ABSTRACT: Numerous molecular and biochemical changes have been linked with the cardioprotective effects of exercise, including increases in antioxidant enzymes, heat shock proteins, and regulators of cardiac myocyte proliferation. However, a master regulator of exercise-induced protection has yet to be identified. Here, we assess whether phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) p110α is essential for mediating exercise-induced cardioprotection, and if so, whether its activation independent of exercise can restore function of the failing heart.
Cardiac-specific transgenic (Tg) mice with elevated or reduced PI3K(p110α) activity (constitutively active PI3K [caPI3K] and dominant negative PI3K, respectively) and non-Tg controls were subjected to 4 weeks of exercise training followed by 1 week of pressure overload (aortic-banding) to induce pathological remodeling. Aortic-banding in untrained non-Tg controls led to pathological cardiac hypertrophy, depressed systolic function, and lung congestion. This phenotype was attenuated in non-Tg controls that had undergone exercise before aortic-banding. Banded caPI3K mice were protected from pathological remodeling independent of exercise status, whereas exercise provided no protection in banded dominant negative PI3K mice, suggesting that PI3K is necessary for exercise-induced cardioprotection. Tg overexpression of heat shock protein 70 could not rescue the phenotype of banded dominant negative PI3K mice, and deletion of heat shock protein 70 from banded caPI3K mice had no effect. Next, we used a gene therapy approach (recombinant adeno-associated viral vector 6) to deliver caPI3K expression cassettes to hearts of mice with established cardiac dysfunction caused by aortic-banding. Mice treated with recombinant adeno-associated viral 6-caPI3K vectors had improved heart function after 10 weeks.
PI3K(p110α) is essential for exercise-induced cardioprotection and delivery of caPI3K vector can improve function of the failing heart.
Circulation Heart Failure 06/2012; 5(4):523-34. · 6.29 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Darbepoetin, a long-acting erythropoietin derivative, attenuates cardiomyocyte apoptosis and improves short-term (3 days) cardiac function, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. We investigated potential mechanisms by which darbepoetin exerts cardioprotection following myocardial infarction in mice and the significance of the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR)-common beta-chain (c-beta-chain) heteroreceptor.
Mice underwent 60 min coronary occlusion followed by treatment with vehicle or a single dose of darbepoetin. Effects on gene expression, apoptosis and neutrophil accumulation in infarcted left ventricle were assessed 24 h later. Cardiac function, effects on vascularization and fibrosis were assessed 28 days later. The significance of EPOR-c-beta-chain heteroreceptor was examined 28 days after infarction using mice deficient in c-beta-chain.
Twenty-four hours after darbepoetin, mRNAs encoding haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), iNOS and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were markedly elevated only in infarcted regions, and the frequency of apoptotic cells attenuated. Inflammation was also attenuated with reductions in neutrophil numbers. Darbepoetin also elevated mRNAs encoding angiogenic factors: placental growth factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-1beta. Twenty-eight days after treatment, CD31+ vessels in the infarct zone doubled and fibrosis reduced. Cardiac haemodynamics were improved. Darbepoetin also improved cardiac haemodynamics in c-beta-chain-deficient mice, increased HO-1 and iNOS expression and vessel numbers and attenuated fibrosis.
Darbepoetin stimulates expression of haeme oxygenase, iNOS, BNP and angiogenic factors specifically in infarcted left ventricle that attenuates inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis; elevate vessel numbers; and improve cardiac function. The EPOR-c-beta-chain heteroreceptor is not essential for these effects.
British Journal of Pharmacology 08/2010; 160(8):2085-96. · 4.41 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The recent development of techniques in gene targeted manipulation, murine cardiac physiology and microsurgery in the mouse allow scientists to address some of the most fundamental questions concerning cardiac diseases and heart failure. Surgically induced heart disease models in mice have recently been described, but detailed information about the surgical techniques and functional characteristics of these models is limited. We describe the surgical details for induction of transverse aortic stenosis and myocardial infarction, 2 models which are ideal for studies on cardiac hypertrophy and failure, as evidenced by the functional results.
The Asia Pacific Heart Journal.