the left side had moved cephalad into the axilla and compressed the axillary structures. An emergency fasciotomy to decompress the compartments of the forearm and dorsal surface of the hand was performed. In the post anesthesia care unit, the radial pulse of the left hand was palpable and the level of oxygen saturation was normal. Forearm and hand edema subsided gradually over several days and the patient was discharged with full function of her left arm. This compartment syndrome suggests careful attention should be paid to the position of the chest roll when the prone position is established for a long duration.
Korean journal of anesthesiology 07/2010; 59(1):53-5. DOI:10.4097/kjae.2010.59.1.53
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In addition to causing the loss of voluntary sensory and motor function, spinal cord injury (SCI) often creates a state of central neuropathic pain. Rats given SCI display increases in the activated form of transcription factors ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK, and CREB in the spinal cord, which correspond to allodynia in a model of neuropathic pain. The current study was designed to determine if lidocaine had an effect on the development of neuropathic pain in response to SCI.
Korean journal of anesthesiology 01/2009; 56(3). DOI:10.4097/kjae.2009.56.3.319
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atelectasis is a fairly common complication in patients undergoing general anesthesia. However, atelectasis caused secretion plugs in patients with tracheopleural fistula is less common than other airway fistulas such as trachea and bronchus. Anesthesiologists should make every effort for thorough preoperative preparation to prevent atelectasis and using appropriate and aggressive treatment, including tracheal or bronchial clearing and end expiratory positive pressure. We report a case of an intraoperative occurrence of atelectasis of the lower lobe of a dependent lung in a patient with a tracheopleural fistula during single lung ventilation for primary closure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute renal failure (ARF) results from renal ischemic reperfusion (IR) injury and is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality encountered during the perioperative period. It was previously demonstrated that ischemic preconditioning (IPC) of the heart, brain, and kidney offered protection against IR injury. Therefore, this study examined whether or not distant IPC can also be effective against IR injury in other organs.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology 08/2007; 53(2):229. DOI:10.4097/kjae.2007.53.2.229
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to assess clinicians' (n = 250) current practices and attitudes about cancer pain management and to identify perceived concerns about and barriers to pain control in urban cancer-treatment settings in Korea.
Survey data (20 items) were collected either by mail or interview. Approximately 40% of the sample were nurses. More medical clinicians than surgical clinicians had more than 5 years of experience with cancer care (43 vs 31%) and committed more than 30% of their working hours to palliation (61 vs 19%). Significantly more medical clinicians claimed to be somewhat more or much more liberal than their professional peers in using analgesics compared with surgical clinicians (54 vs 35%). The liberal sample was more likely to be male (OR = 3.3, p < 0.001) and to be more experienced with cancer care (OR = 1.2, p < 0.001). Medical clinicians also reported more adequate pain-management training and a more proactive approach to assessing and treating pain.
Overall, the greatest concerns regarding opioid use were safety, side effects, and fear of addiction. Inadequate pain assessment and lack of staff knowledge and time were identified as barriers to pain management. Unrealistic expectations and denial from both patient and family were the most troublesome issues for delivery of care to dying patients. This study suggests a more conservative attitude toward cancer pain management in Korea than in other countries surveyed in a similar manner.
A combination of routine professional education and dissemination of guidelines is needed to bring about significant improvement in cancer pain control in Korea.
Supportive Care Cancer 06/2007; 15(5):463-9. DOI:10.1007/s00520-006-0183-x · 2.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative pain degree is variable according to the site, type, and method of operation. This study compared the pain degree and amount of analgesics required among 3 types of operation.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology 02/2007; 52(2):166. DOI:10.4097/kjae.2007.52.2.166