[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On the basis of the initial success of optimization of a novel series of imidazolopiperazines, a second generation of compounds involving changes in the core piperazine ring was synthesized to improve antimalarial properties. These changes were carried out to further improve the potency and metabolic stability of the compounds by leveraging the outcome of a set of in vitro metabolic identification studies. The optimized 8,8-dimethyl imidazolopiperazine analogues exhibited improved potency, in vitro metabolic stability profile and, as a result, enhanced oral exposure in vivo in mice. The optimized compounds were found to be more efficacious than the current antimalarials in a malaria mouse model. They exhibit moderate oral exposure in rat pharmacokinetic studies to achieve sufficient multiples of the oral exposure at the efficacious dose in toxicology studies.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2012; 55(9):4244-73. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Starting from a hit series from a GNF compound library collection and based on a cell-based proliferation assay of Plasmodium falciparum, a novel imidazolopiperazine scaffold was optimized. SAR for this series of compounds is discussed, focusing on optimization of cellular potency against wild-type and drug resistant parasites and improvement of physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The lead compounds in this series showed good potencies in vitro and decent oral exposure levels in vivo. In a Plasmodium berghei mouse infection model, one lead compound lowered the parasitemia level by 99.4% after administration of 100 mg/kg single oral dose and prolonged mice survival by an average of 17.0 days. The lead compounds were also well-tolerated in the preliminary in vitro toxicity studies and represents an interesting lead for drug development.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 06/2011; 54(14):5116-30. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efflux transporters expressed in the apical membrane of intestinal enterocytes have been implicated in drug oral absorption. The current study presents a strategy and tools to quantitatively predict the impact of efflux on oral absorption for new chemical entities (NCEs) in early drug discovery. Sixty-three marketed drugs with human absorption data were evaluated in the Caco-2 bidirectional permeability assay and subjected to specific transporter inhibition. A four-zone graphical model was developed from apparent permeability and efflux ratios to quickly identify compounds whose efflux activity may distinctly influence human absorption. NCEs in "zone 4" will probably have efflux as a barrier for oral absorption and further mechanistic studies are required. To interpret mechanistic results, we introduced a new quantitative substrate classification parameter, transporter substrate index (TSI). TSI allowed more flexibility and considered both in vitro and in vivo outcomes. Its application ranged from addressing the challenge of overlapping substrate specificity to projecting the role of transporter(s) on exposure or potential drug-drug interaction risk. The potential impact of efflux transporters associated with physicochemical properties on drug absorption is discussed in the context of TSI and also the previously reported absorption quotient. In this way, the chemistry strategy may be differentially focused on passive permeability or efflux activity or both.
Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 11/2010; 39(2):265-74. · 3.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We systematically validated a robust 96-well Caco-2 assay via an extended set of 93 marketed drugs with diverse transport mechanisms and quantified by LC/MS/MS, to investigate its predictive utility while dealing with challenging discovery compounds. Utilizing nonlinear fit, the validation led to a good correlation (R(2) = 0.76) between absorptive permeability, log P(app)(A-B), from in vitro Caco-2 assay and reported human fraction of dose absorbed. We observed that paracellular compounds could be flagged by log P(app)(A-B) (<-5.5 cm/s) and physicochemical property space (c log P < 1). Of 8000 Novartis discovery compounds examined 13% were subject to low recovery (<30%). Compound loss was investigated by comparing cell monolayer and artificial membrane, while 0.5% bovine serum albumin (in both donor and acceptor compartments) was utilized to improve recovery. The second focus of this study was to investigate the advantages and limitations of the current Caco-2 assay for predicting in vivo intestinal absorption. Caco-2 measurements for compounds with high aqueous solubility and low in vitro metabolic clearance were compared to 88 in vivo rat bioavailability studies. Despite the challenges posed by discovery compounds with suboptimal physicochemical properties, Caco-2 data successfully projected low intestinal absorption. This platform sets the stage for mechanistically evaluating compounds towards improving in vitro-in vivo correlations.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 02/2010; 99(7):3246-65. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) signals triggered by many agonists are established through the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) messenger pathway. This pathway is believed to use Ca2+-dependent local interactions among IP3 receptors (IP3R) and other Ca2+ channels leading to coordinated Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum throughout the cell and coupling Ca2+ entry and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake to Ca2+ release. To evaluate the role of IP3 in the local control mechanisms that support the propagation of [Ca2+]c waves, store-operated Ca2+ entry, and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, we used two IP3-binding proteins (IP3BP): 1) the PH domain of the phospholipase C-like protein, p130 (p130PH); and 2) the ligand-binding domain of the human type-I IP3R (IP3R224-605). As expected, p130PH-GFP and GFP-IP3R224-605 behave as effective mobile cytosolic IP3 buffers. In COS-7 cells, the expression of IP3BPs had no effect on store-operated Ca2+ entry. However, the IP3-linked [Ca2+]c signal appeared as a regenerative wave and IP3BPs slowed down the wave propagation. Most importantly, IP3BPs largely inhibited the mitochondrial [Ca2+] signal and decreased the relationship between the [Ca2+]c and mitochondrial [Ca2+] signals, indicating disconnection of the mitochondria from the [Ca2+]c signal. These data suggest that IP3 elevations are important to regulate the local interactions among IP3Rs during propagation of [Ca2+]c waves and that the IP3-dependent synchronization of Ca2+ release events is crucial for the coupling between Ca2+ release and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2005; 280(13):12820-32. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropilin-1 (NP1), in conjunction with plexins, promotes axon repulsion by binding to semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A). Although NP1 is expressed in carcinoma cells, its functions have remained elusive, and neither SEMA3A nor plexin expression has been explored in cancer. Here we provide evidence that breast carcinoma cells support an autocrine pathway involving SEMA3A, plexin-A1, and NP1 that impedes their ability to chemotax. Reducing SEMA3A or NP1 expression by RNA interference or inhibiting plexin-A1 signaling enhanced migration. Conversely, expression of constitutively active plexin-A1 impaired chemotaxis. The paradox of how breast carcinoma cells expressing these endogenous chemotaxis inhibitors are able to migrate is explained by their expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a NP1 ligand that competes with SEMA3A for receptor binding. Finally, we establish that the ratio of endogenous VEGF and SEMA3A concentrations in carcinoma cells determines their chemotactic rate. Our findings lead to the surprising conclusion that opposing autocrine loops involving NP1 regulate the chemotaxis of breast carcinoma cells. Moreover, our data indicate a novel autocrine function for VEGF in chemotaxis.
Cancer Research 10/2003; 63(17):5230-3. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between the ability of isolated pleckstrin homology (PH) domains to bind inositol lipids or soluble inositol phosphates in vitro and to localize to cellular membranes in live cells was examined by comparing the PH domains of phospholipase Cdelta(1) (PLCdelta(1)) and the recently cloned PLC-like protein p130 fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP). The prominent membrane localization of PLCdelta(1)PH-GFP was paralleled with high affinity binding to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) as well as to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-containing lipid vesicles or nitrocellulose membrane strips. In contrast, no membrane localization was observed with p130PH-GFP despite its InsP(3) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-binding properties being comparable with those of PLCdelta(1)PH-GFP. The N-terminal ligand binding domain of the type I InsP(3) receptor also failed to localize to the plasma membrane despite its 5-fold higher affinity to InsP(3) than the PH domains. By using a chimeric approach and cassette mutagenesis, the C-terminal alpha-helix and the short loop between the beta6-beta7 sheets of the PLCdelta(1)PH domain, in addition to its InsP(3)-binding region, were identified as critical components for membrane localization in intact cells. These data indicate that binding to the inositol phosphate head group is necessary but may not be sufficient for membrane localization of the PLCdelta(1)PH-GFP fusion protein, and motifs located within the C-terminal half of the PH domain provide auxiliary contacts with additional membrane components.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2002; 277(30):27412-22. · 4.65 Impact Factor