Cadmium (Cd) is the major component of polluted environment, which has numerous undesirable effects on health. Cd could induce apoptosis of HEK293 cells, and the mitochondria may play a key role. However, the mode of action is unclear. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the ability of the Cd to induce dysfunction of mitochondria. We examined the effect of cadmium chloride (1, 5 and 10 μM) on mitochondrial membrane permeability and potential as well as oxidative stress markers in mitochondria isolated from HEK293 cells. We found that Cd could directly increase in permeability and decrease in membrane potential of mitochondria, even resulted in mitochondrial swelling, and that Cd could inhibit the activities of ATPase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), enhanced the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). On the whole, the results show that Cd can directly lead to mitochondrial dysfunction of HEK293 cells, including increased permeability, inhibiting respiration and evoking oxidative stress. Thus, for the first time, this paper makes an overall analysis of Cd-induced changes of structure and function of isolated mitochondria. Our findings may also have general implications in Cd-induced apoptosis by mitochondria pathway.
Human & Experimental Toxicology 09/2010; 30(8):920-9. DOI:10.1177/0960327110384286 · 1.41 Impact Factor