W H Holzapfel

Handong Global University, Geijitsu, North Gyeongsang, South Korea

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Publications (91)167.78 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Optimisation of cyanobacterial cell productivity should consider the key factors light cycle and carbon source. We studied the influence of CO2 bubble size on carbon uptake and fixation, on basis of mRNA expression levels in Arthrospira platensis KMMCC CY-007 at 30°C (light intensity: 40μmolm(-2)s(-1); 1% CO2). Growth rate, carbon fixation and lipid accumulation were examined over 7days under fine bubble (FB) (100μm Ø) bulk bubble (BB) (5000μm Ø) and non-CO2 (NB) aeration. The low affinity CO2 uptake mRNA (NDH-I4 complex) was stronger expressed than the high affinity NDH-I3 complex (bicA and sbtA) under 1% CO2 and FB conditions, with no expression of bicA1 and sbtA1 after 4days. The high affinity CO2 uptake mRNA levels corresponded to biomass, carbon content and lipid accumulation, and increase in NDH-I3 complex (9.72-fold), bicA (5.69-fold), and sbtA (10.61-fold), compared to NB, or BB conditions.
    Bioresource Technology 08/2014; 170C:310-315. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Minimal standards for the description of new cultivable strains that represent novel genera and species belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and related genera are proposed in accordance with Recommendation 30b of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision): the description of novel species should be based on phenotypic, genotypic and ecological characteristics to ensure a rich polyphasic characterization. Concerning genotypic characterization, in addition to DNA G+C content (mol%) data, the description should be based on DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH), 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and at least two housekeeping gene (e.g. hsp60 and recA) sequence similarities. DDH might not be needed if the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the closest known species is lower than 97 %. This proposal has been endorsed by members of the Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and related organisms of the International Committee on the Systematics of Prokaryotes.
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) to regulate the expression of certain target genes for social behaviour. A LuxS/AI-2 signalling system serves to control the virulence of some pathogenic bacteria by mechanisms such as motility, biofilm formation and attachment, and is typical of the enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) associated with infections of the human intestine. The LuxS/AI-2 signalling system presents an interesting potential as antimicrobial target for appropriate AI-2 inhibitors, and thus widens the scope for treatment or prevention of infections by pathogens such as EHEC. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are primary candidates for this approach because of their general acceptability, safety and adaptation to the intestinal and/or food ecosystem. In this paper, we report on Lactobacillus sakei NR28 as a new candidate strain for AI-2 related quorum quenching. It is considered to be a putative probiotic strain and was originally isolated from kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented food known for its special health features. This study has shown that AI-2 activity and the associated virulence factors of the EHEC ‘wild-type’ strain E. coli ATCC 43894, were significantly reduced by L. sakei NR28, while, at the same time, the cell viability of the EHEC strain was not affected. In addition, the purified AI-2 molecule, a luxS-deficient mutant of EHEC strain ATCC 43894, and an AI-2 independent EHEC mimicking strain of Citrobacter rodentium were used to determine the relationship between the virulence reducing effect of L. sakei NR28 and its AI-2 inhibiting ability. Our results showed that L. sakei NR28 has a reducing effect on the pathogenicity of the ‘wild-type’ EHEC strain ATCC 43894 by AI-2 signalling inhibition.
    Food Control. 01/2014; 45:62–69.
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    ABSTRACT: Hypercholesterolaemia is a major risk factor related to atherosclerosis, and it may be influenced by our diet. This study addresses the impact of Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 (isolated from Maasai fermented milk) and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 (from Korean kimchi) on the control of cholesterol absorption through down-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) expression. Caco-2 enterocytes were treated with the live, heat-killed (HK) bacteria, bacterial cell wall extracts and metabolites; mRNA level and protein expression were measured. Caco-2 cells showed lower NPC1L1 expression in the presence of the live test strains than the control, elucidating down-regulation of cholesterol uptake, and were compared well with the positive control, L. rhamnosus GG. This effect was also observed with HK bacteria and cell wall fractions but not with their metabolites. The potential of some Lactobacillus strains associated with traditional fermented foods to suppress cholesterol uptake and promote its efflux in enterocytes has been suggested from these data.
    International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 07/2012; · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The balance between the rate of cholesterol uptake/accumulation and the rate of cholesterol efflux is reflected in the amount of lipid accumulation in macrophages. Based upon the fact that liver X receptors (LXRs) play a role in cholesterol efflux, we studied the effects of probiotics on cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory action in macrophages. We confirmed changes in LXR expression by treatment of LXR-transfected CHO-K1 cells with lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and co-cultured THP-1 cells with LAB to investigate changes in cholesterol efflux and inflammation. RESULTS: The experiment with CHO-K1 cells showed upregulation of LXR-β by LAB. Treatment of THP-1 cells with LAB promoted LXR expression in THP-1, which eventually led to significant upregulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. The treatment with live LAB also significantly promoted cholesterol efflux. LAB suppressed expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which resulted from activation of LXR. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 activated LXR and induced cholesterol efflux by promoting expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Both strains also suppressed proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1β and TNF-α. This study could account for the observation that LAB may block foam cell formation by cholesterol efflux and immune modulation. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 07/2012; · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) constitutes the major part of the total human microbiome and is considered to be an important regulator of human health and host metabolism. Numerous investigations in recent years have focused on the connection between the human microbiota and metabolic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes and atherosclerosis. Yet, little is known about the impact of probiotic consumption on the GIT microbial population and the potential effect on chronic diseases. In this study, the modulation of the microbial community in the murine small intestine resulting from probiotic feeding was investigated and was found to be associated with an anti-obesity effect. Changes in the microbiota of the mouse faeces and small intestine were monitored using quantitative real-time PCR and by following the mRNA expression levels of various obesity-related biomarkers following probiotic feeding in a mouse model. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus sakei NR28 (a putative probiotic strain isolated from kimchi) were administered at a daily level of approximately 1×10(8) viable bacteria per mouse (C57BL/6J mice) for up to three weeks. Feeding these strains resulted in a significant reduction of epididymal fat mass, as well as obesity-related biomarkers like acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 in the liver. The total number and ratio of the microbial groups, i.e. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Clostridium cluster I and XIVab, and Lactobacillus spp. were modulated in the small intestine, and the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio was decreased. In contrast, no noticeable effect of probiotic feeding could be detected on the faecal microbiota, neither quantitatively, nor with regard to the bacterial groups (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Clostridium cluster I and XIVab, and Lactobacillus spp.) studied.
    Beneficial Microbes 03/2012; 3(1):13-22. · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of the bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus sakei CWBI-B1365 and Lactobacillus curvatus CWBI-B28 on the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes in raw beef and poultry meat. The sakacin P and sakacin G structural genes were identified in Lact. curvatus CWBI-B28 and Lact. sakei CWBI-B1365 using PCR amplification, respectively. The effect of the two bacteriocinogenic strains either alone or together, and that of the nonbacteriocin-producing strain Lact. sakei LMG17302, on the growth of L. monocytogenes was evaluated in beef and poultry meat. In raw beef, the pathogenic bacteria were inhibited by the bacteriocinogenic strains. The bacteriocinogenic strains had no activity in raw chicken meat when inoculated separately, while they showed a clear anti-Listeria effect when applied together. Sakacin G producing Lact. sakei and sakacin P producing Lact. curvatus may be applied in raw beef to inhibit L. monocytogenes. In poultry meat, the inhibition of L. monocytogenes could only be achieved by a combined application of these bacteriocin-producing strains. In some meat products, the combined application of different class IIa bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacterium can enhance the anti-listerial activity.
    Letters in Applied Microbiology 01/2009; 47(6):581-6. · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • Biserka Becker, Christine Weiss, Wilhelm Heinrich Holzapfel
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    ABSTRACT: Different methods are available for the phenotypic identification of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae and in this study, three commercial systems, the Api® 20E-system, the Microbact™ 24E-system, and the Biolog system, were compared. One hundred and nine strains isolated from 72 samples of mixed salads, 23 clinical isolates and 14 reference strains were identified with the three systems. Identification of the 109 isolates from ready-to-eat salads was unsatisfactory. Serious problems occurred when using the Api® 20E-system which identified 19 strains incorrectly as Enterobacter sakazakii, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Acinetobacter haemolyticus were often identified when using the Microbact™ 24E-system. These identifications were not confirmed by the other systems. Difficulties in the evaluation with both systems were mostly encountered with variations in the colour and thus interpretation of the results. The Biolog system often led to multiple identifications for one strain. The identification results of the 23 clinical isolates and the 14 reference strains were more satisfactory, despite the described problems. It could be shown that biochemical identification of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae with these three systems can only be accepted with reservation.
    Food Control. 01/2009;
  • A A Yao, F Bera, C Franz, W Holzapfel, P Thonart
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    ABSTRACT: The survival rate of five freeze-dried bacteria species, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Weisella paramesenteroides, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Lactobacillus fermentum, was described in terms of reaction rate constants (D or k) and temperature sensitivity of rate constants (z or Ea). The freeze-dried strains were stored under vacuum at 55, 37, and 4 degrees C for 168 h, 17 days, and 2 months, respectively. D-values decreased and k increased with an increase of the storage temperature. Neither the z-value nor the inactivation energy (Ea) of the reaction was significantly different (P > 0.05) for all the strains, suggesting that thermal inactivation of the freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria may occur by the same mechanism. Therefore, it was possible to compare rate constants of survival for the freeze-dried strains studied.
    Journal of food protection 03/2008; 71(2):431-4. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the probiotic properties of strains isolated from boza, a traditional beverage produced from cereals. The strains survived low pH conditions (pH 3.0), grew well at pH 9.0 and were not inhibited by the presence of 0.3% (w/v) oxbile. Cytotoxicity levels of the bacteriocins, expressed as CC(50), ranged from 38 to 3776 microg ml(-1). Bacteriocin bacST284BZ revealed high activity (EC(50) = 735 microg ml(-1)) against herpes simplex virus type 1. Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was 69% repressed after 5 days in the presence of bacST194BZ. Various levels of auto-cell aggregation and co-aggregation with Listeria innocua LMG 13568 were observed. Adhesion of the probiotic strains to HT-29 cells ranged from 18 to 22%. Boza is a rich source of probiotic lactic acid bacteria. All strains survived conditions simulating the gastrointestinal tract and produced bacteriocins active against a number of pathogens. Adherence to HT-29 and Caco-2 cells was within the range reported for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a well-known probiotic. In addition, the high hydrophobicity readings recorded define the strains as good probiotics. Boza contains a number of different probiotic lactic acid bacteria and could be marketed as a functional food product.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 03/2008; 104(2):465-77. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hamei and Marcha are mixed dough inocula used as starters for preparation of various indigenous alcoholic beverages in Manipur and Sikkim in India, respectively. These starters are traditionally prepared from rice with wild herbs and spices. Samples of Hamei and Marcha, collected from Manipur and Sikkim, respectively, were analysed for lactic acid bacterial composition. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was 6.9 and 7.1 Log cfu/g in Hamei and Marcha, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characters, LAB strains isolated from Hamei and Marcha were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis. Technological properties of LAB such as antimicrobial properties, effect on acidification, ability to produce biogenic amines and ethanol, degree of hydrophobicity and enzymatic activities were also performed. Pediococcus pentosaceus HS: B1, isolated from Hamei, was found to produce bacteriocin. None of the strains produced biogenic amines. LAB strains showed a strong acidifying ability and they also produced a wide spectrum of enzymes.
    Indian Journal of Microbiology 06/2007; 47(2):119-25. · 0.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Export of cocoa beans is of great economic importance in Ghana and several other tropical countries. Raw cocoa has an astringent unpleasant taste and a spontaneous fermentation is the first step in a process leading to cocoa beans with the characteristic cocoa flavour and taste. The microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Samples were collected at 12 hour intervals during 96-144 hour tray and traditional heap fermentations. Yeast, Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) and Bacillus spp. were enumerated on suitable substrates and identified using phenotypic and molecular methods. The yeast and bacterial micro-populations involved in the cocoa fermentation were further investigated using the culture-independent method Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophopresis (DGGE). A microbiological succession was observed during the fermentations. At the onset of fermentation yeasts were the dominating microorganisms. Lactic Acid Bacteria became dominant after 12-24 h of fermentation and remained predominant throughout the fermentations with AAB reaching high counts in the mid phase of fermentation. Bacillus spp. were only detected during heap fermentations where they reached high numbers during the later stages of fermentation. Hanseniaspora guilliermondii was the predominant yeast during the initial phase and Pichia membranifaciens during the later phases of fermentation. A number of other yeast species including three putatively undescribed species were isolated during the fermentations. Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant LAB in most samples. Several other LAB including Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc pseudoficulneum, Pediocococcus acidilactici and a putatively undescribed LAB species were detected during the fermentations. Acetobacter syzygii, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter tropicalis were the predominant AAB in all investigated fermentations. During the later stages of heap fermentation Bacillus licheniformis and occasionally other Bacillus spp. were detected in high numbers. In general the culture-based findings were confirmed using DGGE. However, DGGE indicated that Lc. pseudoficulneum plays a more important role during the fermentation of cocoa than expected from the culture-based findings as it yielded a strong band in most DGGE fingerprints. Cluster analysis of the DGGE fingerprints revealed that the DGGE fingerprints clustered according to fermentation site. Within each fermentation site the profiles clustered according to fermentation time. The DGGE method seems to offer a relatively fast and reliable tool for studying yeast and bacterial dynamics during cocoa fermentations.
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 04/2007; 114(2):168-86. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 375 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermenting cassava in South Africa, Benin, Kenya and Germany, and were characterised by phenotypic and genotypic tests. These could be divided into five main groups comprising strains of facultatively heterofermentative rods, obligately heterofermentative rods, heterofermentative cocci, homofermentative cocci and obligately homofermentative rods, in decreasing order of predominance. Most of the facultatively heterofermentative rods were identified by phenotypic tests as presumptive Lactobacillus plantarum-group strains, which also comprised the most predominant bacteria (54.4% of strains) isolated in the study. The next predominant group of lactic acid bacteria (14.1% of total isolates) consisted of obligately heterofermentative rods belonging either to the genus Lactobacillus or Weissella, followed by the heterofermentative cocci (13.9% of isolates) belonging to the genera Weissella or Leuconostoc. Homofermentative cocci were also isolated (13.3% of isolates). Biochemical properties such as production of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase, tannase, antimicrobials (presumptive bacteriocin and H(2)O(2)-production), acidification and fermentation of the indigestible sugars raffinose and stachyose, were evaluated in vitro for selection of potential starter strains. A total of 32 strains with one or more desirable biochemical properties were pre-selected and identified using rep-PCR fingerprinting in combination with 16S rRNA sequencing of representative rep-PCR cluster isolates. Of these strains, 18 were identified as L. plantarum, four as Lactobacillus pentosus, two each as Leuconostoc fallax, Weissella paramesenteroides and Lactobacillus fermentum, one each as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Weissella cibaria, while two remained unidentified but could be assigned to the L. plantarum-group. These strains were further investigated for clonal relationships, using RAPD-PCR with three primers, and of the 32 a total of 16 strains were finally selected for the development as starter cultures for Gari production.
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 04/2007; 114(3):342-51. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Bacillus subtilis wild strains isolated from okpehe, a traditional fermented condiment used as seasoning in Nigeria, the reference and typed strains were investigated for their phenotypic diversity and their technological parameters with a view to obtain adequate data that would enable selection of appropriated starter cultures for vegetable protein fermentation in West Africa. All the 7 strains studied demonstrated diverse phenotypic characteristics and they were identified as Bacillus subtilis, based on the API 50 CHB combined with API 20E profile. Specific sugars that indicated a good hydrolytic potential of the wild strains were fermented. The highest proteinase activity of 90AU/ml determined quantitatively was observed in the strain Bacillus subtilis BFE 5372, the proteinase was identified by the APIZYM gallery as chymotrypsin. Highest amylase activity of 13AU/ml was noticed in strain Bacillus subtilis DSM 347 while only 4 strains produced polyglutamic acid with the strain Bacillus subtilis BFE 5359 producing the highest polyglutamate activity of 2.5mm. Although strain Bacillus subtilis BFE 5301 did not release detectable polyglutamate, the strain demonstrated antagonism against different bacteria and the antimicrobial substance produced by strain Bacillus subtilis BFE 5301 was confirmed as a bacteriocin since its activities were lost after treatment with chymotrypsin and pepsin. The data generated showed the technological parameters that can aid selection of wild strains such as Bacillus subtilis BFE 5301, BFE 5359 and BFE 5372 for optimization of condiment production.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 01/2007; 23(3):401-410. · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 12/2006; 57(4):519-525. · 1.86 Impact Factor
  • 47. Tagung des Arbeitsgebietes Lebensmittelhygiene der DVG, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany; 09/2006
  • Archiv für lebensmittelhygiene 07/2006; 57(4):106. · 0.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aflatoxin contamination of food and grain poses a serious economic and health problem worldwide, but particularly in Africa. Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is extremely mutagenic, toxic and a potent carcinogen to both humans and livestock and chronic exposure to low levels of AFB(1) is a concern. In this study, the biodegradation of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) by Rhodococcus erythropolis was examined in liquid cultures using thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electro spray mass spectrometry (ESMS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS). AFB(1) was effectively degraded by extracellular extracts from R. erythropolis liquid cultures. Results indicated that the degradation is enzymatic and that the enzymes responsible for the degradation of AFB(1) are extracellular and constitutively produced. Furthermore, the biodegradation of AFB(1) when treated with R. erythropolis extracellular fraction coincided with a loss of mutagenicity, as evaluated by the Ames test for mutagenicity.
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 06/2006; 109(1-2):121-6. · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 01/2006; 57(4):519-525. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biological degradation of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) by Rhodococcus erythropolis was examined in liquid cultures and in cell-free extracts. Dramatic reduction of AFB(1) was observed during incubation in the presence of R. erythropolis cells (17% residual AFB(1) after 48 h and only 3-6% residual AFB(1) after 72 h). Cell-free extracts of four bacterial strains, R. erythropolis DSM 14,303, Nocardia corynebacterioides DSM 12,676, N. corynebacterioides DSM 20,151, and Mycobacterium fluoranthenivorans sp. nov. DSM 44,556(T) were produced by disrupting cells in a French pressure cell. The ability of crude cell-free extracts to degrade AFB(1) was studied under different incubation conditions. Aflatoxin B(1) was effectively degraded by cell free extracts of all four bacterial strains. N. corynebacterioides DSM 12,676 (formerly erroneously classified as Flavobacterium aurantiacum) showed the lowest degradation ability (60%) after 24 h, while >90% degradation was observed with N. corynebacterioides DSM 20,151 over the same time. R. erythropolis and M. fluoranthenivorans sp. nov. DSM 44,556(T) have shown more than 90% degradation of AFB(1) within 4 h at 30 degrees C, whilst after 8 h AFB(1) was practicably not detectable. The high degradation rate and wide temperature range for degradation by R. erythropolis DSM 14,303 and M. fluoranthenivorans sp. nov. DSM 44,556(T) indicate potential for application in food and feed processing.
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 12/2005; 105(2):111-7. · 3.43 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
167.78 Total Impact Points


  • 2012–2014
    • Handong Global University
      Geijitsu, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2008
    • University of Liège
      • Walloon Centre for Industrial Biology
      Liège, WAL, Belgium
  • 2000–2008
    • Stellenbosch University
      • Department of Microbiology
      Stellenbosch, Province of the Western Cape, South Africa
    • Leibniz Institut DSMZ - Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH
      Brunswyck, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2007
    • Government of Sikkim
      Gangtok, Sikkim, India
  • 2004
    • Universität des Saarlandes
      Saarbrücken, Saarland, Germany
  • 2001
    • Institute of Molecular Biology
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 1999–2000
    • University of Barcelona
      • Facultad de Farmacia
      Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1995–2000
    • Lagos State University
      • • Faculty of Science
      • • Department of Microbiology
      Eko, Lagos, Nigeria
  • 1997
    • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
      • Institut für Toxikologie und Genetik
      Karlsruhe, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
    • University of Alberta
      • Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 1992
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1991
    • University of the Witwatersrand
      • Department of Oral Microbiology
      Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
    • University of Pretoria
      • Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology
      Πρετόρια/Πόλη του Ακρωτηρίου, Gauteng, South Africa