Yong He

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D. C., DC, United States

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Publications (7)34.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Highly attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is being considered as a safer alternative to conventional smallpox vaccines such as Dryvax or ACAM 2000, but it requires higher doses or more-frequent boosting than replication-competent Dryvax. Previously, we found that passive transfer of A27 antibodies can enhance protection afforded by vaccinia immune globulin (VIG), which is derived from Dryvax immunized subjects. Here we investigated whether protective immunity elicited by MVA could be augmented by prime-boost or combination immunizations with a recombinant A27 (rA27) protein. We found that a prime/boost immunization regimen with rA27 protein and MVA, in either sequence order, conferred protection to mice challenged with a lethal dose of vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve (VV-WR), compared to no protection after immunizations with a similar dose of either MVA or rA27 alone. Moreover, protection was achieved in mice primed simultaneously with combination of both MVA and rA27 in different vaccination routes, without any boost, even though MVA or rA27 alone at the same dose gave no protection. These findings show that rA27 can synergize with MVA to elicit robust protection that has a dose-sparing effect on MVA and can accelerate protection by eliminating the need for a booster dose.
    Vaccine 10/2009; 28(3):699-706. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The smallpox vaccine Dryvax, which consists of replication-competent vaccinia virus, elicits antibodies that play a major role in protection. Several vaccinia proteins generate neutralizing antibodies, but their importance for protection is unknown. We investigated the potency of antibodies to the A27 protein of the mature virion in neutralization and protection experiments and the contributions of A27 antibodies to Dryvax-induced immunity. Using a recombinant A27 protein (rA27), we confirmed that A27 contains neutralizing determinants and that vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) derived from Dryvax recipients contains reactivity to A27. However, VIG neutralization was not significantly reduced when A27 antibodies were removed, and antibodies elicited by an rA27 enhanced the protection conferred by VIG in passive transfer experiments. These findings demonstrate that A27 antibodies do not represent the major fraction of neutralizing activity in VIG and suggest that immunity may be augmented by vaccines and immune globulins that include strong antibody responses to A27.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 11/2007; 196(7):1026-32. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using vaccinia immune globulin (VIG), a high-titer antibody preparation from immunized subjects, we demonstrate that the humoral immune response in humans is directed against numerous antigens in the Dryvax vaccine strain. Western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed highly antigenic proteins associated with both the extracellular enveloped virus and intracellular mature virus forms. The modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a new generation smallpox vaccine that is attenuated for replication in humans, expresses most, but not all, of the major vaccinia antigens recognized by antibodies in VIG, lacking the highly antigenic protein corresponding to the A-type inclusion body protein. Since new-generation smallpox vaccines such as MVA will require extensive comparison to traditional smallpox vaccines in animal models of immunogenicity and protection, we compared the vaccinia virus antigens recognized by VIG to those recognized by sera from Dryvax and MVA immunized mice. The humoral immune response in immunized mice is qualitatively similar to that in humans.
    Virology 01/2006; 343(1):128-40. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    Retrovirology 01/2006; · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects cells by fusing with cellular membranes. Fusion occurs when the envelope glycoprotein (Env) undergoes conformational changes while binding to cellular receptors. Fusogenic changes involve assembly of two heptad repeats in the ectodomain of the gp41 transmembrane subunit to form a six-helix bundle (6HB), consisting of a trimeric N heptad repeat (N-HR) coiled-coil core with three antiparallel C heptad repeats (C-HRs) that pack in the coiled-coil grooves. Peptides corresponding to the N-and C-HRs (N and C peptides, respectively) interfere with formation of the 6HB in a dominant-negative manner and are emerging as a new class of antiretroviral therapeutics for treating HIV infection. We generated an escape mutant virus with resistance to an N peptide and show that early resistance involved two mutations, one each in the N- and C-HRs. The mutations conferred resistance not only to the selecting N peptide but also to C peptides, as well as other types of N-peptide inhibitors. Moreover, the N-HR mutation altered sensitivity to soluble CD4. Biophysical studies suggest that the 6HB with the resistance mutations is more stable than the wild-type 6HB and the 6HB formed by inhibitor binding to either wild-type or mutant C-HR. These findings provide new insights into potential mechanisms of resistance to HIV peptide fusion inhibitors and dominant-negative inhibitors in general. The results are discussed in the context of current models of Env-mediated membrane fusion.
    Journal of Virology 05/2005; 79(8):4774-81. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    Retrovirology 01/2005; · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry into target cells requires folding of two heptad-repeat regions (N-HR and C-HR) of gp41 into a trimer of N-HR and C-HR hairpins, which brings viral and target cell membranes together to facilitate membrane fusion. Peptides corresponding to the N-HR and C-HR of gp41 are potent inhibitors of HIV infection. Here we report new findings on the mechanism of inhibition of a N-HR peptide and compare these data with inhibition by a C-HR peptide. Using intact envelope glycoprotein (Env) under fusogenic conditions, we show that the N-HR peptide preferentially binds receptor-activated Env and that CD4 binding is sufficient for triggering conformational changes that allow the peptide to bind Env, results similar to those seen with the C-HR peptide. However, activation by both CD4 and chemokine receptors further enhances Env binding by both peptides. We also show that a nonconservative mutation in the N-HR of gp41 abolishes C-HR peptide but not N-HR peptide binding to gp41. These results indicate that there are two distinct sites in receptor-activated Env that are potential targets for drug or vaccine development.
    Journal of Virology 03/2003; 77(3):1666-71. · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

138 Citations
34.45 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2009
    • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
      • • Division of Viral Products
      • • Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 2003
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States