[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene replacement for lysosomal disorders have been spurred by the ability of some serotypes to efficiently transduce neurons in the brain and by the ability of lysosomal enzymes to cross-correct among cells. Here, we explored enzyme replacement therapy in a knock-out mouse model of congenital neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), the most severe of the NCLs in humans. The missing protease in this disorder, cathepsin D (CathD) has high levels in the central nervous system. This enzyme has the potential advantage for assessing experimental therapy in that it can be imaged using a near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) probe activated by CathD. Injections of an AAV2/rh8 vector-encoding mouse CathD (mCathD) into both cerebral ventricles and peritoneum of newborn knock-out mice resulted in a significant increase in lifespan. Successful delivery of active CathD by the AAV2/rh8-mCathD vector was verified by NIRF imaging of mouse embryonic fibroblasts from knock-out mice in culture, as well as by ex vivo NIRF imaging of the brain and liver after gene transfer. These studies support the potential effectiveness and imaging evaluation of enzyme replacement therapy to the brain and other organs in CathD null mice via AAV-mediated gene delivery in neonatal animals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors have been used in early phase human clinical trials as a therapy for recurrent malignant glioblastoma. This treatment proved safe but limited improvements in patient survival were observed. The potency of these vectors might be enhanced by targeting vector infectivity to tumor cells. Glioma tumors often express a mutant form (vIII) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) resulting in the presence of a novel epitope on the cell surface. This epitope is specifically recognized by a single-chain antibody designated MR1-1. HSV-1 infection involves initial binding to heparan sulfate (HS) on the cell surface mediated primarily by the viral envelope, glycoprotein C (gC). Here we joined the MR1-1 single-chain antibody (scFv) to the gC sequence deleted for the HS-binding domain as a means of targeting viral attachment to EGFRvIII on glial tumor cells. Virions bearing MR1-1-modified gC had fivefold increased infectivity for EGFRvIII-bearing human glioma U87 cells compared to mutant receptor-deficient cells. Further, MR1-1/EGFRvIII-mediated infection was more efficient for EGFRvIII-positive cells than was wild-type virus for either positive or negative cells. Sustained infection of EGFRvIII+ glioma cells by MR1-1-modified gC-bearing oncolytic virus, as compared to wild-type gC oncolytic virus, was also shown in subcutaneous tumors in vivo using firefly luciferase as a reporter of infection. These data show that HSV tropism can be manipulated so that virions recognize a cell-specific binding site with increased infectivity for the target cell. The retargeting of HSV infection to tumor cells should enhance vector specificity, tumor cell killing and vector safety.
Cancer gene therapy 09/2010; 17(9):655-63. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schwannomas are benign tumors forming along peripheral nerves that can cause deafness, pain and paralysis. Current treatment involves surgical resection, which can damage associated nerves. To achieve tumor regression without damage to nerve fibers, we generated an HSV amplicon vector in which the apoptosis-inducing enzyme, caspase-1 (ICE), was placed under the Schwann cell-specific P0 promoter. Infection of schwannoma, neuroblastoma and fibroblastic cells in culture with ICE under the P0 promoter showed selective toxicity to schwannoma cells, while ICE under a constitutive promoter was toxic to all cell types. After direct intratumoral injection of the P0-ICE amplicon vector, we achieved marked regression of schwannoma tumors in an experimental xenograft mouse model. Injection of this amplicon vector into the sciatic nerve produced no apparent injury to the associated dorsal root ganglia neurons or myelinated nerve fibers. The P0-ICE amplicon vector provides a potential means of 'knifeless resection' of schwannoma tumors by injection of the vector into the tumor with low risk of damage to associated nerve fibers.
Cancer gene therapy 10/2009; 17(4):266-74. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transplantation of genetically engineered cells into the CNS offers immense potential for the treatment of several neurological disorders. Monitoring expression levels of transgenes and following changes in cell function and distribution over time is critical in assessing therapeutic efficacy of such cells in vivo. We have engineered lentiviral vectors bearing fusions between different combinations of fluorescent and bioluminescent marker proteins and used bioluminescence imaging and intravital-scanning microscopy in real time to study the fate of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) at a cellular resolution in glioma-bearing brains in vivo. Using Renilla luciferase (Rluc)-DsRed2 or GFP-Rluc-expressing malignant human glioma model, transduced hNSCs were shown to migrate extensively toward gliomas, with hNSCs populating gliomas at 10 d after transplantation. Furthermore, transduced hNSCs survived longer in mice with gliomas than in normal brain, but did not modulate glioma progression in vivo. These studies demonstrate the utility of bimodal viral vectors and real-time imaging in evaluating fate of NSCs in diseased models and thus provide a platform for accelerating cell-based therapies for CNS disorders.
Journal of Neuroscience 05/2008; 28(17):4406-13. · 6.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vectors based on herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) permit delivery of transgenes of up to 150 kb, while the inverted terminal repeats and Rep of the adeno-associated virus (AAV) can confer site-specific integration into the AAVS1 site, which allows sustained expression of a transgene. In this study, combination of the viral elements in HSV/AAV hybrid vectors has been applied for the infectious transfer of the human lysosomal beta-galactosidase (BGAL) gene of 100 kb. Temporary expression and functional activity of beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) could be detected in human beta-gal-deficient patient and glioblastoma (Gli36) cells upon infection with the basic BGAL amplicon vector. Sustained expression of beta-gal was achieved in Gli36 cells infected with rep-plus, but not rep-minus, HSV/AAV hybrid vectors. None of five clones isolated after rep-minus hybrid vector infection showed elevated beta-gal activity or site-specific integration. In contrast, 80% of the rep-plus clones possessed beta-gal activity at least twofold greater than normal levels for up to 4 months of continuous growth, and 33% of the clones exhibited AAVS1-specific integration of the ITR-flanked transgene. One of the rep-plus clones displayed integration of the ITR cassette only at the AAVS1 site, with no sequences outside the cassette detectable and beta-gal activity fourfold above normal levels. These data demonstrate AAVS1-specific integration of an entire genomic locus and expression of the transgene from the endogenous promoter mediated by an HSV/AAV hybrid vector.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the challenges of gene targeting is to achieve regulated transgene expression in specific target cells. The hypogonadal (hpg) mice are genetically deficient in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) production due to a deletion in the GnRH gene, resulting in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Here we show an improvement in reproductive parameters of adult female homozygous hpg mice by direct infusion into the hypothalamic preoptic area (POA) of a herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based amplicon vector containing a 13.5 kb genomic fragment encoding the GnRH gene together with its cognate promoter and regulatory elements. Following vector injection, GnRH-expressing neurons were detected in the POA, and pituitary and plasma gonadotropin levels as well as ovarian and uterine weights increased. In addition, a subset of injected hpg mice demonstrated cyclic estrous changes, consistent with regulated control of GnRH production. Administration of kisspeptin-10 resulted in an increase in plasma luteinizing hormone levels, further supporting appropriate regulation of the introduced GnRH transgene. These findings indicate that delivery of the GnRH gene resulted in selective neuronal expression of GnRH and regulated hypothalamic GnRH release. To our knowledge, this is the first example of the correct targeting of a gene under its cognate promoter to neurons resulting in selective and regulated synthesis of a biologically active peptide, and thus may have a wide range of applications in the treatment of human disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schwannomas are benign tumors composed of dedifferentiated Schwann cells that form along peripheral nerves causing nerve compression often associated with pain and loss of function. Current surgical therapy involves total or subtotal surgical removal of the tumor, which may cause permanent nerve damage. In the present study, we explore an alternate means of therapy in which schwannomas are injected with a replication-conditional herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector to shrink the tumor through cell lysis during virus propagation. The oncolytic vector used, G47Delta, has deletions in HSV genes, which allow it to replicate selectively in dividing cells, sparing neurons. Two schwannoma cell lines were used to generate subcutaneous tumors in nude mice: HEI193, an immortalized human line previously established from an NF2 patient and NF2S-1, a newly generated spontaneous mouse line. Subcutaneous HEI193 tumors grew about ten times as fast as NF2S-1 tumors, and both regressed substantially following injection of G47Delta. Complete regression of HEI193 tumors was achieved in most animals, whereas all NF2S-1 tumors resumed growth within 2 weeks after vector injection. These studies provide a new schwannoma model for testing therapeutic strategies and demonstrate that oncolytic HSV vectors can be successfully used to shrink growing schwannomas.
Cancer Gene Therapy 06/2007; 14(5):460-7. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial, early onset, generalized torsion dystonia is the most common and severe primary dystonia. The majority of cases are caused by a 3-bp deletion (GAG) in the coding region of the DYT1 (TOR1A) gene. The cellular and regional distribution of torsinA protein, which is restricted to neuronal cells and present in all brain regions by the age of 2 months has been described recently in human developing brain. TorsinB is a member of the same family of proteins and is highly homologous with its gene adjacent to that for torsinA on chromosome 9q34. TorsinA and torsinB share several remarkable features suggesting that they may interact in vivo. This study examined the expression of torsinB in the human brain of fetuses, infants and children up to 7 years of age. Our results indicate that torsinB protein expression is temporarily and spatially regulated in a similar fashion as torsinA. Expression of torsinB protein was detectable beginning at four to 8 weeks of age in the cerebellum (Purkinje cells), substantia nigra (dopaminergic neurons), hippocampus and basal ganglia and was predominantly restricted to neuronal cells. In contrast to torsinA, torsinB immunoreactivity was found more readily in the nuclear envelope. High levels of torsinB protein were maintained throughout infancy, childhood and adulthood suggesting that torsinB is also needed for developmental events occurring in the early postnatal phase and is necessary for functional activity throughout life.
Brain Research 11/2006; 1116(1):112-9. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neurodegeneration, immunodeficiency, cancer predisposition, genome instability, and radiation sensitivity. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) amplicon vectors provide a means to deliver large genes to the nervous system efficiently and safely. We have generated an amplicon vector, carrying human FLAG-tagged A-T mutated (ATM), as well as an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene. Due to the lack of effective and reliable antibodies for ATM and FLAG appropriate for immunohistochemistry in mouse tissue sections, expression of the human FLAG-tagged ATM was confirmed in the mouse cerebellum at the RNA level by reverse transcription followed by quantitative PCR, and by radioactive in situ hybridization. In addition, we were able to immunoprecipitate the full-length human ATM protein from the cerebella of Atm -/- mice post-infection. This vector has been injected into the cerebella of Atm -/- mice with gene delivery to thousands of cells, including Purkinje cells, based on the EGFP marker gene. The expression of human FLAG-tagged ATM has been demonstrated in the cerebella of Atm-/- mice at the transcription and translational level three days post-infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report of vector-mediated delivery of the human ATM cDNA to an Atm -/- mouse. These vectors provide the groundwork to develop gene therapy approaches for A-T patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by abnormalities in cellular migration, proliferation, and differentiation in many tissues. Benign hamartomas develop in multiple organs, believed to be caused by somatic mutation in addition to germ line mutation to cause loss of both alleles of either the TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor gene, with resultant dysregulated growth due to loss of hamartin or tuberin function, respectively. This study focuses on detecting spontaneous lesions in a knockout mouse model of TSC2 by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and exploring the efficiency of introducing gene products into lesions, using transduced endothelial cells as gene vehicles. MRI was shown to be effective in detecting spontaneous lesions in multiple tissues as a means of assessing the prevalence of tumors. Tsc(2+/) heterozygous mice were screened at 12-24 months of age. MRI detected 100% of the renal lesions (cystadenomas, renal cell carcinomas) and 75% of the hepatic lesions (hemangiosarcomas), later identified by histology. Cell-mediated gene delivery was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of renal, hepatic, and lung lesions after intravenous delivery of MS1 mouse endothelial cells, transduced to express an enhanced form of green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Preliminary immunohistochemical analysis, using a polyclonal antibody to EGFP and a horseradish peroxidase-diaminobenzidine detection system, revealed these cells throughout liver, kidney, and lung sections from injected animals, organs that are frequently affected in TSC2 patients, as well as within the lesions themselves.
Human Gene Therapy 01/2006; 16(12):1367-76. · 3.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial, early onset, generalized torsion dystonia is the most common and severe primary dystonia. The majority of cases are caused by a 3-bp deletion (GAG) in the coding region of the DYT1 (TOR1A) gene. The cellular and regional distribution of torsinA protein and its message has been described previously in several regions of normal adult human and rodent brain. This study examines the expression of torsinA in the developing human brain of fetuses, infants and children up to 7 years of age in four selected brain regions. Expression of torsinA protein was detectable beginning at 4 to 8 weeks of age postnatally in the cerebellum (Purkinje cells), substantia nigra (dopaminergic neurons), hippocampus and basal ganglia. Prominent torsinA immunoreactivity was not seen before 6 weeks of age postnatally, a period associated with synaptic remodeling, process elimination and the beginning of myelination. Our results indicate that torsinA protein expression is temporally and spatially regulated and is present in all brain regions studied by the age of 2 months on into adulthood.
Developmental Brain Research 07/2005; 157(1):19-26. · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene therapy of cancer has been one of the most exciting and elusive areas of scientific and clinical research in the past decade. One of the most critical issues for ensuring success of this therapy is the development of technology for noninvasive monitoring of the location, magnitude and duration of vector-mediated gene expression, as well as the distribution and targeting of vector particles in vivo. In recent years many advances have been made in high-resolution, in vivo imaging methods, including: radionuclide imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and spectroscopy, bioluminescence imaging and various fluorescence imaging techniques, including fluorescence-mediated tomography (FMT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) reflectance imaging. A variety of factors determine the choice of specific imaging system, some of them are the imaging requirements (single or repeated), intended use (animal or human) and spatial requirements (organs versus cellular resolution and depth). This review provides descriptions of modalities applicable to imaging different parameters of vector-mediated gene expression in tumors and stem cell tracking in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most cases of early-onset primary torsion dystonia (PTD) are caused by the same three-base pair (bp) (GAG) deletion in the DYT1 gene. Exon rearrangements are a common mutation type in other genes and have not yet been tested for in DYT1. Several lines of evidence suggest a relationship of the DYT1 gene with Parkinson disease (PD).
To investigate the frequency and type of DYT1 mutations and explore the associated phenotypes in a mixed movement disorders patient cohort and in controls.
The authors screened 197 patients with dystonia (generalized: n = 5; focal/segmental: n = 126; myoclonus-dystonia: n = 34; neuroleptic-induced: n = 32), 435 with PD, and 42 with various other movement disorders, along with 812 healthy controls, for small deletions in exon 5 of DYT1 and tested for exon rearrangements by quantitative, duplex PCR in 51 GAG deletion-negative dystonia cases.
The GAG deletion was detected in five patients: three with early-onset PTD, one with generalized jerky or clonic dystonia, and one with generalized dystonia and additional features (developmental delay, pyramidal syndrome). A novel out-of-frame four-bp deletion (934_937delAGAG) in exon 5 of the DYT1 gene was found in a putatively healthy blood donor. No exon rearrangements were identified in DYT1.
In this mixed patient sample, the GAG deletion was rare and in two out of five cases associated with an unusual phenotype. In addition, a novel DYT1 truncating mutation of unknown clinical relevance was found in a putatively unaffected individual. DYT1 exon rearrangements, however, do not seem to be associated with PTD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TorsinA is a novel protein identified in the search for mutations underlying the human neurologic movement disorder, early onset torsion dystonia. Relatively little is understood about the normal function of torsinA or the physiological effects of the codon deletion associated with most cases of disease. Overexpression of wild-type torsinA in cultured cells by DNA transfection results in a reticular distribution of immunoreactive protein that co-localizes with endoplasmic reticulum resident chaperones, while the dystonia-related mutant form accumulates within concentric membrane whorls and nuclear-associated membrane stacks. In this study we examined the biogenesis of mutant torsinA-positive membrane inclusions using tetracycline-regulated herpes simplex virus amplicon vectors. At low expression levels, mutant torsinA was localized predominantly around the nucleus, while at high levels it was also concentrated within cytosolic spheroid inclusions. In contrast, the distribution of wild-type torsinA did not vary, appearing diffuse and reticular at all expression levels. These observations are consistent with descriptions of inducible membrane synthesis in other systems in which cytosolic membrane whorls are derived from multilayered membrane stacks that first form around the nuclear envelope. These results also suggest that formation of mutant torsinA-positive inclusions occurs at high expression levels in culture, whereas the perinuclear accumulation of the mutant protein is present even at low expression levels that are more likely to resemble those of the endogenous protein. These nuclear-associated membrane structures enriched in mutant torsinA may therefore be of greater relevance to understanding how the dystonia-related mutation compromises cellular physiology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Truly systemic gene transfer in vivo has been limited by the ability of vectors to localize to the tumor as well as immune inactivation, non-specific adhesion and loss of particles in the circulation. Toxicity can also result from an immune response to the systemic virus and transduction of other cells. We have previously shown that retroviral vectors can be carried to human xenografts by tumor targeted T cells. In immunodeficient mice we observed regression of disseminated tumors without evidence of toxicity. To address a more clinically relevant model, we have now used tumor specific T cells to deliver retroviral vectors to tumors in immunocompetent mice. We used T cells from OT-1 TCR transgenic mice, whose T cell receptor recognizes the SIINFEKL peptide epitope from chicken ovalbumin, ova, presented in the context of H2Db by B16 cells that stably express ova (B16ova). We have previously shown that the adoptive transfer of OT-1 T cells in vivo results in the partial regression of B16ova tumors. We have developed two methods to engineer OT-1 T cells to deliver retroviral vectors. In the first method, OT-1 T cells were generated to produce retrovirus by transducing them with an HSV-derived amplicon vector encoding the gag, pol and env genes, and a retroviral vector encoding the beta-galactosidase gene. In the second method, OT-1 T cells were incubated with retroviruses that can adsorb to the cell surface whilst entering the cell at very low efficiency. We have demonstrated that OT-1 T cells that have retrovirus adsorbed to their surface will hand this virus off to target cells in culture. For example, 5 × 105 OT-1 T cells loaded with retroviral stocks at an MOI of about 100, washed and then co-cultured with B16 cells resulted in transduction of target B16 cells at a level of 2.7 × 103 c.f.u. T cell hand off-mediated target cell infection is strictly dependent upon the presence of a functional envelope and is not the result of carry over of virus in the media. Handoff is more efficient when the viral envelope utilizes a receptor that is poorly, or not, expressed on the T cell itself. OT-1 T cells coated with retrovirus can both kill and transfer virus into B16ova cells. This transfer does not entirely depend upon the presence of an intact envelope on the viral particle surface.To confirm that hand off of virus could occur in vivo, we coated OT-1 T cells with a retrovirus encoding the HSVtk gene under the control of a melanoma specific promoter. These cells were injected intravenously into mice bearing B16ova lung metastases and ganciclovir was given. OT-1 T cells coated with retrovirus increased the survival of mice bearing B16ova lung metastases compared to OT-1 T cells alone or intravenous administration of cell free retrovirus stocks.In summary, we have shown that it is possible to combine the natural homing and effector functions of T cells with the delivery and transfer of gene therapy vectors to tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been shown to induce apoptosis in neoplastic cells. While many previous studies have been performed in cell culture, the delivery and efficiency of TRAIL variants in vivo is less well established. Using dual substrate/reporter bioluminescence imaging (Fluc: firefly luciferase-luciferin and Rluc: Renilla luciferase-coelenterazine), we tested the efficacy of TRAIL using replication-deficient herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 amplicon vectors in gliomas. The cDNA for complete TRAIL and the extracellular domain of TRAIL (aa 114-281) were cloned into HSV amplicons and packaged into helper virus-free vectors. Both forms of TRAIL induced similar degrees of apoptosis in human glioma cells (Gli36) in culture within 24 h of infection with TRAIL amplicon vectors. Growth of tumors stably transfected with Fluc (Gli36fluc+) was readily monitored in vivo by bioluminescence imaging following luciferin administration. HSV amplicon vectors bearing the genes for TRAIL and Rluc injected directly into Gli36fluc(+)-expressing subcutaneous gliomas revealed peak Rluc activity 36 h after intratumoral injection as determined by coelenterazine injection followed by imaging. TRAIL-treated gliomas regressed in size over a period of 4 weeks as compared to the mock-injected gliomas. These results show the efficacy of vector delivered TRAIL in treating tumors in vivo and offer a unique way to monitor both gene delivery and efficacy of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in tumors in vivo in real time by dual enzyme substrate (Rluc/Fluc) imaging.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus type 1/adeno-associated virus (HSV/AAV) rep(+) hybrid amplicon vectors containing AAV inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) and rep gene sequences can mediate site-specific integration into the human genome. In this study, we have generated and characterized the first transgenic mice that bear the full-length (8.2 kb) human AAVS1 locus. Immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts from this mouse line were transduced with the rep(+), rep(-) (containing only ITRs flanking the transgene) hybrid amplicon vectors, and the standard amplicon vector to determine stable integration frequency and the site of integration. Transduction of transgenic fibroblasts resulted in a 10-fold higher stable integration frequency with rep(+) hybrid amplicon vector than with rep(-) or standard amplicon vectors. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from transgenic cells stably transduced with the rep(+) hybrid amplicon vector revealed site-specific integration of transgenes at the AAVS1 locus in 50% of clones. Some site-specific and random integration events were limited to the ITR-flanked transgene cassette. In contrast, transduction of transgenic mouse cells with the rep(-) or standard amplicon vectors resulted in random integrations of the entire rep(-) hybrid amplicon or amplicon DNA that were incorporated into the host genome as a concatenate of various sizes. These results demonstrate for the first time that the genome of transgenic mice bearing the human AAVS1 locus serves as a platform for site-specific integration of AAV ITR-flanked transgene cassettes within the hybrid amplicon vector in the presence of Rep.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to noninvasively track the migration, engraftment, and proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) has significant clinical and research implications. The purpose of our study was to explore the macroscopic migratory capabilities of NPCs toward brain tumors after implantation into nude mice. We stably transfected C17.2 NPCs with the firefly luciferase gene (F-luc) and implanted cells into (1) the contralateral brain parenchyma (2 x 10(6) cells), (2) the ventricles (2 x 10(6) cells), (3) the vasculature (1 x 10(5) cells), or (4) the intraperitoneal cavity (5 x 10(6) cells) of mice bearing intracranial gliomas (Gli36). Using serial bioluminescence imaging, migration of parenchymally injected cells was observed across the corpus callosum, first detected at 1 week, with maximal density at the tumor site 2-3 weeks after implantation. Similar patterns were also observed with intraventricular injections; however, tumors were populated earlier, presumably because of the shorter distance to travel. Intravenous injections resulted in more modest tumoral NPC populations, whereas virtually no cells could be identified in tumors after intraperitoneal injection. These results confirm the migratory capability of NPCs over considerable distances and their preferential accumulation in brain tumors on CNS rather than peripheral injection.
Human Gene Therapy 10/2003; 14(13):1247-54. · 3.62 Impact Factor