[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carotenoids in the peel and the flesh of persimmon fruit were identified, and the contents of carotenoids in the fleshes of 46 different persimmon cultivars were analyzed. The results indicated that 31 specific carotenoids were detected in both cultivars of persimmons, among which nine specific carotenoids were characterized. β-cryptoxanthin was the most abundant carotenoid among all individual components in both the peel and the flesh, accounting for about 20-30% of the total carotenoids in both cultivars. The contents of total carotenoids in the fleshes of different persimmon cultivars were between 194.61 µg/100g FW and 1,566.30 µg/100g FW. Zeaxanthin was also the most abundant in all persimmon fleshes besides β-cryptoxanthin, and the total amount of these two components accounted for 37.84-85.11% of the total carotenoids. The RE values in the fleshes of different cultivars also differed greatly. Besides, the stage of maturation was also important factor which could influence the carotenoid content and RE value in the fleshes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) have been proven to possess many biological activities, and much attention is focused on the search for plants which are rich in OA and UA. In this report, the OA and UA accumulation characteristics were investigated in 47 cultivars of Chinese herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) and were followed in three cultivars over different developmental stages as measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). OA and UA levels in leaves and stems demonstrated an overall upward trend from May 1 to September 15 except for UA in the leaves of "Hong Feng". The maximum values of OA and UA in leaves of "Yangfei Chu Yu", "Fen Zhu Pan" and "Hong Feng" were 852.98, 575.60, 290.48 μg/g FW and 924.94, 827.36, 432.67 μg/g FW, respectively. The maximum values of OA and UA in stems of "Yangfei Chu Yu", "Fen Zhu Pan" and "Hong Feng" were 359.28, 90.49, 43.90 μg/g FW and 326.86, 82.25, 56.63 μg/g FW, respectively. OA and UA contents in leaves of 47 different herbaceous peony cultivars ranged from 66.73-618.12 and 36.23-665.14 μg/g FW, respectively, with average values of 171.62 and 227.57 μg/g FW, respectively. The results suggested that the aboveground parts of herbaceous peony may be used as an alternative source of OA and UA for medicinal purposes in addition to its ornamental purposes.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2011; 12(1):655-67. DOI:10.3390/ijms12010655 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Persimmon is not only an important fruit, which is eaten as a fresh fruit, but also traditionally used for many medicinal
purposes, among which carotenoids contribute significantly to the color and nutritional value of persimmon fruit. Phytoene
synthase (PSY), lycopene beta-cyclase (LCYB), and beta-carotene hydroxylase (BCH) are three important enzymes of carotenoid biosynthesis. In this study, cDNA and genomic sequences of DkPSY, DkLCYB, and DkBCH were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using RNA and DNA isolated from the
flesh tissues of persimmon used as template. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the individual cDNA and deduced proteins
showed high identities to those of three carotenogenic cDNAs and proteins from other plants. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis
revealed the tissue-specific expression patterns of DkPSY, DkLCYB, and DkBCH genes in fruit of persimmon, in which expression level of DkBCH was strongest among three genes analyzed. And, in different tissues, the expression level of peel tissue was higher than
that of flesh and pedicel tissues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) are the main triterpene acids in persimmon fruit, and squalene synthase and 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclases are important enzymes in pentacyclic triterpene biosynthesis. In order to study their relationship, DkSQS and DkOSC were cloned from persimmon fruits in the present study. The full-length cDNA of DkSQS was 1647 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 1245 bp that encoded a peptide of 415 amino acids (AA). The 3'-end of DkOSC cDNA fragment contained 522 bp, including a partial ORF of 298 bp, a full poly A tail that encoded 98 AA. Two cultivars of persimmon, i.e. cv. Nishimurawase and cv. Niuxinshi, were used to study the content of OA and UA and the related gene expression. Results showed that OA and UA contents changed in both cultivars during fruit development, the difference in cv. Nishimurawase was greater than that in cv. Niuxinshi. The expression of DkSQS and DkOSC had no obvious correlation with the biosynthesis of OA and UA in the flesh. There may be two main reasons. Firstly, different enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenes and mutual adjustment were existed in different gene expressions. Secondly, it was not clear that the DkOSC cloned in this research belonged to which subfamily. Therefore, the real relationship between triterpenes and DkSQS and DkOSC in persimmon fruits is still to be revealed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) are important bioactive components in many plants, including persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.). The present work was carried out to determine OA and UA contents in the flesh of persimmon fruit from 32 cultivars, including 23 astringent and 9 non-astringent ones, by applying high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. Both OA and UA were present in all of the investigated cultivars, except for three, 'Hiratanenashi', 'Ribenhongshi' and 'Matsumotowase'. The OA content ranged from traces to 88.57 μg/g FW, and that of UA were between traces and 27.64 μg/g FW.