Y N Chia

KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, Singapore

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Publications (14)22.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes retrieved from surgically resected ovaries has been proposed as a method of fertility preservation in ovarian cancer patients undergoing definitive surgery. While there had been several reports of successful derivation of mature oocytes and or embryos, there have been no reports as yet of successful pregnancies. In this case report, we present a pregnancy and live birth from a young patient, with stage IIIC ovarian cancer, who had undergone fertility sparing surgery. The immature oocytes recovered after oophorectomy were fertilized after IVM. The embryos obtained were cryopreserved and later transferred to achieve a singleton healthy pregnancy leading to a live birth.
    Human Reproduction 12/2013; · 4.67 Impact Factor
  • Y K Lim, Y N Chia, K L Yam
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    ABSTRACT: For many decades, Wertheim's radical hysterectomy via laparotomy, also known as Wertheim's radical abdominal hysterectomy (RAH), has been the traditional surgical approach for operable stage IB cervical cancer. However, many established cancer centres worldwide have recently shown total laparoscopic Wertheim's radical hysterectomy (TLRH) to be a safe and feasible alternative to the conventional abdominal route for early cervical cancer management. This technique was introduced in Singapore in 2009. This was a prospective pilot study comparing TLRH with RAH in a single large tertiary institution in Singapore. Inclusion criteria included surgically fit patients with early cervical cancer and no radiological evidence of regional or distant metastases. From November 2009 to February 2011, a total of 18 TLRHs and 30 RAHs were performed. The median blood loss in the TLRH group was significantly lower than that in the RAH group (300 mL vs. 500 mL; p = 0.04). However, there was no statistically significant difference found between the two techniques in terms of operative time, hospital stay, bladder recovery, total lymph node yield or adjuvant treatment. No intraoperative bladder, ureteric or bowel complications were observed in the two groups. Postoperative complications occurred in 2 (11.1%) TLRH patients and 4 (13.3%) RAH patients. With a median follow-up of 37.3 (range 10-68) weeks, the rate of recurrence was found to be 5.6% for the TLRH group and 10.0% for the RAH group. The results of our study suggest that with appropriate patient selection and increased experience, TLRH can be a safe and effective procedure for the management of early cervical cancer in Singapore.
    Singapore medical journal 12/2013; 54(12):683-8. · 0.63 Impact Factor
  • Y K Lim, Y N Chia, S C Quek, K L Yam
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    ABSTRACT: We report the first case of radical abdominal trachelectomy (RAT) and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy performed in Singapore, which was performed for a 35-year-old woman with stage IB1 cervical cancer, and review the current literature on this novel fertility-sparing surgery. Radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy are the conventional treatment for stage IB1 cervical cancer, but this results in the loss of fertility. However, the last 20 years have seen the development of fertility-sparing surgeries for young women with early-stage cervical cancer. Among these, laparoscopy-assisted radical vaginal trachelectomy (i.e. Dargent's procedure) is the most established technique, with good, documented long-term oncological and pregnancy outcomes. RAT, an alternative technique, was developed in the last decade. Although less than 200 reported cases worldwide have reported on the use of RAT, early data suggests good oncological outcome.
    Singapore medical journal 10/2013; 54(10):e204-7. · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 30-year-old single woman presented with an incidental finding of abdominal mass associated with severe constipation. Her cancer antigen-25, alpha-foetoprotein and beta human chorionic gonadotropin levels were normal, but her carcinoembryonic antigen level was raised at 7.6 g/dL. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 11.4 cm × 8.6 cm × 9.5 cm right ovarian mass with solid and cystic areas. An open right cystectomy was performed. Intraoperatively, she was found to have hirsutism and clitoromegaly. During the operation, there was a right ovarian 10-cm mass, with faecal loading from the caecum to the transverse colon. The uterus, fallopian tubes, left ovary and intraperitoneal survey were normal. Final histology confirmed strumal carcinoid tumour Stage 1A. This case report shows that a strumal carcinoid tumour can present with longstanding constipation as a patient's main complaint and may also be associated with hirsutism.
    Singapore medical journal 01/2013; 54(1):e21-3. · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:  To evaluate the clinicopathological features, management, survival and prognostic factors of patients with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors of the ovary (SLCT) managed at a single institution. Material and Methods:  The clinical records of patients with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors of the ovary managed at the KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, between October 1998 and December 2008 were reviewed. Data of pathological features, treatment given and progress on follow-up was studied. Results:  Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary accounted for 1.3% of malignant ovarian neoplasms. The median age of the patient was 30 years. The most common mode of presentation was with hormonal-related symptoms (80%) in the form of secondary amenorrhea, irregular menses and features of virilization. Thirteen of the 15 patients underwent surgical staging and all were found to have stage-I disease at the time of diagnosis. Ten patients with intermediate and poorly differentiated tumors received adjuvant bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy. Recurrent disease was detected in two patients (13.3%) during a median follow-up of 63 months, both of whom had poorly differentiated type of tumor. Both these patients underwent optimal debulking surgery followed by postoperative chemotherapy (BEP regimen). There were no disease -elated deaths and all patients were under complete remission at the last follow-up. Conclusion:  As most Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors of the ovary are seen in young women and detected while still in the early stages, a favorable outcome can be achieved by conservative surgery. Patients with moderate and poorly differentiated types of tumors benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Recurrences tend to occur early and are commonly seen in patients with poorly differentiated tumors.
    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 06/2012; · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To audit our experience of the diagnosis and treatment of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) in Kandang Kerbau Women's Hospital, Singapore. The clinical records of the patients diagnosed as having VAIN at our institution in the calendar year 2009 were periodically reviewed until March 2011. There were 21 cases of VAIN. The mean follow-up duration was 18.2 months. The lesion grades were VAIN 1 in 9 patients (42.9%), VAIN 2 in 9 patients (42.9%), and VAIN 3 in 3 patients (14.3%). The mean patient age was 39.1 years. Sixteen patients (76.2%) were referred to our institution because of abnormal results to cytology tests and 4 patients (21.9%) were referred because of vaginal warts. The remaining patient was diagnosed from a surgical specimen. The diagnosis involved a cytology test, a colposcopic examination, an acetowhite test, a Schiller test, and a colposcopy-directed biopsy. The treatments varied and included watchful waiting but carbon dioxide laser vaporization was used the most frequently. After 6 months of follow-up 18 patients were considered cured, for an overall cure rate of 85.7%. Two patients wanted no treatment and disease remained persistent in 1 patient despite laser vaporization and intravaginal applications of imiquimod cream.
    International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 01/2012; 117(1):15-7. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Highlights ► We present four cases of benign granular cell tumours of the vulva managed between 1998 and 2001. ► We discuss the clinical and histopathological features of this condition. ► Treatment of this condition is primarily surgical.
    Gynecologic Oncology Case Reports. 01/2012; 3:20–22.
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    ABSTRACT: Synchronous occurrence of endometrial and ovarian tumors is uncommon, and they affect less than 10% of women with endometrial or ovarian cancers. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological and clinical factors; and survival outcomes of women with these cancers. This is a retrospective cohort study in a large tertiary institution in Singapore. The sample consists of women with endometrial and epithelial ovarian cancers followed up over a period of 10 years from 2000 to 2009. The epidemiological and clinical factors include age at diagnosis, histology types, grade and stage of disease. A total of 75 patients with synchronous ovarian and endometrial cancers were identified. However, only 46 patients met the inclusion criteria. The median follow-up was 74 months. The incidence rate for synchronous cancer is 8.7% of all epithelial ovarian cancers and 4.9% of all endometrial cancers diagnosed over this time frame. Mean age at diagnosis was 47.3 years old. The most common presenting symptom was abnormal uterine bleeding (36.9%) and 73.9% had endometrioid histology for both endometrial and ovarian cancers. The majority of the women (78%) presented were at early stages of 1 and 2. There were 6 (13.6%) cases of recurrence and the 5 year cumulative survival rate was at 84%. In our cohort, we found that majority of women afflicted with synchronous cancer of the endometrium and ovary were younger at age of diagnosis, had early stage of cancer and good survival.
    Journal of Gynecologic Oncology 12/2011; 22(4):239-43. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of adjuvant radiotherapy for early stage node negative patients varies for different institutions. The recognized factors such as deep stromal invasion, lymph vascular space invasion, and size of tumor are the most common factors cited for adjuvant radiotherapy. Studies done have shown that this increases local control but may increase chronic toxicity rates. We report on our use of the GOG score to tailor our treatment decisions. A review of all patients staged IB-IIA who underwent Type 3 Radical Hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection (RH) from 1997 to 2007. The GOG score proposed by Delgado et al. was applied, and patients were stratified into 3 groups; <40: no adjuvant treatment, 40-120: Small Field RT (SmRT), and >120: Standard Field RT (StRT) RESULTS: A total of 126 patients matched these criteria. Sixty one patients underwent either SmRT or StRT. There were only 2 known relapses and one death due to inter current illness. The median follow up was 57 months and the 5 year Disease Free Survival was 98.2%. There were no documented Grade 3 or 4 chronic toxicities. There were significantly less (p=0.025) patients with lower limb lymphedema in the SmRT group compared to StRT. Our study confirms the utility of the GOG score to tailor radiotherapy for this cohort of patients. This has been proven to be high in efficacy and low in morbidity.
    Gynecologic Oncology 07/2011; 123(2):225-9. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is our standard of care to include pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) in the staging of endometrial cancer, followed by adjuvant vaginal vault brachytherapy. We report our experience and outcome of patients with stage 1C grade 3 endometrial cancer from KK Hospital Singapore. Records of patients with a diagnosis of stage 1C grade 3 endometrial cancer (based on the 1988 FIGO [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics] staging system) from 1995 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Details of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy were recorded, as were prognostic factors such as histological subtype and number of lymph nodes removed. Dates and sites of relapses were noted. A total of 31 cases were reviewed; 29 had sufficient records to be analyzed, of which one was excluded as she had a second primary cancer (breast). Median follow-up was 50.1 months (15.5-154 months). All cases underwent total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; the majority (22 [76%]) had PLND as well. Those who did not undergo PLND received external beam radiotherapy instead. All but 1 case received postoperative vaginal vault brachytherapy. Eight of 10 patients with nonendometrioid adenocarcinoma (eg, clear cell) histology also received adjuvant chemotherapy. There were 5 systemic relapses (17.9%) and 1 pelvic recurrence (3.6%). The 5-year disease-free survival is 78.6%. No serious (grade 3 or 4) adverse effects were recorded. Pelvic lymph node dissection and vaginal vault brachytherapy seem to be effective in preventing locoregional recurrences, with few associated adverse effects. However, the rate of systemic relapse is relatively high. Adjuvant chemotherapy should also be considered for cases with poor prognostic factors.
    International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 12/2010; 20(9):1557-62. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This workshop was held on July 31-August 1, 2010 and was organized to promote the academic environment and to enhance the communication among Asian countries prior to the 2nd biennial meeting of Australian Society of Gynaecologic Oncologists (ASGO), which will be held on November 3-5, 2011. We summarized the whole contents presented at the workshop. Regarding cervical cancer screening in Asia, particularly in low resource settings, and an update on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was described for prevention and radical surgery overview, fertility sparing and less radical surgery, nerve sparing radical surgery and primary chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer, were discussed for management. As to surgical techniques, nerve sparing radical hysterectomy, optimal staging in early ovarian cancer, laparoscopic radical hysterectomy, one-port surgery and robotic surgery were introduced. After three topics of endometrial cancer, laparoscopic surgery versus open surgery, role of lymphadenectomy and fertility sparing treatment, there was a special additional time for clinical trials in Asia. Finally, chemotherapy including neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, optimal surgical management, and the basis of targeted therapy in ovarian cancer were presented.
    Journal of Gynecologic Oncology 09/2010; 21(3):137-50. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This is a retrospective study evaluating the survival outcomes, patterns of failure, and prognostic factors of chemoradiotherapy incorporating high-dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. A review of 120 consecutive patients with Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique (FIGO) stages IB2 to IVA cervical cancer treated with concurrent cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy between April 1999 and January 2005. Overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The 5-year OS and DFS rates were, respectively, 65.0% (35.0% IB2, 65.7% IIA-B, 71.0% IIIA-B, and 40.0% IVA) and 57.3% (30.0% IB2, 58.2% IIA-B, 64.0% IIIA-B, and 40.0% IVA). Most patients had squamous cell carcinoma (89.2%) and belonged to FIGO stages IIB (40.8%) and IIIB (30.8%). All but 4 patients completed the planned radiotherapy regimen. There were 48 documented recurrences, of which 13 were locoregional only, 26 were distant only, and 9 were both sites. Five patients (4.2%) experienced late grade 3 to 4 gastrointestinal toxicity. On multivariate analysis, a preradiotherapy hemoglobin level of less than 10 g/dL and tumor size of 4 cm or greater or bulky on computed tomography were independently significant variables for OS, whereas a nadir hemoglobin level of less than 10 g/dL and presence of radiologically enlarged pelvic or paraaortic lymph nodes were independently significant variables for DFS. We conclude that this regimen is efficacious and feasible, but the safety profile about concurrent administration of high-dose rate brachytherapy and chemotherapy should be studied further. Finally, for cervical cancer patients selected for nonsurgical treatment, radiological assessment of tumor size and lymph node status can provide valuable prognostic information over and above FIGO staging alone.
    International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 04/2010; 20(3):428-33. · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • Y N Chia, C Yap, B S Tan
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy following successful embolisation of a uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is rare. Hypovascularity of treated areas affecting placentation and fetal growth has been postulated to be the cause for adverse pregnancy outcomes. A 37-year-old multiparous lady presented with anaemia from repeated heavy vaginal bleeding from an iatrogenic uterine AVM. This was diagnosed with power Doppler ultrasonography and embolised after pelvis angiography with hystoacryl and lipiodol. Following this she had a spontaneous pregnancy with a normal outcome. There are no distinguishing clinical features of a uterine AVM. An index of suspicion and power Doppler sonography help in reaching a diagnosis. Dilatation and curettage should be avoided as this can precipitate torrential vaginal bleeding.
    Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore 10/2003; 32(5):658-60. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to review our local experience with bowel surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer at the Gynaecological Cancer Centre, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, and to document the outcome of such surgery as well as their complication rates. The retrospective medical records of 38 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer who underwent surgery including bowel surgery from January 1997 to May 2002 at the Gynaecological Cancer Centre, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, were reviewed. Indications for surgery were predominantly debulking of disease. Fifty-eight per cent of patients had primary debulking surgery, 34% had debulking of recurrence and 3% had interval debulking. Only 5% of patients had bowel obstruction as the only indication for surgery. Rectosigmoid resection was the most common bowel operation overall, being performed in 76.3% of patients. The stoma rate for rectosigmoid resection was 61%. The remaining procedures included 7 colectomies, 1 intestinal bypass procedure and 1 intestinal diversion procedure. Optimal debulking (defined as < 1 cm of residual disease) was achieved in the majority (71%). The median operating time was 4 hours. The median blood loss was 1300 mL. The major complication rate was 10.5%. Major complications encountered were as follows: 1 patient (2.6%) had an anastomotic leak, 2 patients (5.3%) had intra-abdominal abscess and 1 patient (2.6%) developed intestinal fistula. Three patients (7.8%) required a re-operation within 30 days. There were 3 deaths (7.8%) within 30 days of surgery. Bowel surgery is commonly indicated for epithelial ovarian cancer to facilitate optimal debulking. Such surgery is feasible with acceptable complication rates in our local centre.
    Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore 10/2003; 32(5):661-4. · 1.36 Impact Factor